windows遍历目录下所有文件

From: http://blog.csdn.net/benbon/article/details/1911230

 

      在windows中遍历目录下的所有文件主要是使用FindFirstFile和FindNextFile通过递归调用实现的,类似于Linux的opendir和readdir。

       在MSDN中,FindFirstFile的声明如下:

HANDLE FindFirstFile(
  LPCTSTR lpFileName,
  LPWIN32_FIND_DATA lpFindFileData
);

参数说明:

lpFileName
[in] A pointer to a null-terminated string that specifies a valid directory or path, and file name that can contain wildcard characters (* and ?).

If the string ends with a wildcard, period, or directory name, the user must have access to the root and all subdirectories on the path.

In the ANSI version of this function, the name is limited to MAX_PATH characters. To extend this limit to 32,767 wide characters, call the Unicode version of the function and prepend "//?/" to the path. For more information, see Naming a File.

Windows Me/98/95:  This string must not exceed MAX_PATH characters.
lpFindFileData
[out] A pointer to the WIN32_FIND_DATA structure that receives information about a found file or subdirectory.

返回值说明:

If the function succeeds, the return value is a search handle used in a subsequent call to FindNextFile or FindClose.

If the function fails, the return value is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE. To get extended error information, call GetLastError.

FindNextFile:

BOOL FindNextFile(
  HANDLE hFindFile,
  LPWIN32_FIND_DATA lpFindFileData
);

Parameters

hFindFile
[in] Search handle returned by a previous call to the FindFirstFile or FindFirstFileEx function.
lpFindFileData
[out] Pointer to the WIN32_FIND_DATA structure that receives information about the found file or subdirectory.

The structure can be used in subsequent calls to FindNextFile to see the found file or directory.

Return Values

If the function succeeds, the return value is nonzero.

If the function fails, the return value is zero (0). To get extended error information, call GetLastError.

If no matching files can be found, the GetLastError function returns ERROR_NO_MORE_FILES.

涉及的WIN32_FIND_DATA结构体的声明:

WIN32_FIND_DATA

 

The WIN32_FIND_DATA structure describes a file found by the FindFirstFile, FindFirstFileEx, or FindNextFile function.

 

typedef struct _WIN32_FIND_DATA {
DWORD dwFileAttributes;
FILETIME ftCreationTime;
FILETIME ftLastAccessTime;
FILETIME ftLastWriteTime;
DWORD nFileSizeHigh;
DWORD nFileSizeLow;
DWORD dwReserved0;
DWORD dwReserved1;
TCHAR cFileName[MAX_PATH];
TCHAR cAlternateFileName[14];
} WIN32_FIND_DATA, 
*PWIN32_FIND_DATA;

Members

dwFileAttributes
File attributes of the file found.

This member can be one or more of the following values.

Attribute Meaning
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ARCHIVE The file or directory is an archive file or directory.

Applications use this attribute to mark files for backup or removal.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_COMPRESSED The file or directory is compressed.

For a file, this means that all of the data in the file is compressed.

For a directory, this means that compression is the default for newly created files and subdirectories.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY The handle identifies a directory.
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED The file or directory is encrypted.

For a file, this means that all data in the file is encrypted.

For a directory, this means that encryption is the default for newly created files and subdirectories.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_HIDDEN The file or directory is hidden.

It is not included in an ordinary directory listing.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL The file or directory does not have another attributes set.

This attribute is valid only if used alone.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE The file data is not immediately available.

This attribute indicates that the file data has been physically moved to offline storage.

This attribute is used by Remote Storage, the hierarchical storage management software.

Applications should not arbitrarily change this attribute.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY The file or directory is read-only.

Applications can read the file, but cannot write to it or delete it.

For a directory, applications cannot delete it.

FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT The file or directory has an associated reparse point.
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SPARSE_FILE The file is a sparse file.
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_SYSTEM The file or directory is part of the operating system, or is used exclusively by the operating system.
FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY The file is being used for temporary storage.

