Tkinter教程之Button篇

文章转载自:http://blog.csdn.net/jcodeer/article/details/1811298


# Tkinter教程之Button篇(1)
# Button功能触发事件
'''1.一个简单的Button应用'''
from tkinter import *


# 定义Button的回调函数
def helloButton():
    print('hello button')


root = Tk()
# 通过command属性来指定Button的回调函数
Button(root, text='Hello Button', command=helloButton).pack()
root.mainloop()

'''
执行的结果:每次点击一次,程序向标准输出打印'hello button',以上为Button使用方法,可以
再做一下简化,如不设置Button的回调函数,这样也是允许的但这样的结果与Label没有什么太
大的区别,只是外观看起来有所不同罢了,失去了Button的作用。
from Tkinter import *
root = Tk()
#下面的relief = FLAT设置,就是一个Label了!!!
Button(root,text = 'hello button',relief=FLAT).pack()
root.mainloop()
'''

'''2.测试Button的relief属性'''
# 运行下面的代码可以看到Button的各个不同效果,均没有回调函数。
from tkinter import *

root = Tk()
# flat, groove, raised, ridge, solid, or sunken
Button(root, text='hello button', relief=FLAT).pack()
Button(root, text='hello button', relief=GROOVE).pack()
Button(root, text='hello button', relief=RAISED).pack()
Button(root, text='hello button', relief=RIDGE).pack()
Button(root, text='hello button', relief=SOLID).pack()
Button(root, text='hello button', relief=SUNKEN).pack()

root.mainloop()

'''
Button显示图像
image:可以使用gif图像,图像的加载方法img = PhotoImage(root,file = filepath
bitmap:使用X11 格式的bitmap,Windows的Bitmap没法显示的,在Windows下使用GIMP2.4将windows
Bitmap转换为xbm文件,依旧无法使用.linux下的X11 bitmap编辑器生成的bitmap还没有测试,但可
以使用内置的位图。
(1).使用位图文件
bp = BitmapImage(file = "c:/python2.xbm")
Button(root,bitmap = bp).pack()
(2).使用位图数据
BITMAP = """
#define im_width 32
#define im_height 32
static char im_bits[] = {
0xaf,0x6d,0xeb,0xd6,0x55,0xdb,0xb6,0x2f,
0xaf,0xaa,0x6a,0x6d,0x55,0x7b,0xd7,0x1b,
0xad,0xd6,0xb5,0xae,0xad,0x55,0x6f,0x05,
0xad,0xba,0xab,0xd6,0xaa,0xd5,0x5f,0x93,
0xad,0x76,0x7d,0x67,0x5a,0xd5,0xd7,0xa3,
0xad,0xbd,0xfe,0xea,0x5a,0xab,0x69,0xb3,
0xad,0x55,0xde,0xd8,0x2e,0x2b,0xb5,0x6a,
0x69,0x4b,0x3f,0xb4,0x9e,0x92,0xb5,0xed,
0xd5,0xca,0x9c,0xb4,0x5a,0xa1,0x2a,0x6d,
0xad,0x6c,0x5f,0xda,0x2c,0x91,0xbb,0xf6,
0xad,0xaa,0x96,0xaa,0x5a,0xca,0x9d,0xfe,
0x2c,0xa5,0x2a,0xd3,0x9a,0x8a,0x4f,0xfd,
0x2c,0x25,0x4a,0x6b,0x4d,0x45,0x9f,0xba,
0x1a,0xaa,0x7a,0xb5,0xaa,0x44,0x6b,0x5b,
0x1a,0x55,0xfd,0x5e,0x4e,0xa2,0x6b,0x59,
0x9a,0xa4,0xde,0x4a,0x4a,0xd2,0xf5,0xaa
};
"""
使用tuple数据来创建图像
bmp = BitmapImage(data = BITMAP)
Button(root,bitmap = bmp)
'''

'''3.与Label一样,Button也可以同时显示文本与图像,使用属性compound'''
from tkinter import *

root = Tk()
# 图像居下,居上,居右,居左,文字位于图像之上
Button(root, text='botton', compound='bottom', bitmap='error').pack()
Button(root, text='top', compound='top', bitmap='error').pack()
Button(root, text='right', compound='right', bitmap='error').pack()
Button(root, text='left', compound='left', bitmap='error').pack()
Button(root, text='center', compound='center', bitmap='error').pack()
# 消息循环
root.mainloop()

