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Framework中的连接管理机制(原)

标签: WifiStateMachineNetworkInfoNetworkAgentConnectivityServiceConnectivityManager
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        上一节《Wifi服务框架介绍》介绍了WIFI的大致框架,本文主要介绍连接管理中的几个重要角色,包括:NetworkInfo、NetworkAgent、ConnectivityService、ConnectivityManager等。
        为了便于讨论,本文选取一个具体问题展开分析,那就是:当当前的网络连接变为不可用时,系统如何自动切换其他可用的网络连接的

        我们知道,当手机在使用移动数据上网时,如果进入WIFI环境,手机将会自动连上WIFI使用数据,而当WIFI失去覆盖或者关闭WIFI时,手机又会自动连上移动数据,那么这个机制是如何实现的呢?本文从WIFI框架触发,跟踪当WIFI被disconnect时,如何切换为数据网络。


一、WifiStateMachine更新状态


        WifiStateMachine利用setNetworkDetailedState()方法更新WIFI状态,如果WIFI网络被断开后,就会将DISCONNECTED的状态传递给setNetworkDetailedState(),此时WifiStateMachine就会把状态先同步到NetworkInfo,然后再更新到NetworkAgent对象:
        private boolean setNetworkDetailedState(NetworkInfo.DetailedState state) {
            boolean hidden = false;
            if (state != mNetworkInfo.getDetailedState()) {
                //更新NetworkInfo的状态
                mNetworkInfo.setDetailedState(state, null, mWifiInfo.getSSID());
                if (mNetworkAgent != null) {
                    //将最新状态发送到NetworkAgent
                    mNetworkAgent.sendNetworkInfo(mNetworkInfo);
                }
                sendNetworkStateChangeBroadcast(null);
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        到这里就不得不介绍一下NetworkInfo和NetworkAgent了。


二、NetworkInfo介绍


        NetworkInfo用于标识一个网络连接的状态、类型等属性的,从其提供的public方法我们就能看出其提供了一个网络连接最基本的信息:
        @NetworkInfo.java
        //获取网络类型,TYPE_MOBILE/TYPE_WIFI/TYPE_MOBILE_MMS等
        public int getType() {}
        //获取网络类型名称
        public String getTypeName() {}
        //网络是否是CONNECTED或者CONNECTING状态
        public boolean isConnectedOrConnecting() {}
        //网络是否是CONNECTED状态
        public boolean isConnected() {}
        //设置网络是否可用
        public void setIsAvailable(boolean isAvailable) {}
        //判断网络是否可用
        public boolean isAvailable() {}
        //是否漫游状态
        public boolean isRoaming() {}
        //设置漫游状态
        public void setRoaming(boolean isRoaming) {}
        //获取网络的state、mReason等信息
        public DetailedState getDetailedState() {}
        应用程序可以通过ConnectivityManager的getNetworkInfo()方法获取到该对象,并通过该对象查询当前的网络状态,比如可以这样获取当前是否有网络连接:
        private boolean isNetworkConnected() {
            final ConnectivityManager connectivity = (ConnectivityManager) getSystemService(Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);
            if (connectivity == null) {
                return false;
            }
            final NetworkInfo info = connectivity.getActiveNetworkInfo();
            return info != null && info.isConnected();
        }
        上面是应用读取NetworkInfo的方法,那么当网络变化时,就应该由WIFI或者DATA去更新当前的NetworkInfo,而WifiStateMachine在setNetworkDetailedState中做的就是把当前的网络状态更新到NetworkInfo,即:
        mNetworkInfo.setDetailedState(state, null, mWifiInfo.getSSID());

        更新完NetworkInfo之后,需要将其更新到ConnectivityManager才可被其他应用读取到,那么如何将其更新到ConnectivityManager呢?这就需要NetworkAgent来完成了。


