Android启动流程和原理分析二

本篇介绍系统启动的第二个阶段,从Kernel到Init进程,分析的源码版本为Android11。

从kernel启动init进程,走到init的main函数,未传入参数的情况下,会走FirstStageMain的流程。

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
#if __has_feature(address_sanitizer)
    __asan_set_error_report_callback(AsanReportCallback);
#endif

    if (!strcmp(basename(argv[0]), "ueventd")) {
        return ueventd_main(argc, argv);
    }

    if (argc > 1) {
        if (!strcmp(argv[1], "subcontext")) {
            android::base::InitLogging(argv, &android::base::KernelLogger);
            const BuiltinFunctionMap& function_map = GetBuiltinFunctionMap();

            return SubcontextMain(argc, argv, &function_map);
        }

        if (!strcmp(argv[1], "selinux_setup")) {
            return SetupSelinux(argv);
        }

        if (!strcmp(argv[1], "second_stage")) {
            return SecondStageMain(argc, argv);
        }
    }

    return FirstStageMain(argc, argv);
}

1. 这个main函数的设计还挺有意思的,根据传入的不同参数来做不同的跳转。init的main只是一个入口,有可能下一步就到ueventd了,也可能去做selinux_setup了。从kernel启动进来的时候是不带其他argv的,所以前面的条件都没命中,就直接走到了FirstStageMain。

int FirstStageMain(int argc, char** argv) {
    if (REBOOT_BOOTLOADER_ON_PANIC) {
        InstallRebootSignalHandlers();
    }

    boot_clock::time_point start_time = boot_clock::now();

    std::vector<std::pair<std::string, int>> errors;
		//2.通过这个宏定义来执行命令并搜集错误,开始做第一阶段的初始化动作
#define CHECKCALL(x) \
    if ((x) != 0) errors.emplace_back(#x " failed", errno);

    // Clear the umask.
    umask(0);

    CHECKCALL(clearenv());
    CHECKCALL(setenv("PATH", _PATH_DEFPATH, 1));
    // Get the basic filesystem setup we need put together in the initramdisk
    // on / and then we'll let the rc file figure out the rest.
    CHECKCALL(mount("tmpfs", "/dev", "tmpfs", MS_NOSUID, "mode=0755"));
    CHECKCALL(mkdir("/dev/pts", 0755));
    CHECKCALL(mkdir("/dev/socket", 0755));
    CHECKCALL(mount("devpts", "/dev/pts", "devpts", 0, NULL));
#define MAKE_STR(x) __STRING(x)
    CHECKCALL(mount("proc", "/proc", "proc", 0, "hidepid=2,gid=" MAKE_STR(AID_READPROC)));
#undef MAKE_STR
    // Don't expose the raw commandline to unprivileged processes.
    CHECKCALL(chmod("/proc/cmdline", 0440));
    std::string cmdline;
    android::base::ReadFileToString("/proc/cmdline", &cmdline);
    gid_t groups[] = {AID_READPROC};
    CHECKCALL(setgroups(arraysize(groups), groups));
    CHECKCALL(mount("sysfs", "/sys", "sysfs", 0, NULL));
    CHECKCALL(mount("selinuxfs", "/sys/fs/selinux", "selinuxfs", 0, NULL));

    CHECKCALL(mknod("/dev/kmsg", S_IFCHR | 0600, makedev(1, 11)));

    if constexpr (WORLD_WRITABLE_KMSG) {
        CHECKCALL(mknod("/dev/kmsg_debug", S_IFCHR | 0622, makedev(1, 11)));
    }

    CHECKCALL(mknod("/dev/random", S_IFCHR | 0666, makedev(1, 8)));
    CHECKCALL(mknod("/dev/urandom", S_IFCHR | 0666, makedev(1, 9)));

