Android启动流程和原理分析一

本篇介绍Android开机流程的第一个环节,从bootloader到kernel的启动。源码版本为Android11。

asmlinkage __visible void __init __no_sanitize_address start_kernel(void)
{
	char *command_line;
	char *after_dashes;
	// 1.从这里开始做一堆的模块初始化
	set_task_stack_end_magic(&init_task);
	smp_setup_processor_id();
	debug_objects_early_init();

	cgroup_init_early();

	local_irq_disable();
	early_boot_irqs_disabled = true;

	/*
	 * Interrupts are still disabled. Do necessary setups, then
	 * enable them.
	 */
	boot_cpu_init();
	page_address_init();
	pr_notice("%s", linux_banner);
	early_security_init();
	setup_arch(&command_line);
	setup_boot_config(command_line);
	setup_command_line(command_line);
	setup_nr_cpu_ids();
	setup_per_cpu_areas();
	smp_prepare_boot_cpu();	/* arch-specific boot-cpu hooks */
	boot_cpu_hotplug_init();

	build_all_zonelists(NULL);
	page_alloc_init();

	pr_notice("Kernel command line: %s\n", saved_command_line);
	/* parameters may set static keys */
	jump_label_init();
	parse_early_param();
	after_dashes = parse_args("Booting kernel",
				  static_command_line, __start___param,
				  __stop___param - __start___param,
				  -1, -1, NULL, &unknown_bootoption);
	if (!IS_ERR_OR_NULL(after_dashes))
		parse_args("Setting init args", after_dashes, NULL, 0, -1, -1,
			   NULL, set_init_arg);
	if (extra_init_args)
		parse_args("Setting extra init args", extra_init_args,
			   NULL, 0, -1, -1, NULL, set_init_arg);

	/*
	 * These use large bootmem allocations and must precede
	 * kmem_cache_init()
	 */
	setup_log_buf(0);
	vfs_caches_init_early();
	sort_main_extable();
	trap_init();
	mm_init();

	ftrace_init();

	/* trace_printk can be enabled here */
	early_trace_init();

	/*
	 * Set up the scheduler prior starting any interrupts (such as the
	 * timer interrupt). Full topology setup happens at smp_init()
	 * time - but meanwhile we still have a functioning scheduler.
	 */
	sched_init();

	if (WARN(!irqs_disabled(),
		 "Interrupts were enabled *very* early, fixing it\n"))
		local_irq_disable();
	radix_tree_init();

	/*
	 * Set up housekeeping before setting up workqueues to allow the unbound
	 * workqueue to take non-housekeeping into account.
	 */
	housekeeping_init();

	/*
	 * Allow workqueue creation and work item queueing/cancelling
	 * early.  Work item execution depends on kthreads and starts after
	 * workqueue_init().
	 */
	workqueue_init_early();

	rcu_init();

	/* Trace events are available after this */
	trace_init();

	if (initcall_debug)
		initcall_debug_enable();

	context_tracking_init();
	/* init some links before init_ISA_irqs() */
	early_irq_init();
	init_IRQ();
	tick_init();
	rcu_init_nohz();
	init_timers();
	hrtimers_init();
	softirq_init();
	timekeeping_init();
	kfence_init();

	/*
	 * For best initial stack canary entropy, prepare it after:
	 * - setup_arch() for any UEFI RNG entropy and boot cmdline access
	 * - timekeeping_init() for ktime entropy used in rand_initialize()
	 * - rand_initialize() to get any arch-specific entropy like RDRAND
	 * - add_latent_entropy() to get any latent entropy
	 * - adding command line entropy
	 */
	rand_initialize();
	add_latent_entropy();
	add_device_randomness(command_line, strlen(command_line));
	boot_init_stack_canary();

	time_init();
	perf_event_init();
	profile_init();
	call_function_init();
	WARN(!irqs_disabled(), "Interrupts were enabled early\n");

	early_boot_irqs_disabled = false;
	local_irq_enable();

	kmem_cache_init_late();

	/*
	 * HACK ALERT! This is early. We're enabling the console before
	 * we've done PCI setups etc, and console_init() must be aware of
	 * this. But we do want output early, in case something goes wrong.
	 */
	console_init();
	if (panic_later)
		panic("Too many boot %s vars at `%s'", panic_later,
		      panic_param);

	lockdep_init();

	/*
	 * Need to run this when irqs are enabled, because it wants
	 * to self-test [hard/soft]-irqs on/off lock inversion bugs
	 * too:
	 */
	locking_selftest();

	/*
	 * This needs to be called before any devices perform DMA
	 * operations that might use the SWIOTLB bounce buffers. It will
	 * mark the bounce buffers as decrypted so that their usage will
	 * not cause "plain-text" data to be decrypted when accessed.
	 */
	mem_encrypt_init();

