词素+词

词素+词

语言结构的层次性:
语法层面:词素、词、词组、分句、句子;
语篇层面:句子、语段、语篇;

词素

粘附词素-词缀

前缀: postwar coexist
后缀:movement careless carelessness
前后缀:unlucky coexistence
否定前缀:in-(inactive) im-(imperfect) il-(illogical) ir-(irresponsible)

粘附词素-组合形式

arch- auto- -graph micro- multi- -phone -ceive -dict
archenemy receive prediction

简单词(单词素词)

at by in on up down far near foot make

派生词

词根加不同词缀,大多数前缀不影响词根的词性,仅进行修饰,表示否定、相反、贬义、向背、程度、时间、方位等
否定:un- non- in- dis-  unfair unhappy nonsmoker inexact discontent
相反:un- de- dis- counter-  decrease discover counterattack
向背:pro- anti-  pro-Chinese antiwar
程度大小: super- ultra- over- under- semi-  supermarket ultraleftist overeat undercook semicircle
方式:mis- co- misjudge cooperate
时间:pre- fore- post- prewar forewarm postwar
方位:sub- inter- trans- subway interdependent transfrontier
会引起词性变化的(名词变动词):be- en-/em- a-  belittle enslave embody asleep
动词变名词:-action -ment -al -ee -er -age  exploration movement refuseal empolyee teacher coverage
形容词变名词:-ness -ity -ism -ist  happiness acceptability nationalism loyalist
名词、形容词变动词:-ify -ize -en  beautify hospitalize quicken
名词变形容词:-y -ish -esque -some -ous  sandy foolish picturesque troublesome humourous
后缀仅改变词义而不改变词性:-ster -hood -er -ful -ery -ship -ing -ism  gangster boyhood londoner spoonful machinery friendship matting idealism

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