    // This is needed for log wrapper, which gets called before ueventd runs.
    CHECKCALL(mknod("/dev/ptmx", S_IFCHR | 0666, makedev(5, 2)));
    CHECKCALL(mknod("/dev/null", S_IFCHR | 0666, makedev(1, 3)));

    // These below mounts are done in first stage init so that first stage mount can mount
    // subdirectories of /mnt/{vendor,product}/.  Other mounts, not required by first stage mount,
    // should be done in rc files.
    // Mount staging areas for devices managed by vold
    // See storage config details at http://source.android.com/devices/storage/
    CHECKCALL(mount("tmpfs", "/mnt", "tmpfs", MS_NOEXEC | MS_NOSUID | MS_NODEV,
                    "mode=0755,uid=0,gid=1000"));
    // /mnt/vendor is used to mount vendor-specific partitions that can not be
    // part of the vendor partition, e.g. because they are mounted read-write.
    CHECKCALL(mkdir("/mnt/vendor", 0755));
    // /mnt/product is used to mount product-specific partitions that can not be
    // part of the product partition, e.g. because they are mounted read-write.
    CHECKCALL(mkdir("/mnt/product", 0755));

    // /debug_ramdisk is used to preserve additional files from the debug ramdisk
    CHECKCALL(mount("tmpfs", "/debug_ramdisk", "tmpfs", MS_NOEXEC | MS_NOSUID | MS_NODEV,
                    "mode=0755,uid=0,gid=0"));
#undef CHECKCALL

		// 重定向标准输入输出和开启kernel日志记录
    SetStdioToDevNull(argv);
    // Now that tmpfs is mounted on /dev and we have /dev/kmsg, we can actually
    // talk to the outside world...
    InitKernelLogging(argv);

    if (!errors.empty()) {
        for (const auto& [error_string, error_errno] : errors) {
            LOG(ERROR) << error_string << " " << strerror(error_errno);
        }
        LOG(FATAL) << "Init encountered errors starting first stage, aborting";
    }

    LOG(INFO) << "init first stage started!";

    auto old_root_dir = std::unique_ptr<DIR, decltype(&closedir)>{opendir("/"), closedir};
    if (!old_root_dir) {
        PLOG(ERROR) << "Could not opendir(\"/\"), not freeing ramdisk";
    }

    struct stat old_root_info;
    if (stat("/", &old_root_info) != 0) {
        PLOG(ERROR) << "Could not stat(\"/\"), not freeing ramdisk";
        old_root_dir.reset();
    }

    auto want_console = ALLOW_FIRST_STAGE_CONSOLE ? FirstStageConsole(cmdline) : 0;

    if (!LoadKernelModules(IsRecoveryMode() && !ForceNormalBoot(cmdline), want_console)) {
        if (want_console != FirstStageConsoleParam::DISABLED) {
            LOG(ERROR) << "Failed to load kernel modules, starting console";
        } else {
            LOG(FATAL) << "Failed to load kernel modules";
        }
    }

    if (want_console == FirstStageConsoleParam::CONSOLE_ON_FAILURE) {
        StartConsole();
    }

    if (ForceNormalBoot(cmdline)) {
        mkdir("/first_stage_ramdisk", 0755);
        // SwitchRoot() must be called with a mount point as the target, so we bind mount the
        // target directory to itself here.
        if (mount("/first_stage_ramdisk", "/first_stage_ramdisk", nullptr, MS_BIND, nullptr) != 0) {
            LOG(FATAL) << "Could not bind mount /first_stage_ramdisk to itself";
        }
        SwitchRoot("/first_stage_ramdisk");
    }

