透析ICMP协议(四): 牛刀初试之二 应用篇ping(RAW Socket)

透析ICMP协议(四): 牛刀初试之二
 应用篇ping(RAW Socket)
===============================
这篇文章出自bugfree/CSDN
平台: VC6 Windows XP

今晚一杯茶水之后, 让我们继续我们的ICMP讨论, 今晚介绍的是用RAW Socket 实现的ping程序.

原理简介:
-------- 
 用RAW Socket实现的ping可能比上一节的应用ICMP.DLL的程序庞大些, 但是这才是我们需要关注的东西, 我的观点真正想做网络开发的程序员应该静下心来读读这篇文章, 相信你会从中获益颇多. 中间我也会讲解一些东西为后一章的路由追踪做一些铺垫.
 另一个重要的要讲的东西, 微软宣布随时不支持上节讲的ping用到的开发接口, 但是本节的讲的是更一般的东西. 所以它不会过时, 甚至做很小的改动就可以移植到别的系统上去. 系统移植不是我们的讲的重点. 但是微软的长期支持足以引起我们充分的重视.
 如何少作变动来使的这个程序实现追踪路由的功能, 这里只是抛砖引玉. 将ICMP包中IP包的包头该为特定的值就能得到那个路由器的IP(要求到达目的地的跳数大于你设的特定值).
 这个程序需要windows2k/WindowsXP/WindowsNT平台和系统管理员的权限.

具体实现:
--------
这段源代码大部分来自:
   http://tangentsoft.net/wskfaq/examples/rawping.html
[bugfree]只做了少量修改,给出了大量的注释, 最后结合经验给出了自己的建议.

----------

/*
 * 程序名: rawping_driver.cpp
 * 说明:   
 *       驱动程序,也是主函数
 */
#include <winsock2.h> 
#include <iostream.h>

#include "rawping.h"

#define DEFAULT_PACKET_SIZE 32   // 默认ICMP包字节数
#define DEFAULT_TTL 30           // 默认TTL值
#define MAX_PING_DATA_SIZE 1024  // 最大数据块
#define MAX_PING_PACKET_SIZE (MAX_PING_DATA_SIZE + sizeof(IPHeader)) //最大ICMP包长度

/* 为 send_buf 和 recv_buf 分配内存
 * send_buf大小为 packet_size
 * recv_buf大小为 MAX_PING_PACKET_SIZE, 保证大于send_buf
 */
int allocate_buffers(ICMPHeader*& send_buf, IPHeader*& recv_buf,
        int packet_size);


///
// Program entry point

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
       
    int seq_no = 0;   //用在发送和接受的ICMP包头中
    ICMPHeader* send_buf = 0;
    IPHeader* recv_buf = 0;

    // 判断命令行是否合法
    if (argc < 2) {
        cerr << "usage: " << argv[0] << " <host> [data_size] [ttl]" <<
                endl;
        cerr << "/tdata_size can be up to " << MAX_PING_DATA_SIZE <<
                " bytes.  Default is " << DEFAULT_PACKET_SIZE << "." <<
                endl;
        cerr << "/tttl should be 255 or lower.  Default is " <<
                DEFAULT_TTL << "." << endl;
        return 1;
    }

    // 处理命令行参数
    int packet_size = DEFAULT_PACKET_SIZE;
    int ttl = DEFAULT_TTL;
    if (argc > 2) {
        int temp = atoi(argv[2]);
        if (temp != 0) {
            packet_size = temp;
        }
        if (argc > 3) {
            temp = atoi(argv[3]);
            if ((temp >= 0) && (temp <= 255)) {
                ttl = temp;
            }
        }
    }
    packet_size = max(sizeof(ICMPHeader),
            min(MAX_PING_DATA_SIZE, (unsigned int)packet_size));

    // 启动 Winsock
    WSAData wsaData;
    if (WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(2, 1), &wsaData) != 0) {
        cerr << "Failed to find Winsock 2.1 or better." << endl;
        return 1;
    }

    SOCKET sd; // RAW Socket句柄
    sockaddr_in dest, source;
   
    // 三个任务(创建sd, 设置ttl, 初试dest的值)
    if (setup_for_ping(argv[1], ttl, sd, dest) < 0) {
        goto cleanup; //释放资源并退出
    }
    // 为send_buf和recv_buf分配内存
    if (allocate_buffers(send_buf, recv_buf, packet_size) < 0) {
        goto cleanup;
    }
    // 初试化IMCP数据包(type=8,code=0)
    init_ping_packet(send_buf, packet_size, seq_no);