#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
	if (initrd_start && !initrd_below_start_ok &&
	    page_to_pfn(virt_to_page((void *)initrd_start)) < min_low_pfn) {
		pr_crit("initrd overwritten (0x%08lx < 0x%08lx) - disabling it.\n",
		    page_to_pfn(virt_to_page((void *)initrd_start)),
		    min_low_pfn);
		initrd_start = 0;
	}
#endif
	setup_per_cpu_pageset();
	numa_policy_init();
	acpi_early_init();
	if (late_time_init)
		late_time_init();
	sched_clock_init();
	calibrate_delay();
	pid_idr_init();
	anon_vma_init();
#ifdef CONFIG_X86
	if (efi_enabled(EFI_RUNTIME_SERVICES))
		efi_enter_virtual_mode();
#endif
	thread_stack_cache_init();
	cred_init();
	fork_init();
	proc_caches_init();
	uts_ns_init();
	buffer_init();
	key_init();
	security_init();
	dbg_late_init();
	vfs_caches_init();
	pagecache_init();
	signals_init();
	seq_file_init();
	proc_root_init();
	nsfs_init();
	cpuset_init();
	cgroup_init();
	taskstats_init_early();
	delayacct_init();

	poking_init();
	check_bugs();

	acpi_subsystem_init();
	arch_post_acpi_subsys_init();
	sfi_init_late();
	kcsan_init();

	/* Do the rest non-__init'ed, we're now alive */
	// 2.关键的下一步
	arch_call_rest_init();

	prevent_tail_call_optimization();
}

1. 在bootloader中这一长串代码都是在做操作系统引导启动的初始化,包括cpu、中断、定时器等

2. 开始调用引导内核启动的函数

void __init __weak arch_call_rest_init(void)
{
	rest_init();
}

noinline void __ref rest_init(void)
{
	struct task_struct *tsk;
	int pid;

	rcu_scheduler_starting();
	/*
	 * We need to spawn init first so that it obtains pid 1, however
	 * the init task will end up wanting to create kthreads, which, if
	 * we schedule it before we create kthreadd, will OOPS.
	 */
	// 3.调用kernel_init
	pid = kernel_thread(kernel_init, NULL, CLONE_FS);
	/*
	 * Pin init on the boot CPU. Task migration is not properly working
	 * until sched_init_smp() has been run. It will set the allowed
	 * CPUs for init to the non isolated CPUs.
	 */
	rcu_read_lock();
	tsk = find_task_by_pid_ns(pid, &init_pid_ns);
	set_cpus_allowed_ptr(tsk, cpumask_of(smp_processor_id()));
	rcu_read_unlock();

	numa_default_policy();
	
	pid = kernel_thread(kthreadd, NULL, CLONE_FS | CLONE_FILES);
	rcu_read_lock();
	kthreadd_task = find_task_by_pid_ns(pid, &init_pid_ns);
	rcu_read_unlock();

	/*
	 * Enable might_sleep() and smp_processor_id() checks.
	 * They cannot be enabled earlier because with CONFIG_PREEMPTION=y
	 * kernel_thread() would trigger might_sleep() splats. With
	 * CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY=y the init task might have scheduled
	 * already, but it's stuck on the kthreadd_done completion.
	 */
	system_state = SYSTEM_SCHEDULING;

	complete(&kthreadd_done);

	/*
	 * The boot idle thread must execute schedule()
	 * at least once to get things moving:
	 */
	schedule_preempt_disabled();
	/* Call into cpu_idle with preempt disabled */
	cpu_startup_entry(CPUHP_ONLINE);
}

 3. 调用到kernel_init函数中

static int __ref kernel_init(void *unused)
{
	int ret;

	kernel_init_freeable();
	/* need to finish all async __init code before freeing the memory */
	async_synchronize_full();
	kprobe_free_init_mem();
	ftrace_free_init_mem();
	kgdb_free_init_mem();
	free_initmem();
	mark_readonly();

	/*
	 * Kernel mappings are now finalized - update the userspace page-table
	 * to finalize PTI.
	 */
	pti_finalize();

	system_state = SYSTEM_RUNNING;
	numa_default_policy();

	rcu_end_inkernel_boot();

	do_sysctl_args();

	if (ramdisk_execute_command) {
		ret = run_init_process(ramdisk_execute_command);
		if (!ret)
			return 0;
		pr_err("Failed to execute %s (error %d)\n",
		       ramdisk_execute_command, ret);
	}

	/*
	 * We try each of these until one succeeds.
	 *
	 * The Bourne shell can be used instead of init if we are
	 * trying to recover a really broken machine.
	 */
	if (execute_command) {
		ret = run_init_process(execute_command);
		if (!ret)
			return 0;
		panic("Requested init %s failed (error %d).",
		      execute_command, ret);
	}

	if (CONFIG_DEFAULT_INIT[0] != '\0') {
		ret = run_init_process(CONFIG_DEFAULT_INIT);
		if (ret)
			pr_err("Default init %s failed (error %d)\n",
			       CONFIG_DEFAULT_INIT, ret);
		else
			return 0;
	}

	if (!try_to_run_init_process("/sbin/init") ||
	    !try_to_run_init_process("/etc/init") ||
	    !try_to_run_init_process("/bin/init") ||
	    !try_to_run_init_process("/bin/sh"))
		return 0;

	panic("No working init found.  Try passing init= option to kernel. "
	      "See Linux Documentation/admin-guide/init.rst for guidance.");
}

4. 至此,kernel开始做自己的初始化了。在这里的最后会去启动init进程。

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