    // If this file is present, the second-stage init will use a userdebug sepolicy
    // and load adb_debug.prop to allow adb root, if the device is unlocked.
    if (access("/force_debuggable", F_OK) == 0) {
        std::error_code ec;  // to invoke the overloaded copy_file() that won't throw.
        if (!fs::copy_file("/adb_debug.prop", kDebugRamdiskProp, ec) ||
            !fs::copy_file("/userdebug_plat_sepolicy.cil", kDebugRamdiskSEPolicy, ec)) {
            LOG(ERROR) << "Failed to setup debug ramdisk";
        } else {
            // setenv for second-stage init to read above kDebugRamdisk* files.
            setenv("INIT_FORCE_DEBUGGABLE", "true", 1);
        }
    }

    if (!DoFirstStageMount()) {
        LOG(FATAL) << "Failed to mount required partitions early ...";
    }

    struct stat new_root_info;
    if (stat("/", &new_root_info) != 0) {
        PLOG(ERROR) << "Could not stat(\"/\"), not freeing ramdisk";
        old_root_dir.reset();
    }

    if (old_root_dir && old_root_info.st_dev != new_root_info.st_dev) {
        FreeRamdisk(old_root_dir.get(), old_root_info.st_dev);
    }

    SetInitAvbVersionInRecovery();

    setenv(kEnvFirstStageStartedAt, std::to_string(start_time.time_since_epoch().count()).c_str(),
           1);
		//3.在做完第一阶段初始化之后,会再去调用init,然后传入selinux_setup的参数
    const char* path = "/system/bin/init";
    const char* args[] = {path, "selinux_setup", nullptr};
    auto fd = open("/dev/kmsg", O_WRONLY | O_CLOEXEC);
    dup2(fd, STDOUT_FILENO);
    dup2(fd, STDERR_FILENO);
    close(fd);
    execv(path, const_cast<char**>(args));

    // execv() only returns if an error happened, in which case we
    // panic and never fall through this conditional.
    PLOG(FATAL) << "execv(\"" << path << "\") failed";

    return 1;
}

2. 检查初始化需要使用的一些分区挂载情况,初始化printf等标准输入输出的重定向,初始化kernel log,AVB等,就会转入selinux的初始化流程。

3. 这个跳转的方式是继续调用system/bin/init,然后传入了“selinux_setup”,接着流程就会回到main函数,然后通过参数判断,走到SetupSelinux函数中。

int SetupSelinux(char** argv) {
    SetStdioToDevNull(argv);
    InitKernelLogging(argv);

    if (REBOOT_BOOTLOADER_ON_PANIC) {
        InstallRebootSignalHandlers();
    }

    boot_clock::time_point start_time = boot_clock::now();

    MountMissingSystemPartitions();

    // Set up SELinux, loading the SELinux policy.
    SelinuxSetupKernelLogging();
    SelinuxInitialize();

    // We're in the kernel domain and want to transition to the init domain.  File systems that
    // store SELabels in their xattrs, such as ext4 do not need an explicit restorecon here,
    // but other file systems do.  In particular, this is needed for ramdisks such as the
    // recovery image for A/B devices.
    if (selinux_android_restorecon("/system/bin/init", 0) == -1) {
        PLOG(FATAL) << "restorecon failed of /system/bin/init failed";
    }

    setenv(kEnvSelinuxStartedAt, std::to_string(start_time.time_since_epoch().count()).c_str(), 1);
		//4.做第二阶段初始化
    const char* path = "/system/bin/init";
    const char* args[] = {path, "second_stage", nullptr};
    execv(path, const_cast<char**>(args));

    // execv() only returns if an error happened, in which case we
    // panic and never return from this function.
    PLOG(FATAL) << "execv(\"" << path << "\") failed";

    return 1;
}

4. 在SeLinux初始化结束之后,又构建了init的second_stage参数,然后启动了/system/bin/init,进入到第二阶段的初始化流程

int SecondStageMain(int argc, char** argv) {
    if (REBOOT_BOOTLOADER_ON_PANIC) {
        InstallRebootSignalHandlers();
    }

    boot_clock::time_point start_time = boot_clock::now();

    trigger_shutdown = [](const std::string& command) { shutdown_state.TriggerShutdown(command); };