File systems attempt to keep all of the data in memory for quick access, rather than flushing it back to mass storage.

A temporary file should be deleted by the application as soon as it is not needed.

ftCreationTime
A FILETIME structure that specifies when the file or directory is created.

If the underlying file system does not support creation time, this member is 0 (zero).

ftLastAccessTime
A FILETIME structure.

For a file, the structure specifies when the file is last read from, written to, or, in the case of executable files, run.

For a directory, the structure specifies when the directory is created. If the underlying file system does not support last access time, this member is 0 (zero).

On the FAT file system, the specified date for both files and directories is correct, but the time of day is always set to midnight.

ftLastWriteTime
A FILETIME structure.

For a file, the structure specifies when the file is last written to, truncated, or overwritten (for example, with WriteFile or SetEndOfFile). This date and time is not updated when file attributes or security descriptors are changed.

For a directory, the structure specifies when the directory is created. If the underlying file system does not support last write time, this member is 0 (zero).
nFileSizeHigh
High-order DWORD value of the file size, in bytes.

This value is 0 (zero) unless the file size is greater than MAXDWORD.

The size of the file is equal to (nFileSizeHigh * (MAXDWORD+1)) + nFileSizeLow.

nFileSizeLow
Low-order DWORD value of the file size, in bytes.
dwReserved0
If the dwFileAttributes member includes the FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT attribute, this member specifies the reparse tag.

Otherwise, this value is undefined and should not be used.

dwReserved1
Reserved for future use.
cFileName
A null-terminated string that specifies the name of a file.
cAlternateFileName
A null-terminated string that specifies an alternative name for the file.

This name is in the classic 8.3 (filename.ext) file name format.

下面是实现的一个例子:

 

/**//*******************************
 *     函数名:FindFile
 *     输入参数:pFilePath(路径)
 *     输出参数:无
 *     功能
********************************
*/

void FindFile(char * pFilePath)
...{
    WIN32_FIND_DATA FindFileData;
    HANDLE hFind 
= INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
    
char DirSpec[MAX_PATH + 1];// 指定路径
    DWORD dwError;

    strncpy (DirSpec, pFilePath, strlen(pFilePath) 
+ 1);
    strncat (DirSpec, 
"/*"3);

    hFind 
= FindFirstFile((DirSpec, &FindFileData);

    
if (hFind == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
    
...{
        printf (
"Invalid file handle. Error is %u ", GetLastError());
        
return ;
    }

    
else
    
...{
        
if (FindFileData.dwFileAttributes != FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY )
        
...{
            printf (
"  %s ", FindFileData.cFileName);   //找到文件
        }

        
else if(FindFileData.dwFileAttributes == FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY
            
&& strcmp(FindFileData.cFileName, "."!= 0
            
&& strcmp(FindFileData.cFileName, ".."!= 0)
        
...{   //找到目录
            
char Dir[MAX_PATH + 1];
            strcpy(Dir, pFilePath);
            strncat(Dir, 
"/"2);
            strcat(Dir, FindFileData.cFileName);

            FindFile(Dir);
        }


        
while (FindNextFile(hFind, &FindFileData) != 0)
        
...{
            
if (FindFileData.dwFileAttributes != FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)
            
...{   //找到文件
                printf (
"  %s ", FindFileData.cFileName);
            }

            
else if(FindFileData.dwFileAttributes == FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY
                
&& strcmp(FindFileData.cFileName, "."!= 0
                
&& strcmp(FindFileData.cFileName, ".."!= 0)
            
...{ //找到目录
                
char Dir[MAX_PATH + 1];
                strcpy(Dir, pFilePath);
                strncat(Dir, 
"/"2);
                strcat(Dir, FindFileData.cFileName);
                FindFile(Dir);
            }


        }


        dwError 
= GetLastError();
        FindClose(hFind);
        
if (dwError != ERROR_NO_MORE_FILES)
        
...{
            printf (
"FindNextFile error. Error is %u ", dwError);
            
return;
        }

    }

}

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