三、NetworkAgent介绍


        NetworkAgent的作用可以从其官方描述中略知一二:
        "A Utility class for handling for communicating between bearer-specific code and ConnectivityService."
        这句话描述了NetworkAgent的作用:他是某个网络连接与ConnectivityService之间的通讯的工具
        接下来我们通过代码来认识一下他究竟如何在网络连接与ConnectivityService之间进行通讯。
        先来看一下这个类的定义:
        public abstract class NetworkAgent extends Handler {}
        我们发现,这是一个Handler的子类,并且他是一个抽象类(abstract),需要在子类中被实例化
        然后来看其构造方法:
        public NetworkAgent(Looper looper, Context context, String logTag, NetworkInfo ni, NetworkCapabilities nc, LinkProperties lp, int score) {
            this(looper, context, logTag, ni, nc, lp, score, null);
        }
        public NetworkAgent(Looper looper, Context context, String logTag, NetworkInfo ni, NetworkCapabilities nc, LinkProperties lp, int score, NetworkMisc misc) {
            super(looper);
            mContext = context;
            if (ni == null || nc == null || lp == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException();
            }
            //获取ConnectivityManager对象,并向其注册自己
            ConnectivityManager cm = (ConnectivityManager)mContext.getSystemService( Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);
            cm.registerNetworkAgent(new Messenger(this), new NetworkInfo(ni), new LinkProperties(lp), new NetworkCapabilities(nc), score, misc);
        }
        我们看到其构造方法里面主要做了一件事情,获取ConnectivityManager对象,并通过registerNetworkAgent方式注册当前的NetworkAgent。

        接下来我们插入两节来分别介绍另外两个对象:ConnectivityManager和ConnectivityService,然后再回头来看这里的registerNetworkAgent()方法。


四、ConnectivityService介绍


        ConnectivityService是负责连接管理的大总管,他以Service的形式在系统初始化时就被创建:
        @SystemServer.java
        public static final String CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE = "connectivity";
        private void startOtherServices() {
            try {
                //创建ConnectivityService
                connectivity = new ConnectivityService(context, networkManagement, networkStats, networkPolicy);
                //注册的name为"connectivity"
                ServiceManager.addService(Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE, connectivity);
                networkStats.bindConnectivityManager(connectivity);
                networkPolicy.bindConnectivityManager(connectivity);
            } catch (Throwable e) {
                reportWtf("starting Connectivity Service", e);
            }
        }

        从上面知道,该Service在SystemServer中的name为"Connectivity"。知道了这一点就够了,至于ConnectivityService本身我们暂且不去关注。


五、ConnectivityManager介绍


        与其他众多Manager一样,ConnectivityManager也是在ContextImpl中被创建的:
        @ContextImpl.java
        registerService(CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE, new ServiceFetcher() {
            public Object createService(ContextImpl ctx) {
                IBinder b = ServiceManager.getService(CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);
                return new ConnectivityManager(IConnectivityManager.Stub.asInterface(b));
            }});
        从这里我们看到,创建ConnectivityManager时传递了一个name为CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE的服务对象,这个对象就是刚才我们向SystemServer注册的ConnectivityService。然后来看ConnectivityManager的构造方法:
        @ConnectivityManager.java
        public ConnectivityManager(IConnectivityManager service) {
            mService = checkNotNull(service, "missing IConnectivityManager");
        }
        这里我们看到,构造方法里面只是将参数ConnectivityService传递给mService对象就完了。