    // 发送ICMP数据包
    if (send_ping(sd, dest, send_buf, packet_size) >= 0) {
        while (1) {
            // 接受回应包
            if (recv_ping(sd, source, recv_buf, MAX_PING_PACKET_SIZE) <
                    0) {
                // Pull the sequence number out of the ICMP header.  If
                // it's bad, we just complain, but otherwise we take
                // off, because the read failed for some reason.
                unsigned short header_len = recv_buf->h_len * 4;
                ICMPHeader* icmphdr = (ICMPHeader*)
                        ((char*)recv_buf + header_len);
                if (icmphdr->seq != seq_no) {
                    cerr << "bad sequence number!" << endl;
                    continue;
                }
                else {
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (decode_reply(recv_buf, packet_size, &source) != -2) {
                // Success or fatal error (as opposed to a minor error)
                // so take off.
                break;
            }
        }
    }

cleanup:
    delete[]send_buf;  //释放分配的内存
    delete[]recv_buf;
    WSACleanup(); // 清理winsock
    return 0;
}

// 为send_buf 和 recv_buf的内存分配. 太简单, 我略过
int allocate_buffers(ICMPHeader*& send_buf, IPHeader*& recv_buf,
        int packet_size)
{
    // First the send buffer
    send_buf = (ICMPHeader*)new char[packet_size]; 
    if (send_buf == 0) {
        cerr << "Failed to allocate output buffer." << endl;
        return -1;
    }

    // And then the receive buffer
    recv_buf = (IPHeader*)new char[MAX_PING_PACKET_SIZE];
    if (recv_buf == 0) {
        cerr << "Failed to allocate output buffer." << endl;
        return -1;
    }
   
    return 0;
}

/*
 * 程序名: rawping.h
 * 说明:   
 *       主要函数库头文件
 */

#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
#include <winsock2.h>

// ICMP 包类型, 具体参见本文的第一节
#define ICMP_ECHO_REPLY 0  
#define ICMP_DEST_UNREACH 3
#define ICMP_TTL_EXPIRE 11
#define ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST 8

// 最小的ICMP包大小
#define ICMP_MIN 8


// IP 包头
struct IPHeader {
    BYTE h_len:4;           // Length of the header in dwords
    BYTE version:4;         // Version of IP
    BYTE tos;               // Type of service
    USHORT total_len;       // Length of the packet in dwords
    USHORT ident;           // unique identifier
    USHORT flags;           // Flags
    BYTE ttl;               // Time to live, 这个字段我在下一节中用来实现Tracert功能
    BYTE proto;             // Protocol number (TCP, UDP etc)
    USHORT checksum;        // IP checksum
    ULONG source_ip;
    ULONG dest_ip;
};

// ICMP 包头(实际的包不包括timestamp字段,
// 作者用来计算包的回应时间,其实完全没有必要这样做)
struct ICMPHeader {
    BYTE type;          // ICMP packet type
    BYTE code;          // Type sub code
    USHORT checksum;
    USHORT id;
    USHORT seq;
    ULONG timestamp;    // not part of ICMP, but we need it
};


extern USHORT ip_checksum(USHORT* buffer, int size);
extern int setup_for_ping(char* host, int ttl, SOCKET& sd,  sockaddr_in& dest);
extern int send_ping(SOCKET sd, const sockaddr_in& dest, ICMPHeader* send_buf, int packet_size);
extern int recv_ping(SOCKET sd, sockaddr_in& source, IPHeader* recv_buf,
        int packet_size);
extern int decode_reply(IPHeader* reply, int bytes, sockaddr_in* from);
extern void init_ping_packet(ICMPHeader* icmp_hdr, int packet_size, int seq_no);

/*
 * 程序名: rawping.cpp
 * 说明:   
 *       主要函数库实现部分
 */
 
include <winsock2.h>
#include <ws2tcpip.h>
#include <iostream.h>
#include "rawping.h"
 
 // 计算ICMP包的校验和的简单算法, 很多地方都有说明, 这里没有必要详细将
 // 只是一点要提, 做校验之前, 务必将ICMP包头的checksum字段置为0
USHORT ip_checksum(USHORT* buffer, int size)
{
    unsigned long cksum = 0;
   
