RabbitMQ:死信队列DLX介绍及演示

DLX: Dead Letter Exchange

       利用DLX,当消息在一个队列中变成死信(dead message:消息在该队列中没有消费者去消费)之后,它就会被重新publish到另一个Exchange中,这个Exchange就是DLX;死信队列和普通队列并没有区别,只是相关属性进行了设置;

消息变成死信的几种情况

  • 消息被拒绝:basic.reject/basic.nack,且requeue=false;
  • 消息TTL:消息过期;
  • 队列达到最大长度:例如队列的最大长度是3000,第3001条消息就是死信,该死信会被转发到死信队列;

死信队列的设置

  • Exchange:dlx.exhcange
  • Queue: dlx.queue
  • RoutingKey: #
  • Arguments: arguments.put(“x-dead-letter-exchange”, “dlx.exchange”)

代码例子

Producer.java

public class Producer {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory();
		connectionFactory.setHost("xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx");
		connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
		Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
		Channel channel = connection.createChannel();
		
		String exchange = "test_dlx_exchange";
		String routingKey = "dlx.save";
		
		String msg = "Hello RabbitMQ DLX Message";
		
		for(int i =0; i<1; i ++){
			AMQP.BasicProperties properties = new AMQP.BasicProperties.Builder()
					.deliveryMode(2)
					.contentEncoding("UTF-8")
					.expiration("10000")
					.build();
			channel.basicPublish(exchange, routingKey, true, properties, msg.getBytes());
		}
	}
}

Consumer.java

public class Consumer {
	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		ConnectionFactory connectionFactory = new ConnectionFactory();
		connectionFactory.setHost("xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx");
		connectionFactory.setPort(5672);
		connectionFactory.setVirtualHost("/");
		
		Connection connection = connectionFactory.newConnection();
		Channel channel = connection.createChannel();
		
		// 这就是一个普通的交换机 和 队列 以及路由
		String exchangeName = "test_dlx_exchange";
		String routingKey = "dlx.#";
		String queueName = "test_dlx_queue";
		
		channel.exchangeDeclare(exchangeName, "topic", true, false, null);
		
		Map<String, Object> agruments = new HashMap<String, Object>();
		agruments.put("x-dead-letter-exchange", "dlx.exchange");
		//这个agruments属性,要设置到声明队列上
		channel.queueDeclare(queueName, true, false, false, agruments);
		channel.queueBind(queueName, exchangeName, routingKey);
		
		//要进行死信队列的声明:
		channel.exchangeDeclare("dlx.exchange", "topic", true, false, null);
		channel.queueDeclare("dlx.queue", true, false, false, null);
		channel.queueBind("dlx.queue", "dlx.exchange", "#");

		channel.basicConsume(queueName, true, new MyConsumer(channel));
	}
}
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