数据库_08_子查询

#进阶7:子查询

含义:
出现在其他语句中的select语句,称为子查询或内查询
外部的查询,称为主查询或外查询

分类:
按子查询出现的位置:
select后面 仅标量子查询
from后面 支持表子查询
*where或having后面 *标量子查询(单行) *列子查询(多行) 行子查询
exists后面(相关子查询) 表子查询
按结果集的行列数不同:
标量子查询(结果集只有一行一列)
列子查询(结果集只有一列多行)
行子查询(结果集有一行多列)
表子查询(结果集一般为多行多列)

#----------------------------------------------------

#一,where和having后面

特点:
1.子查询放在小括号内
2.子查询一般放在条件的右侧
3.标量子查询:一般搭配着单行操作符使用 > < >= <= = <>
列子查询:一般搭配多行操作符使用 in,any/some,all
4.子查询的执行优先于主查询

#1.标量子查询
#案例1:谁的工资比Abel高

SELECT last_name
FROM employees
WHERE salary>(
 	SELECT salary 
 	FROM employees 
	WHERE last_name='Abel'
);

#案例2:返回job_id与141号员工相同,salary比143号员工多的员工 姓名,job_id和工资

SELECT last_name,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE job_id=(
 	SELECT job_id
 	FROM employees
	WHERE employee_id=141
)
AND salary>(
 	SELECT salary
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE employee_id=143
);

#案例3:返回公司工资最少的员工的 last_name,job_id,salary

SELECT last_name,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary=(
 	SELECT MIN(salary)
 	FROM employees
);

#案例4:查询最低工资大于50号部门最低工资的部门id和其最低工资

#step 1.50号部门最低工资
SELECT MIN(salary)
FROM employees
WHERE department_id=50;
#step 2.最低工资大于1的部门id和其最低工资
SELECT department_id,MIN(salary) 最低工资
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
HAVING 最低工资>(
	SELECT MIN(salary)
	FROM employees
	WHERE department_id=50
);

#2.列子查询(多行子查询
#案例1:返回location_id是1400或1700的部门中的所有员工姓名

#step 1 查询location_id是1400或1700的部门编号
SELECT department_id
FROM departments
WHERE location_id  IN(1400,1700);
#step 2 查询员工姓名,要求部门号是1列表中的某一个
SELECT last_name
FROM employees
WHERE department_id IN(
 	SELECT department_id
 	FROM departments
 	WHERE location_id  IN(1400,1700)
);

#案例2:返回其他工种中比job_id为’IT_PROG’工种任一工资低的员工的员工号,姓名,job_id和工资

#step 1 job_id为IT_PROG的员工工资
SELECT DISTINCT salary
FROM employees
WHERE job_id='IT_PROG';
#step 2 其他工种中比1任意工资低的员工信息
SELECT employee_id,last_name,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary<ALL(
 	SELECT DISTINCT salary
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE job_id='IT_PROG'
)
AND job_id <> 'IT_PROG';
#或
SELECT employee_id,last_name,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary<(
 	SELECT MIN(salary)
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE job_id='IT_PROG'
)
AND job_id <> 'IT_PROG';

#3.行子查询(结果集一行多列或多行多列) 较少使用
#案例:查询员工编号最小并且工资最高的员工信息

SELECT *
FROM employees
WHERE (employee_id,salary)=(
 	SELECT MIN(employee_id),MAX(salary)
 	FROM employees
);

#---------------------------------------------------------

#二,select后面
#仅仅支持标量子查询
#案例1:查询每个部门的员工个数

#分组查询不能得出员工个数为0的部门
SELECT COUNT(*),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id;
#标量子查询
SELECT d.*,(
 	SELECT COUNT(*)
	FROM employees e
 	WHERE e.department_id=d.`department_id`
)
FROM departments d;

#案例2:查询员工号=102的部门名

#法一:多表连接
SELECT d.department_name,e.employee_id
FROM departments d
JOIN employees e
ON d.`department_id`=e.`department_id`
WHERE e.`employee_id`=102;
#法二:标量子查询
SELECT department_name
FROM departments
WHERE department_id=(
 	SELECT department_id
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE employee_id=102
);