        好了,ConnectivityManager我们了解这么多就够了。下面继续我们NetworkAgent的初始化流程。


六、继续NetworkAgent初始化流程


        现在我们继续NetworkAgent的初始化流程,这个流程中包含AsyncChannel的使用,不了解的同学可以在这里了解其使用方法和机制。


6.1、NetworkAgent向ConnectivityService注册过程


        前面我们说道,NetworkAgent初始化的时候只做了一个事情,就是向ConnectivityManager注册自己,现在我们继续看该注册过程:
        public NetworkAgent(Looper looper, Context context, String logTag, NetworkInfo ni, NetworkCapabilities nc, LinkProperties lp, int score, NetworkMisc misc) {
            super(looper);
            mContext = context;
            if (ni == null || nc == null || lp == null) {
                throw new IllegalArgumentException();
            }
            //获取ConnectivityManager对象,并向其注册自己
            ConnectivityManager cm = (ConnectivityManager)mContext.getSystemService( Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);
            cm.registerNetworkAgent(new Messenger(this), new NetworkInfo(ni), new LinkProperties(lp), new NetworkCapabilities(nc), score, misc);
        }
        在调用注册方法时传递了六个参数,其中有三个比较重要的参数,都是从构造方法的参数中获取并重新new出来的,其分别是:
        1、new Messenger(this)
        2、new NetworkAgent(ni)
        3、new NetworkCapabilities(nc)

        需要注意的是,这里new出来的三个对象的来源,都应该是NetworkAgent子类被初始化时传递给构造方法的。
        然后我们继续来看ConnectivityManager的registerNetworkAgent()方法。
        @ConnectivityManager.java
        public void registerNetworkAgent(Messenger messenger, NetworkInfo ni, LinkProperties lp, NetworkCapabilities nc, int score, NetworkMisc misc) {
            try {
                mService.registerNetworkAgent(messenger, ni, lp, nc, score, misc);
            } catch (RemoteException e) { }
        }
        经过前面的介绍我们现在知道,这里的mService就是ConnectivityService,继续来看接下来的流程:
        @ConnectivityService.java
        public void registerNetworkAgent(Messenger messenger, NetworkInfo networkInfo, LinkProperties linkProperties, NetworkCapabilities networkCapabilities, int currentScore, NetworkMisc networkMisc) {
            //权限检查
            enforceConnectivityInternalPermission();
            //创建NetworkAgentInfo对象
            NetworkAgentInfo nai = new NetworkAgentInfo(messenger, new AsyncChannel(),
                    new NetworkInfo(networkInfo), new LinkProperties(linkProperties),
                    new NetworkCapabilities(networkCapabilities), currentScore, mContext, mTrackerHandler,
                    new NetworkMisc(networkMisc));
            synchronized (this) {
                nai.networkMonitor.systemReady = mSystemReady;
            }
            //向自己Handler发送EVENT_REGISTER_NETWORK_AGENT消息
            mHandler.sendMessage(mHandler.obtainMessage(EVENT_REGISTER_NETWORK_AGENT, nai));
        }
        在ConnectivityService的registerNetworkAgent中做了两件事情:
        1、创建NetworkAgentInfo对象;
        2、向Handler发送EVENT_REGISTER_NETWORK_AGENT消息;

        其中创建NetworkAgentInfo时,传递了九个参数,我们只关注其中三个,分别是:
        1、messenger ----这个参数是registerNetworkAgent的参数,从NetworkAgent传递过来
        2、new AsyncChannel()   ----这是现在创建的新对象
        3、new NetworkCapabilities(NetworkCapabilities) ----这也是用NetworkAgent传递过来的参数创建的对象

        然后我们来看ConnectivityService对EVENT_REGISTER_NETWORK_AGENT的处理:
        private class InternalHandler extends Handler {
            public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                NetworkInfo info;
                switch (msg.what) {
                    case EVENT_REGISTER_NETWORK_AGENT: {
                       handleRegisterNetworkAgent((NetworkAgentInfo)msg.obj);
                       break;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        继续看handleRegisterNetworkAgent():
        private void handleRegisterNetworkAgent(NetworkAgentInfo na) {
            mNetworkAgentInfos.put(na.messenger, na);
            assignNextNetId(na);
            //向NetworkAgentInfo的asyncChannel对象发起连接请求
            na.asyncChannel.connect(mContext, mTrackerHandler, na.messenger);
            NetworkInfo networkInfo = na.networkInfo;
            na.networkInfo = null;
            updateNetworkInfo(na, networkInfo);
        }
        这里我们看到,ConnectivityService向NetworkAgentInfo的asyncChannel对象发起connect请求,并且该AsyncChannel的srcHandler是mTrackerHandler,而dstMessenger对象是NetworkAgentInfo的messenger,那么这里的NetworkAgentInfo是哪里来的呢?
        其实不难看出,这里的NetworkAgentInfo就是在registerNetworkAgent()中创建的,而dstMessenger自然就是NetworkAgent调用registerNetworkAgent()时传递进来的。

