嵌入式linux操作framebuffer显示bmp图片

功能

在嵌入式linux上, 通过操作framebuffer, 直接在显示屏上显示bmp图片
之前网上找的一些类似功能的都不靠谱, 于是自己写了一个测试程序

使用方法

编译后拷贝进开发板即可使用

./fb_show_bmp test.bmp

显示的图片由参数指定,上面指令中test.bmp为测试用的bmp格式的图片

效果

在这里插入图片描述

源码说明

代码说明

有部分代码需要注意一下

  1. 显示屏设备节点
    在这里插入图片描述
    默认使用的是/dev/fb0这个节点,如果开发板的不是这个,需要改动

  2. 显示屏显示一行像素的数据长度
    显示屏一行的数据长度由 struce fb_fix_screeninfo 中的 line_length 字段决定, 而通过屏幕的分辨率计算得到的一行的数据量不一定准确.
    例如一个显示屏是 800x480, bpp为32, 直接计算一行的数据长度为: 800 * (32 / 8) 个字节
    但是这样计算不一定准确, 还与驱动的实现方式有关, 所以最好还是直接使用 line_length 字段
    在这里插入图片描述

  3. bmp格式问题
    bmp图片的数据对于显示屏来说像是上下左右颠倒了, 所以进行转换时需要处理一下
    函数 cursor_bitmap_format_convert()进行了一行显示数据的左右处理
    上下方向上的数据我没有进行处理, 所以最终效果看起来是上下颠倒的

  4. 显示屏bpp
    我只测试了bpp为24/32的板子, 对于bpp为16的如果测试有问题, 可能还需要在修改下代码
    在这里插入图片描述

源码

源码与一些测试用的bmp图片可在这里下载: https://download.csdn.net/download/bruno_mars/11267270

  • fb_show_bmp.c
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <linux/fb.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <errno.h>

//14byte文件头
typedef struct
{
	char cfType[2];  //文件类型,"BM"(0x4D42)
	int  cfSize;     //文件大小(字节)
	int  cfReserved; //保留,值为0
	int  cfoffBits;  //数据区相对于文件头的偏移量(字节)
}__attribute__((packed)) BITMAPFILEHEADER;
//__attribute__((packed))的作用是告诉编译器取消结构在编译过程中的优化对齐

//40byte信息头
typedef struct
{
	char ciSize[4];          //BITMAPFILEHEADER所占的字节数
	int  ciWidth;            //宽度
	int  ciHeight;           //高度
	char ciPlanes[2];        //目标设备的位平面数,值为1
	int  ciBitCount;         //每个像素的位数
	char ciCompress[4];      //压缩说明
	char ciSizeImage[4];     //用字节表示的图像大小,该数据必须是4的倍数
	char ciXPelsPerMeter[4]; //目标设备的水平像素数/米
	char ciYPelsPerMeter[4]; //目标设备的垂直像素数/米
	char ciClrUsed[4];       //位图使用调色板的颜色数
	char ciClrImportant[4];  //指定重要的颜色数,当该域的值等于颜色数时(或者等于0时),表示所有颜色都一样重要
}__attribute__((packed)) BITMAPINFOHEADER;

typedef struct
{
	unsigned char blue;
	unsigned char green;
	unsigned char red;
	unsigned char reserved;
}__attribute__((packed)) PIXEL; //颜色模式RGB



typedef struct
{
	int          fbfd;
	char         *fbp;
	unsigned int xres;
	unsigned int yres;
	unsigned int xres_virtual;
	unsigned int yres_virtual;
	unsigned int xoffset;
	unsigned int yoffset;
	unsigned int bpp;
	unsigned long line_length;
	unsigned long size;

	struct fb_bitfield red;
	struct fb_bitfield green;
	struct fb_bitfield blue;
} FB_INFO;

typedef struct
{
	unsigned int width;
	unsigned int height;
	unsigned int bpp;
	unsigned long size;
	unsigned int data_offset;
} IMG_INFO;



FB_INFO fb_info;
IMG_INFO img_info;

int show_bmp(char *img_name);

static int cursor_bitmap_format_convert(char *dst,char *src, unsigned long img_len_one_line)
{
	int img_len ,fb_len ;
	char *p;
	__u32 val;
	PIXEL pix;

	p = (char *)&val;

	img_len = img_info.width; /*一行图片的长度*/
	fb_len = fb_info.xres; /*一行显示屏的长度*/

	/*进行x轴的偏移*/
	dst += fb_info.xoffset * (fb_info.bpp / 8);
	fb_len -= fb_info.xoffset;