    SetStdioToDevNull(argv);
    InitKernelLogging(argv);
    LOG(INFO) << "init second stage started!";

    // Init should not crash because of a dependence on any other process, therefore we ignore
    // SIGPIPE and handle EPIPE at the call site directly.  Note that setting a signal to SIG_IGN
    // is inherited across exec, but custom signal handlers are not.  Since we do not want to
    // ignore SIGPIPE for child processes, we set a no-op function for the signal handler instead.
    {
        struct sigaction action = {.sa_flags = SA_RESTART};
        action.sa_handler = [](int) {};
        sigaction(SIGPIPE, &action, nullptr);
    }

    // Set init and its forked children's oom_adj.
    if (auto result =
                WriteFile("/proc/1/oom_score_adj", StringPrintf("%d", DEFAULT_OOM_SCORE_ADJUST));
        !result.ok()) {
        LOG(ERROR) << "Unable to write " << DEFAULT_OOM_SCORE_ADJUST
                   << " to /proc/1/oom_score_adj: " << result.error();
    }

    // Set up a session keyring that all processes will have access to. It
    // will hold things like FBE encryption keys. No process should override
    // its session keyring.
    keyctl_get_keyring_ID(KEY_SPEC_SESSION_KEYRING, 1);

    // Indicate that booting is in progress to background fw loaders, etc.
    close(open("/dev/.booting", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_CLOEXEC, 0000));

    // See if need to load debug props to allow adb root, when the device is unlocked.
    const char* force_debuggable_env = getenv("INIT_FORCE_DEBUGGABLE");
    bool load_debug_prop = false;
    if (force_debuggable_env && AvbHandle::IsDeviceUnlocked()) {
        load_debug_prop = "true"s == force_debuggable_env;
    }
    unsetenv("INIT_FORCE_DEBUGGABLE");

    // Umount the debug ramdisk so property service doesn't read .prop files from there, when it
    // is not meant to.
    if (!load_debug_prop) {
        UmountDebugRamdisk();
    }
		//初始化属性服务
    PropertyInit();

    // Umount the debug ramdisk after property service has read the .prop files when it means to.
    if (load_debug_prop) {
        UmountDebugRamdisk();
    }

    // Mount extra filesystems required during second stage init
    MountExtraFilesystems();

    // Now set up SELinux for second stage.
    SelinuxSetupKernelLogging();
    SelabelInitialize();
    SelinuxRestoreContext();

    Epoll epoll;
    if (auto result = epoll.Open(); !result.ok()) {
        PLOG(FATAL) << result.error();
    }

    InstallSignalFdHandler(&epoll);
    InstallInitNotifier(&epoll);
    StartPropertyService(&property_fd);

		// 记录init阶段的启动时间
    // Make the time that init stages started available for bootstat to log.
    RecordStageBoottimes(start_time);

    // Set libavb version for Framework-only OTA match in Treble build.
    if (const char* avb_version = getenv("INIT_AVB_VERSION"); avb_version != nullptr) {
        SetProperty("ro.boot.avb_version", avb_version);
    }
    unsetenv("INIT_AVB_VERSION");

    fs_mgr_vendor_overlay_mount_all();
    export_oem_lock_status();
    MountHandler mount_handler(&epoll);
    SetUsbController();

    const BuiltinFunctionMap& function_map = GetBuiltinFunctionMap();
    Action::set_function_map(&function_map);

    if (!SetupMountNamespaces()) {
        PLOG(FATAL) << "SetupMountNamespaces failed";
    }

    InitializeSubcontext();

		// 5.开始加载initrc中的Action
    ActionManager& am = ActionManager::GetInstance();
    ServiceList& sm = ServiceList::GetInstance();

    LoadBootScripts(am, sm);

    // Turning this on and letting the INFO logging be discarded adds 0.2s to
    // Nexus 9 boot time, so it's disabled by default.
    if (false) DumpState();