        接下来,ConnectivityService将会利用获取到的NetworkAgent对象创建AsyncChannel双向通道。


6.2、ConnectivityService向NetworkAgent申请双向AsyncChannel过程


        我们记得,NetworkAgent当初是这样调用registerNetworkAgent()的:
        @NetworkAgent.java
        public NetworkAgent(Looper looper, Context context, String logTag, NetworkInfo ni, NetworkCapabilities nc, LinkProperties lp, int score, NetworkMisc misc) {
            ConnectivityManager cm = (ConnectivityManager)mContext.getSystemService( Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);
            cm.registerNetworkAgent(new Messenger(this), new NetworkInfo(ni), new LinkProperties(lp), new NetworkCapabilities(nc), score, misc);
        }
        因此ConnectivityService中的dstMessenger其实就是NetworkAgent,准确来说应该是NetworkAgent的子类
        从AsyncChannel的机制我们知道,当利用其发起connect请求时,其将会触发单向连接过程,此时srcHandler(也就是mTrackerHandler)将会收到CMD_CHANNEL_HALF_CONNECTED的消息:
        private class NetworkStateTrackerHandler extends Handler {
            public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                NetworkInfo info;
                switch (msg.what) {
                    case AsyncChannel.CMD_CHANNEL_HALF_CONNECTED: {
                        handleAsyncChannelHalfConnect(msg);
                        break;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        继续来看handleAsyncChannelHalfConnect:
        private void handleAsyncChannelHalfConnect(Message msg) {
            AsyncChannel ac = (AsyncChannel) msg.obj;
            if (mNetworkFactoryInfos.containsKey(msg.replyTo)) {
            } else if (mNetworkAgentInfos.containsKey(msg.replyTo)) {
                if (msg.arg1 == AsyncChannel.STATUS_SUCCESSFUL) {
                    //向AsyncChannel发送消息
                    mNetworkAgentInfos.get(msg.replyTo).asyncChannel.sendMessage(AsyncChannel.CMD_CHANNEL_FULL_CONNECTION);
                } else {
                }
            }
        }
        这里我们看到,此刻ConnectivityService通过AsyncChannel向dstMessenger发送了CMD_CHANNEL_FULL_CONNECTION的消息,从AsyncChannel的机制我们想到,这个消息应该是在向NetworkAgent申请双向通道
        那么NetworkAgent究竟会如何处理该请求呢?
        由于前面我们介绍过,NetworkAgent是抽象类,他需要在子类中被实例化,那么对于WIFI环境来说,他的子类就是在WifiStateMachine中的WifiNetworkAgent对象
        现在我们再回到WifiStateMachine中,我们可以看到,在L2ConnectedState状态机被初始化时将会创建WifiNetworkAgent对象:
        class L2ConnectedState extends State {
            @Override
            public void enter() {
                mNetworkAgent = new WifiNetworkAgent(getHandler().getLooper(), mContext, "WifiNetworkAgent", mNetworkInfo, mNetworkCapabilitiesFilter, mLinkProperties, 60);
            }
        } 
        然后来看该WifiNetworkAgent的定义:
        @WifiStateMachine.java
        private class WifiNetworkAgent extends NetworkAgent {
            public WifiNetworkAgent(Looper l, Context c, String TAG, NetworkInfo ni, NetworkCapabilities nc, LinkProperties lp, int score) {
                super(l, c, TAG, ni, nc, lp, score);
            }
            protected void unwanted() {
                if (this != mNetworkAgent) return;
                unwantedNetwork(network_status_unwanted_disconnect);
            }