    // Sum all the words together, adding the final byte if size is odd
    while (size > 1) {
        cksum += *buffer++;
        size -= sizeof(USHORT);
    }
    if (size) {
        cksum += *(UCHAR*)buffer;
    }

    // Do a little shuffling
    cksum = (cksum >> 16) + (cksum & 0xffff);
    cksum += (cksum >> 16);
   
    // Return the bitwise complement of the resulting mishmash
    return (USHORT)(~cksum);
}

//初试化RAW Socket, 设置ttl, 初试化dest
// 返回值 <0 表失败

int setup_for_ping(char* host, int ttl, SOCKET& sd, sockaddr_in& dest)
{
    // Create the socket
    sd = WSASocket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, IPPROTO_ICMP, 0, 0, 0);
    if (sd == INVALID_SOCKET) {
        cerr << "Failed to create raw socket: " << WSAGetLastError() <<
                endl;
        return -1;
    }

    if (setsockopt(sd, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TTL, (const char*)&ttl,
            sizeof(ttl)) == SOCKET_ERROR) {
        cerr << "TTL setsockopt failed: " << WSAGetLastError() << endl;
        return -1;
    }

    // Initialize the destination host info block
    memset(&dest, 0, sizeof(dest));

    // Turn first passed parameter into an IP address to ping
    unsigned int addr = inet_addr(host);
    if (addr != INADDR_NONE) {
        // It was a dotted quad number, so save result
        dest.sin_addr.s_addr = addr;
        dest.sin_family = AF_INET;
    }
    else {
        // Not in dotted quad form, so try and look it up
        hostent* hp = gethostbyname(host);
        if (hp != 0) {
            // Found an address for that host, so save it
            memcpy(&(dest.sin_addr), hp->h_addr, hp->h_length);
            dest.sin_family = hp->h_addrtype;
        }
        else {
            // Not a recognized hostname either!
            cerr << "Failed to resolve " << host << endl;
            return -1;
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

 

//初试化ICMP的包头, 给data部分填充数据, 最后计算整个包的校验和

void init_ping_packet(ICMPHeader* icmp_hdr, int packet_size, int seq_no)
{
    // Set up the packet's fields
    icmp_hdr->type = ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST;
    icmp_hdr->code = 0;
    icmp_hdr->checksum = 0;
    icmp_hdr->id = (USHORT)GetCurrentProcessId();
    icmp_hdr->seq = seq_no;
    icmp_hdr->timestamp = GetTickCount();

    // "You're dead meat now, packet!"
    const unsigned long int deadmeat = 0xDEADBEEF;
    char* datapart = (char*)icmp_hdr + sizeof(ICMPHeader);
    int bytes_left = packet_size - sizeof(ICMPHeader);
    while (bytes_left > 0) {
        memcpy(datapart, &deadmeat, min(int(sizeof(deadmeat)),
                bytes_left));
        bytes_left -= sizeof(deadmeat);
        datapart += sizeof(deadmeat);
    }

    // Calculate a checksum on the result
    icmp_hdr->checksum = ip_checksum((USHORT*)icmp_hdr, packet_size);
}

// 发送生成的ICMP包
// 返回值 <0 表失败

int send_ping(SOCKET sd, const sockaddr_in& dest, ICMPHeader* send_buf,
        int packet_size)
{
    // Send the ping packet in send_buf as-is
    cout << "Sending " << packet_size << " bytes to " <<
            inet_ntoa(dest.sin_addr) << "..." << flush;
    int bwrote = sendto(sd, (char*)send_buf, packet_size, 0,
            (sockaddr*)&dest, sizeof(dest));
    if (bwrote == SOCKET_ERROR) {
        cerr << "send failed: " << WSAGetLastError() << endl;
        return -1;
    }
    else if (bwrote < packet_size) {
        cout << "sent " << bwrote << " bytes..." << flush;
    }

    return 0;
}


// 接受ICMP包
// 返回值 <0 表失败
int recv_ping(SOCKET sd, sockaddr_in& source, IPHeader* recv_buf,
        int packet_size)
{
    // Wait for the ping reply
    int fromlen = sizeof(source);
    int bread = recvfrom(sd, (char*)recv_buf,
            packet_size + sizeof(IPHeader), 0,
            (sockaddr*)&source, &fromlen);
    if (bread == SOCKET_ERROR) {
        cerr << "read failed: ";
        if (WSAGetLastError() == WSAEMSGSIZE) {
            cerr << "buffer too small" << endl;
        }
        else {
            cerr << "error #" << WSAGetLastError() << endl;
        }
        return -1;
    }

    return 0;
}


// 对收到的ICMP解码
// 返回值 -2表忽略, -1 表失败, 0 成功
int decode_reply(IPHeader* reply, int bytes, sockaddr_in* from)
{
    // 跳过IP包头, 找到ICMP的包头
    unsigned short header_len = reply->h_len * 4;
    ICMPHeader* icmphdr = (ICMPHeader*)((char*)reply + header_len);

