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图中环长-Codeforces Round #369 Div.2-D

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分类:

D. Directed Roads
time limit per test2 seconds
memory limit per test256 megabytes
inputstandard input
outputstandard output
ZS the Coder and Chris the Baboon has explored Udayland for quite some time. They realize that it consists of n towns numbered from 1 to n.

There are n directed roads in the Udayland. i-th of them goes from town i to some other town ai (ai ≠ i). ZS the Coder can flip the direction of any road in Udayland, i.e. if it goes from town A to town B before the flip, it will go from town B to town A after.

ZS the Coder considers the roads in the Udayland confusing, if there is a sequence of distinct towns A1, A2, …, Ak (k > 1) such that for every 1 ≤ i < k there is a road from town Ai to town Ai + 1 and another road from town Ak to town A1. In other words, the roads are confusing if some of them form a directed cycle of some towns.

Now ZS the Coder wonders how many sets of roads (there are 2n variants) in initial configuration can he choose to flip such that after flipping each road in the set exactly once, the resulting network will not be confusing.

Note that it is allowed that after the flipping there are more than one directed road from some town and possibly some towns with no roads leading out of it, or multiple roads between any pair of cities.

Input
The first line of the input contains single integer n (2 ≤ n ≤ 2·105) — the number of towns in Udayland.

The next line contains n integers a1, a2, …, an (1 ≤ ai ≤ n, ai ≠ i), ai denotes a road going from town i to town ai.

Output
Print a single integer — the number of ways to flip some set of the roads so that the resulting whole set of all roads is not confusing. Since this number may be too large, print the answer modulo 109 + 7.

Examples
input
3
2 3 1
output
6
input
4
2 1 1 1
output
8
input
5
2 4 2 5 3
output
28
Note
Consider the first sample case. There are 3 towns and 3 roads. The towns are numbered from 1 to 3 and the roads are , , initially. Number the roads 1 to 3 in this order.

The sets of roads that ZS the Coder can flip (to make them not confusing) are {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}. Note that the empty set is invalid because if no roads are flipped, then towns 1, 2, 3 is form a directed cycle, so it is confusing. Similarly, flipping all roads is confusing too. Thus, there are a total of 6 possible sets ZS the Coder can flip.


题意:
给一个n个点的图,每个点有一条有向边指向另一个点,改变一个边的方向称为filp操作,现在想知道有多少种选择边的方案,将所选的边flip之后,图中不会出现环。


题解:
由题中所描述可知,图中只有n个点n条边,那么将这个图看做无向图的话,图中至少有一个环,并且肯定是由k(k>=1)个连通分量组成,每个连通分量都可以看成是一个环(可能没有环)加一堆边所构成,那么最终的答案便是这些连通分量的答案的乘积。对于每一个连通分量,答案应该是2^(非环边的数量)*(2^(环边的数量)-2)。要减二的原因是有2种情况下,是构成顺时针或逆时针环的。所以DFS求出每个连通分量的答案再乘起来就可以了。
2的幂可以预处理。


//
//  main.cpp
//  cf-369-2-4
//
//  Created by 袁子涵 on 16/8/29.
//  Copyright © 2016年 袁子涵. All rights reserved.
//

#include <iostream>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cmath>
#include <algorithm>
#include <queue>
#include <set>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <map>

using namespace std;
const int maxn=2e5+5;
const int mod=1e9+7;
vector<int>To[maxn];
int n,tmp;
int vis[maxn],now,circle;
long long int mi[maxn],ans;
bool flag;
void dfs(int num,int fa,int deep)
{
    if (vis[num]) {
        if (!flag)
            circle=deep-vis[num];
        flag=1;
        return;
    }
    now++;
    vis[num]=deep;
    bool back=0;
    for (int i=0; i<To[num].size(); i++) {
        if (!back && To[num][i]==fa)
        {
            back=1;
            continue;
        }
        dfs(To[num][i], num, deep+1);
    }
}
int main(int argc, const char * argv[]) {
    ios::sync_with_stdio(false);
    cin >> n;
    mi[0]=ans=1;
    for (int i=1; i<=n; i++)
    {
        cin >> tmp;
        To[tmp].push_back(i);
        To[i].push_back(tmp);
        mi[i]=(mi[i-1]<<1)%mod;
    }
    for (int i=1; i<=n; i++) {
        if (!vis[i]) {
            now=circle=0;
            flag=0;
            dfs(i,0,1);
            ans=ans*mi[now-circle]%mod*(mi[circle]-2+mod)%mod;
        }
    }
    cout << ans << endl;
    return 0;
}
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