            protected void networkStatus(int status) {
                if (status == NetworkAgent.INVALID_NETWORK) {
                    unwantedNetwork(network_status_unwanted_disable_autojoin);
                }
            }
        }
        从这里我们看到,WifiNetworkAgent并没有覆盖父类NetworkAgent中的handleMessage方法,那么也就是说,当ConnectivityService向WifiNetworkAgent发送AsyncChannel请求时,该请求应该在NetworkAgent中被处理,也就是这里:
        @NetworkAgent.java
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            switch (msg.what) {
                case AsyncChannel.CMD_CHANNEL_FULL_CONNECTION: {
                   if (mAsyncChannel != null) {
                   } else {
                       //创建WifiNetworkAgent中的AsyncChannel对象
                       AsyncChannel ac = new AsyncChannel();
                       //完成双向通道连接动作
                       ac.connected(null, this, msg.replyTo);
                       ac.replyToMessage(msg, AsyncChannel.CMD_CHANNEL_FULLY_CONNECTED, AsyncChannel.STATUS_SUCCESSFUL);
                       synchronized (mPreConnectedQueue) {
                           mAsyncChannel = ac;
                           for (Message m : mPreConnectedQueue) {
                               ac.sendMessage(m);
                           }
                           mPreConnectedQueue.clear();
                       }
                   }
                   break;
               }
            }
        }
        从这个handleMessage()中我们看到,对于ConnectivityService发起的CMD_CHANNEL_FULLY_CONNECTED申请,WifiNetworkAgent创建了自己的AsyncChannel对象并连接上然后发送了STATUS_SUCCESSFUL的消息。
        经过以上过程,在ConnectivityService与WifiNetworkAgent之间就建立了双向的AsyncChannel通道
        以下是整个WifiNetworkAgent的初始化流程:

        


七、WIFI的断开过程


        现在我们再回到WifiStateMachine对当前WIFI状态的更新过程中。当WIFI断开时,WifiStateMachine将会通过setNetworkDetailedState()更新当前WIFI的NetworkInfo对象,并将其传递给WifiNetworkAgent:
        private boolean setNetworkDetailedState(NetworkInfo.DetailedState state) {
            boolean hidden = false;
            if (state != mNetworkInfo.getDetailedState()) {
                //更新NetworkInfo的状态
                mNetworkInfo.setDetailedState(state, null, mWifiInfo.getSSID());
                if (mNetworkAgent != null) {
                    //将最新状态发送到NetworkAgent
                    mNetworkAgent.sendNetworkInfo(mNetworkInfo);
                }
                sendNetworkStateChangeBroadcast(null);
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }
        然后我们来看NetworkAgent如何将最新的networkInfo传递到ConnectivityService中去:
        @NetworkAgent.java
        public void sendNetworkInfo(NetworkInfo networkInfo) {
            queueOrSendMessage(EVENT_NETWORK_INFO_CHANGED, new NetworkInfo(networkInfo));
        }
        继续:
        private void queueOrSendMessage(int what, Object obj) {
            synchronized (mPreConnectedQueue) {
                if (mAsyncChannel != null) {
                    //通过AsyncChannel发送请求
                    mAsyncChannel.sendMessage(what, obj);
                } else {
                    Message msg = Message.obtain();
                    msg.what = what;
                    msg.obj = obj;
                    mPreConnectedQueue.add(msg);
                }
            }
        }
        到这里我们发现,NetworkAgent将最新的NetworkInfo作为一个Object放入一个EVENT_NETWORK_INFO_CHANGED的消息中,然后通过AsyncChannel发送出去。那么这个消息发送到哪里了呢?
        此时我们应该能够想到,当初是ConnectivityService与WifiNetworkAgent创建了双向的AsyncChannel通道,那么此时的消息当然就会发送给ConnectivityService了,并且该消息将会在其NetworkStateTrackerHandler中被处理:
        @ConnectivityService.java
        private class NetworkStateTrackerHandler extends Handler {
            public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                NetworkInfo info;
                switch (msg.what) {
                    case NetworkAgent.EVENT_NETWORK_INFO_CHANGED: {
                          //拿到消息中最新的NetworkInfo信息
                          NetworkAgentInfo nai = mNetworkAgentInfos.get(msg.replyTo);
                          if (nai == null) {
                              loge("EVENT_NETWORK_INFO_CHANGED from unknown NetworkAgent");
                              break;
                          }
                          info = (NetworkInfo) msg.obj;
                          //通过updateNetworkInfo来进行更新
                          updateNetworkInfo(nai, info);
                          break;
                      }
                }
            }
        }
        然后我们继续来看updateNetworkInfo()的操作:
        private void updateNetworkInfo(NetworkAgentInfo networkAgent, NetworkInfo newInfo) {
            NetworkInfo.State state = newInfo.getState();
            NetworkInfo oldInfo = null;
            synchronized (networkAgent) {
                oldInfo = networkAgent.networkInfo;
                //将最新的networkInfo更新到ConnectivityService
                networkAgent.networkInfo = newInfo;
            }