    // 包的长度合法, header_len + ICMP_MIN为最小ICMP包的长度
    if (bytes < header_len + ICMP_MIN) {
        cerr << "too few bytes from " << inet_ntoa(from->sin_addr) <<
                endl;
        return -1;
    }
    // 下面的包类型详细参见我的第一部分 "透析ICMP协议(一): 协议原理"
    else if (icmphdr->type != ICMP_ECHO_REPLY) {  //非正常回复
        if (icmphdr->type != ICMP_TTL_EXPIRE) {   //ttl减为零
            if (icmphdr->type == ICMP_DEST_UNREACH) { //主机不可达
                cerr << "Destination unreachable" << endl;
            }
            else {   //非法的ICMP包类型
                cerr << "Unknown ICMP packet type " << int(icmphdr->type) <<
                        " received" << endl;
            }
            return -1;
        }
    }
    else if (icmphdr->id != (USHORT)GetCurrentProcessId()) {
 //不是本进程发的包, 可能是同机的其它ping进程发的
        return -2;
    }

    // 指出包传递了多远
    // [bugfree]我认为作者这里有问题, 因为有些系统的ttl初值为128如winXP,
    // 有些为256如我的DNS服务器211.97.168.129, 作者假设为256有点武断,
    // 可以一起探讨这个问题, 回email:zhangliangsd@hotmail.com
    int nHops = int(256 - reply->ttl);
    if (nHops == 192) {
        // TTL came back 64, so ping was probably to a host on the
        // LAN -- call it a single hop.
        nHops = 1;
    }
    else if (nHops == 128) {
        // Probably localhost
        nHops = 0;
    }

    // 所有工作结束,打印信息
    cout << endl << bytes << " bytes from " <<
            inet_ntoa(from->sin_addr) << ", icmp_seq " <<
            icmphdr->seq << ", ";
    if (icmphdr->type == ICMP_TTL_EXPIRE) {
        cout << "TTL expired." << endl;
    }
    else {
        cout << nHops << " hop" << (nHops == 1 ? "" : "s");
        cout << ", time: " << (GetTickCount() - icmphdr->timestamp) <<
                " ms." << endl;
    }

    return 0;
}


总结和建议:
-----------
   bugfree建议其中的这些方面需要改进:
    1. 头文件iostream.h 改为 iostream, 后者是标准C++的头文件
       同时添加对std::cout 和 std::endl;的引用
       对于cerr 建议都改为std::cout(因为后者头文件不支持)
    2. 程序的发送和接受采用了同步的方式, 这使得如果出现网络问题recv_ping将陷入持续等待.
       这是我们不想看到的.
       这三种技术可以达到目的:
         - 使用多线程, 将ping封装进线程, 在主程序中对它的超时进行处理
         - 使用select()函数来实现
         - 使用windows的 WSAAsyncSelect()
       这里对这些方法不作具体讨论, 留给读者自已完成.  

 

链接:
-------
我的其它文章,<<透析ICMP协议>>, 和其它文章参见:
http://www.csdn.net/develop/author/netauthor/bugfree/

联系方式:
-------
 zhangliangsd@hotmail.com

“相关推荐”对你有帮助么?

  • 非常没帮助
  • 没帮助
  • 一般
  • 有帮助
  • 非常有帮助
提交
©️2022 CSDN 皮肤主题:大白 设计师:CSDN官方博客 返回首页
评论 1

打赏作者

bugfree

你的鼓励将是我创作的最大动力

¥2 ¥4 ¥6 ¥10 ¥20
输入1-500的整数
余额支付 (余额:-- )
扫码支付
扫码支付:¥2
获取中
扫码支付

您的余额不足,请更换扫码支付或充值

打赏作者

实付
使用余额支付
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值