	/*bmp 数据是上下左右颠倒的,这里只进行左右的处理*/
	/*先定位到图片的最后一个像素的地址,然后往第一个像素的方向处理,进行左右颠倒的处理*/
	src += img_len_one_line - 1;

	/*处理一行要显示的数据*/
	while(1) {
		if (img_info.bpp == 32)
			pix.reserved = *(src--);
		pix.red   = *(src--);
		pix.green = *(src--);
		pix.blue  = *(src--);

		val = 0x00;
		val |= (pix.red >> (8 - fb_info.red.length)) << fb_info.red.offset;
		val |= (pix.green >> (8 - fb_info.green.length)) << fb_info.green.offset;
		val |= (pix.blue >> (8 - fb_info.blue.length)) << fb_info.blue.offset;


		if (fb_info.bpp == 16) {
			*(dst++) = *(p + 0);
			*(dst++) = *(p + 1);
		}
		else if (fb_info.bpp == 24) {
			*(dst++) = *(p + 0);
			*(dst++) = *(p + 1);
			*(dst++) = *(p + 2);
		}
		else if (fb_info.bpp == 32) {
			*(dst++) = *(p + 0);
			*(dst++) = *(p + 1);
			*(dst++) = *(p + 2);
			*(dst++) = *(p + 3);
		}

		/*超过图片长度或显示屏长度认为一行处理完了*/
		img_len--;
		fb_len--;
		if (img_len <= 0 || fb_len <= 0)
			break;
	}
#if 0
	printf("r = %d\n", pix.red);
	printf("g = %d\n", pix.green);
	printf("b = %d\n", pix.blue);
#endif
	return 0;
}

int show_bmp(char *img_name)
{

	FILE *fp;
	int ret = 0;
	BITMAPFILEHEADER FileHead;
	BITMAPINFOHEADER InfoHead;

	if(img_name == NULL) {
		printf("img_name is null\n");
		return -1;
	}

	fp = fopen( img_name, "rb" );
	if(fp == NULL) {
		printf("img[%s] open failed\n", img_name);
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}

	/* 移位到文件头部 */
	fseek(fp, 0, SEEK_SET);

	ret = fread(&FileHead, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER), 1, fp);
	if ( ret != 1) {
		printf("img read failed\n");
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}

	//检测是否是bmp图像
	if (memcmp(FileHead.cfType, "BM", 2) != 0) {
		printf("it's not a BMP file[%c%c]\n", FileHead.cfType[0], FileHead.cfType[1]);
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}

	ret = fread( (char *)&InfoHead, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER),1, fp );
	if ( ret != 1) {
		printf("read infoheader error!\n");
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}

	img_info.width       = InfoHead.ciWidth;
	img_info.height      = InfoHead.ciHeight;
	img_info.bpp         = InfoHead.ciBitCount;
	img_info.size        = FileHead.cfSize;
	img_info.data_offset = FileHead.cfoffBits;

	printf("img info w[%d] h[%d] bpp[%d] size[%ld] offset[%d]\n", img_info.width, img_info.height, img_info.bpp, img_info.size, img_info.data_offset);

	if (img_info.bpp != 24 && img_info.bpp != 32) {
		printf("img bpp is not 24 or 32\n");
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}


	/*
	 *一行行处理
	 */
	char *buf_img_one_line;
	char *buf_fb_one_line;
	char *p;
	int fb_height;

	long img_len_one_line = img_info.width * (img_info.bpp / 8);
	long fb_len_one_line = fb_info.line_length;

	printf("img_len_one_line = %d\n", img_len_one_line);
	printf("fb_len_one_line = %d\n", fb_info.line_length);

	buf_img_one_line = (char *)calloc(1, img_len_one_line + 256);
	if(buf_img_one_line == NULL) {
		printf("alloc failed\n");
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}

	buf_fb_one_line = (char *)calloc(1, fb_len_one_line + 256);
	if(buf_fb_one_line == NULL) {
		printf("alloc failed\n");
		ret = -1;
		goto err_showbmp;
	}


	fseek(fp, img_info.data_offset, SEEK_SET);