            if (state == NetworkInfo.State.CONNECTED && !networkAgent.created) {
            } else if (state == NetworkInfo.State.DISCONNECTED || state == NetworkInfo.State.SUSPENDED) {
                //断开WIFI的NetworkAgent中的AsyncChannel
                networkAgent.asyncChannel.disconnect();
            }
        }
        在updateNetworkInfo()中,ConnectivityService将最新的NetworkInfo保存在networkAgent中,等待其他应用来获取。然后就向NetworkAgent的AsyncChannel发起disconnect()的请求,该请求将会在ConnectivityService中收到CMD_CHANNEL_DISCONNECTED的回应:
        private class NetworkStateTrackerHandler extends Handler {
            public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
                NetworkInfo info;
                switch (msg.what) {
                    case AsyncChannel.CMD_CHANNEL_DISCONNECTED: {
                        handleAsyncChannelDisconnected(msg);
                        break;
                    }


                }
            }
        }
        继续来看handleAsyncChannelDisconnected():
        private void handleAsyncChannelDisconnected(Message msg) {
            NetworkAgentInfo nai = mNetworkAgentInfos.get(msg.replyTo);
            if (nai != null) {
                final ArrayList<NetworkAgentInfo> toActivate = new ArrayList<NetworkAgentInfo>();
                for (int i = 0; i < nai.networkRequests.size(); i++) {
                    //当前网络断开,寻找可替代的网络连接
                    NetworkRequest request = nai.networkRequests.valueAt(i);
                    NetworkAgentInfo currentNetwork = mNetworkForRequestId.get(request.requestId);
                    if (currentNetwork != null && currentNetwork.network.netId == nai.network.netId) {
                        mNetworkForRequestId.remove(request.requestId);
                        sendUpdatedScoreToFactories(request, 0);
                        NetworkAgentInfo alternative = null;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        在这里,将会取出当前断开的网络所能处理的NetworkRequest,然后在当前所有向ConnectivityService注册的列表中查找可替代的连接,并通过sendUpdatedScoreToFactories()向其发起连接请求:
        private void sendUpdatedScoreToFactories(NetworkAgentInfo nai) {
            for (int i = 0; i < nai.networkRequests.size(); i++) {
                NetworkRequest nr = nai.networkRequests.valueAt(i);
                if (!isRequest(nr)) continue;
                sendUpdatedScoreToFactories(nr, nai.getCurrentScore());
            }
        }
        继续:
        private void sendUpdatedScoreToFactories(NetworkRequest networkRequest, int score) {
            for (NetworkFactoryInfo nfi : mNetworkFactoryInfos.values()) {
                nfi.asyncChannel.sendMessage(android.net.NetworkFactory.CMD_REQUEST_NETWORK, score, 0, networkRequest);
            }
        }
        到这里将会向新的连接的NetworkFactoryInfo对象发起CMD_REQUEST_NETWORK的请求,之后相应的连接对象就可以建立连接了。
        至此,从一个连接类型遍转换到另一个连接类型中。
        以下是该过程的流程图:
        
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