#-------------------------------------------------------------------

#三,from后面
#将子查询结果充当一张表,要求必须起别名
#案例:查询每个部门的平均工资的工资等级

SELECT ag_dep.*,g.grade_level
FROM (
 	SELECT AVG(salary) 平均工资,department_id
 	FROM employees
 	GROUP BY department_id;
) ag_dep
JOIN job_grades g
ON ag_dep.平均工资 BETWEEN lowest_sal AND highest_sal

#-------------------------------------------------------------------

#四,exists后面(相关子查询)

语法:
exists后面(完整的查询语句)
结果:
1或0

#案例1:查询有员工的部门名
#用列子查询

#step 1查询有员工的部门
SELECT DISTINCT department_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id IS NOT NULL;
#step2 查询部门名
SELECT department_name
FROM departments d
WHERE d.department_id IN (
 	SELECT DISTINCT department_id
	FROM employees
 	WHERE department_id IS NOT NULL
);

#用exists

SELECT department_name
FROM departments d
WHERE EXISTS(
 	SELECT *
 	FROM employees e
 	WHERE d.`department_id`=e.`department_id`
);

#案例2:查询没有女朋友的男神信息

#in
SELECT bo.*
FROM boys bo
WHERE bo.`id` NOT IN(
 	SELECT DISTINCT be.boyfriend_id
 	FROM beauty be
);

#exists
SELECT bo.*
FROM boys bo
WHERE NOT EXISTS(
 	SELECT be.boyfriend_id
 	FROM beauty be
 	WHERE be.`boyfriend_id`=bo.`id`
);

#---------------------------------------
#测试
#1.查询和Zlotkey相同部门的员工姓名和工资

SELECT last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE department_id=(
 	SELECT department_id
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE last_name='Zlotkey'
);

#2.查询工资比公司平均工资高的员工的员工号,姓名和工资

SELECT employee_id,last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary>(
 	SELECT AVG(salary)
 	FROM employees
);

#3*.查询各部门中工资比本部门平均工资高的员工的员工号,姓名和工资

#step 1查询各部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees ep
GROUP BY department_id;
#step 2平均工资与员工表连接,并添加筛选条件
SELECT employee_id,last_name,salary
FROM employees e
JOIN (
 	SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
 	FROM employees 
 	GROUP BY department_id
) avg_de
ON avg_de.department_id=e.`department_id`
WHERE e.salary>avg_de.ag;

#4.查询姓名中包含字母u的员工在相同部门的员工的员工号和姓名

SELECT employee_id,last_name,department_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id IN (
 	SELECT DISTINCT department_id
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE last_name LIKE '%u%'
);

#5.查询在部门的location_id为1700的部门工作的员工的员工号

SELECT employee_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id IN (
 	SELECT department_id
 	FROM departments
 	WHERE location_id=1700
);

#6.查询管理者是K_ing的员工姓名和工资

SELECT last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE manager_id IN (
 	SELECT employee_id
 	FROM employees
 	WHERE last_name='K_ing'
);

#7.查询工资最高的员工姓名,要求first_name和last_name显示为一列,列名为 姓,名

SELECT CONCAT(first_name,',',last_name) '姓,名'
FROM employees
WHERE salary>=ALL(
 	SELECT salary
 	FROM employees
);

#8.查询工资最低的员工信息:last_name,salary

SELECT last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary=(
 	SELECT MIN(salary)
 	FROM employees
);

#9*.查询平均工资最低的部门信息

SELECT *
FROM departments
WHERE department_id=(
 	SELECT department_id
 	FROM employees
 	GROUP BY department_id
 	ORDER BY AVG(salary)
 	LIMIT 1
);

#10.查询平均工资最高的job信息

SELECT *
FROM jobs 
WHERE job_id=(
 	SELECT job_id
 	FROM employees
 	GROUP BY job_id
	ORDER BY AVG(salary) DESC
 	LIMIT 1
);

#11.查询平均工资高于公司平均工资的部门有哪些

SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
HAVING AVG(salary)>(
 SELECT AVG(salary)
 FROM employees
);

#12.查询出公司中所有manager的详细信息

SELECT *
FROM employees
WHERE employee_id IN (
	SELECT DISTINCT manager_id
	FROM employees
	WHERE manager_id IS NOT NULL
);

#13.查询各个部门最高工资中最低的那个部门的最低工资是多少

SELECT MIN(salary)
FROM employees 
WHERE department_id=(
 	SELECT department_id
 	FROM employees
 	GROUP BY department_id
	ORDER BY MAX(salary) 
 	LIMIT 1
);
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