	p = fb_info.fbp + fb_info.yoffset * fb_info.line_length; /*进行y轴的偏移*/
	fb_height = fb_info.yres;
	while (1) {
		memset(buf_img_one_line, 0, img_len_one_line);
		memset(buf_fb_one_line, 0, fb_len_one_line);
		ret = fread(buf_img_one_line, 1, img_len_one_line, fp);
		if (ret < img_len_one_line) {
			/*图片读取完成,则图片显示完成*/
			printf("read to end of img file\n");
			cursor_bitmap_format_convert(buf_fb_one_line, buf_img_one_line, img_len_one_line); /*数据转换*/
			memcpy(fb_info.fbp, buf_fb_one_line, fb_len_one_line);
			break;
		}

		cursor_bitmap_format_convert(buf_fb_one_line, buf_img_one_line, img_len_one_line); /*数据转换*/
		memcpy(p, buf_fb_one_line, fb_len_one_line); /*显示一行*/
		p += fb_len_one_line;

		/*超过显示屏宽度认为图片显示完成*/
		fb_height--;
		if (fb_height <= 0)
			break;
	}

	free(buf_img_one_line);
	free(buf_fb_one_line);

	fclose(fp);
	return ret;
err_showbmp:
	if (fp)
		fclose(fp);
	return ret;
}

int show_picture(char *img_name)
{
	struct fb_var_screeninfo vinfo;
	struct fb_fix_screeninfo finfo;

	if (fb_info.fbfd <= -1) {
		printf("fb open fialed\n");
		return -1;
	}

	if (ioctl(fb_info.fbfd, FBIOGET_FSCREENINFO, &finfo)) {
		printf("fb ioctl fialed\n");
		return -1;
	}

	if (ioctl(fb_info.fbfd, FBIOGET_VSCREENINFO, &vinfo)) {
		printf("fb ioctl fialed\n");
		return -1;
	}

	fb_info.xres = vinfo.xres;
	fb_info.yres = vinfo.yres;
	fb_info.xres_virtual = vinfo.xres_virtual;
	fb_info.yres_virtual = vinfo.yres_virtual;
	fb_info.xoffset = vinfo.xoffset;
	fb_info.yoffset = vinfo.yoffset;
	fb_info.bpp  = vinfo.bits_per_pixel;
	fb_info.line_length = finfo.line_length;
	fb_info.size = finfo.smem_len;

	memcpy(&fb_info.red, &vinfo.red, sizeof(struct fb_bitfield));
	memcpy(&fb_info.green, &vinfo.green, sizeof(struct fb_bitfield));
	memcpy(&fb_info.blue, &vinfo.blue, sizeof(struct fb_bitfield));

	printf("fb info x[%d] y[%d] x_v[%d] y_v[%d] xoffset[%d] yoffset[%d] bpp[%d] line_length[%ld] size[%ld]\n", fb_info.xres, fb_info.yres, fb_info.xres_virtual, fb_info.yres_virtual, fb_info.xoffset, fb_info.yoffset, fb_info.bpp, fb_info.line_length, fb_info.size);

	printf("fb info red off[%d] len[%d] msb[%d]\n", fb_info.red.offset, fb_info.red.length, fb_info.red.msb_right);
	printf("fb info green off[%d] len[%d] msb[%d]\n", fb_info.green.offset, fb_info.green.length, fb_info.green.msb_right);
	printf("fb info blue off[%d] len[%d] msb[%d]\n", fb_info.blue.offset, fb_info.blue.length, fb_info.blue.msb_right);

	if (fb_info.bpp != 16 && fb_info.bpp != 24 && fb_info.bpp != 32) {
		printf("fb bpp is not 16,24 or 32\n");
		return -1;
	}

	if (fb_info.red.length > 8 || fb_info.green.length > 8 || fb_info.blue.length > 8) {
		printf("fb red|green|blue length is invalid\n");
		return -1;
	}

	// 内存映射
	fb_info.fbp = (char *)mmap(0, fb_info.size, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fb_info.fbfd, 0);
	if (fb_info.fbp == (char *)-1) {
		printf("mmap fialed\n");
		return -1;
	}

	show_bmp(img_name);

	//删除映射
	munmap(fb_info.fbp, fb_info.size);

	return 0;
}


int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
	char img_name[64];

	if (argc != 2) {
		printf("arg error\n");
		return 0;
	}

	snprintf(img_name, sizeof(img_name), "%s", argv[1]);
	printf("img_name = %s\n", img_name);

	fb_info.fbfd = open("/dev/fb0", O_RDWR);
	if (!fb_info.fbfd) {
		printf("Error: cannot open framebuffer device(/dev/fb0).\n");
		return -1;
	}
	show_picture(img_name);

	close(fb_info.fbfd);
		return 0;
}
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