'''4.控件焦点问题
创建三个Button,各自对应回调函数;将第二个Button设置焦点,程序运行是按“Enter”,判断
程序的打印结果
'''
from tkinter import *


def cb1():
    print('button1 clicked')


def printEventInfo(event):
    print('event.time = ', event.time)
    print('event.type = ', event.type)
    print('event.WidgetId = ', event.widget)
    print('event.KeySymbol = ', event.keysym)


def cb3():
    print('button3 clicked')


root = Tk()

b1 = Button(root, text='Button1', command=cb1)
b2 = Button(root, text='Button2')
b2.bind("<Enter>", printEventInfo)
b3 = Button(root, text='Button3', command=cb3)
b1.pack()
b2.pack()
b3.pack()

b2.focus_set()
root.mainloop()
'''
上例中使用了bind方法,它建立事件与回调函数(响应函数)之间的关系,每当产生<Enter>事件
后,程序便自动的调用cb2,与cb1,cb3不同的是,它本身还带有一个参数----event,这个参数传递
响应事件的信息。
'''

'''5.指定Button的宽度与高度
width:    宽度
heigth:    高度
使用三种方式:
1.创建Button对象时,指定宽度与高度
2.使用属性width和height来指定宽度与高度
3.使用configure方法来指定宽度与高度
'''
from tkinter import *

root = Tk()
b1 = Button(root, text='30X1', width=30, height=2)
b1.pack()

b2 = Button(root, text='30X2')
b2['width'] = 30
b2['height'] = 3
b2.pack()

b3 = Button(root, text='30X3')
b3.configure(width=30, height=3)
b3.pack()

root.mainloop()
# 上述的三种方法同样也适合其他的控件

'''6.设置Button文本在控件上的显示位置
anchor:
使用的值为:n(north),s(south),w(west),e(east)和ne,nw,se,sw,就是地图上的标识位置了,使用
width和height属性是为了显示各个属性的不同。
'''
from tkinter import *

root = Tk()

# 简单就是美!
for a in ['n', 's', 'e', 'w', 'ne', 'nw', 'se', 'sw']:
    Button(root,
           text='anchor',
           anchor=a,
           width=30,
           height=4).pack()
# 如果看的不习惯,就使用下面的代码。
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',width = 30,height =4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'center',width = 30,height =4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'n',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 's',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'e',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'w',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'ne',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'nw',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'se',width = 30,height = 4).pack()
# Button(root,text = 'anchor',anchor = 'sw',width = 30,height = 4).pack()

root.mainloop()

'''7.改变Button的前景色与背景色
fg:    前景色
bg:背景色
'''
from tkinter import *

root = Tk()
bfg = Button(root, text='change foreground', fg='red')
bfg.pack()

bbg = Button(root, text='change backgroud', bg='blue')
bbg.pack()

'''8.设置Button的边框
bd(bordwidth):缺省为1或2个像素
'''
# 创建5个Button边框宽度依次为:0,2,4,6,8
for b in [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]:
    Button(root,
           text=str(b),
           bd=b).pack()
'''9.设置Button的风格
relief/raised/sunken/groove/ridge
'''
for r in ['raised','sunken','groove','ridge']:
    Button(root,
    text = r,
    relief = r,
    width = 30).pack()


'''10.设置Button状态
normal/active/disabled
'''
def statePrint():
    print('state')
for r in ['normal','active','disabled']:
    Button(root,
    text = r,
    state = r,
    width = 30,
    command = statePrint).pack()

#例子中将三个Button在回调函数都设置为statePrint,运行程序只有normal和active激活了回调函数,而disable按钮则没有,对于暂时不
#需要按钮起作用时,可以将它的state设置为disabled属性
root.mainloop()

'''11.绑定Button与变量
设置Button在textvariable属性
'''
from tkinter import *

root = Tk()


def changeText():
    if b['text'] == 'text':
        v.set('change')
        print('change')
    else:
        v.set('text')
        print('text')


v = StringVar()
b = Button(root, textvariable=v, command=changeText)
v.set('text')
b.pack()
root.mainloop()

'''
将变量v与Button绑定,当v值变化时,Button显示的文本也随之变化
'''


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