    // Make the GSI status available before scripts start running.
    auto is_running = android::gsi::IsGsiRunning() ? "1" : "0";
    SetProperty(gsi::kGsiBootedProp, is_running);
    auto is_installed = android::gsi::IsGsiInstalled() ? "1" : "0";
    SetProperty(gsi::kGsiInstalledProp, is_installed);

    am.QueueBuiltinAction(SetupCgroupsAction, "SetupCgroups");
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(SetKptrRestrictAction, "SetKptrRestrict");
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(TestPerfEventSelinuxAction, "TestPerfEventSelinux");
    am.QueueEventTrigger("early-init");

    // Queue an action that waits for coldboot done so we know ueventd has set up all of /dev...
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(wait_for_coldboot_done_action, "wait_for_coldboot_done");
    // ... so that we can start queuing up actions that require stuff from /dev.
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(MixHwrngIntoLinuxRngAction, "MixHwrngIntoLinuxRng");
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(SetMmapRndBitsAction, "SetMmapRndBits");
    Keychords keychords;
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(
            [&epoll, &keychords](const BuiltinArguments& args) -> Result<void> {
                for (const auto& svc : ServiceList::GetInstance()) {
                    keychords.Register(svc->keycodes());
                }
                keychords.Start(&epoll, HandleKeychord);
                return {};
            },
            "KeychordInit");

		// 6.触发队列中的Action
    // Trigger all the boot actions to get us started.
    am.QueueEventTrigger("init");

    // Repeat mix_hwrng_into_linux_rng in case /dev/hw_random or /dev/random
    // wasn't ready immediately after wait_for_coldboot_done
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(MixHwrngIntoLinuxRngAction, "MixHwrngIntoLinuxRng");

    // Don't mount filesystems or start core system services in charger mode.
    std::string bootmode = GetProperty("ro.bootmode", "");
    if (bootmode == "charger") {
        am.QueueEventTrigger("charger");
    } else {
        am.QueueEventTrigger("late-init");
    }

    // Run all property triggers based on current state of the properties.
    am.QueueBuiltinAction(queue_property_triggers_action, "queue_property_triggers");

		// 7.进入死循环等待一些指令的到来
    while (true) {
        // By default, sleep until something happens.
        auto epoll_timeout = std::optional<std::chrono::milliseconds>{};

        auto shutdown_command = shutdown_state.CheckShutdown();
        if (shutdown_command) {
            HandlePowerctlMessage(*shutdown_command);
        }

        if (!(prop_waiter_state.MightBeWaiting() || Service::is_exec_service_running())) {
            am.ExecuteOneCommand();
        }
        if (!IsShuttingDown()) {
            auto next_process_action_time = HandleProcessActions();

            // If there's a process that needs restarting, wake up in time for that.
            if (next_process_action_time) {
                epoll_timeout = std::chrono::ceil<std::chrono::milliseconds>(
                        *next_process_action_time - boot_clock::now());
                if (*epoll_timeout < 0ms) epoll_timeout = 0ms;
            }
        }

        if (!(prop_waiter_state.MightBeWaiting() || Service::is_exec_service_running())) {
            // If there's more work to do, wake up again immediately.
            if (am.HasMoreCommands()) epoll_timeout = 0ms;
        }

        auto pending_functions = epoll.Wait(epoll_timeout);
        if (!pending_functions.ok()) {
            LOG(ERROR) << pending_functions.error();
        } else if (!pending_functions->empty()) {
            // We always reap children before responding to the other pending functions. This is to
            // prevent a race where other daemons see that a service has exited and ask init to
            // start it again via ctl.start before init has reaped it.
            ReapAnyOutstandingChildren();
            for (const auto& function : *pending_functions) {
                (*function)();
            }
        }
        if (!IsShuttingDown()) {
            HandleControlMessages();
            SetUsbController();
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

第二个阶段的初始化主要做的事情也比较单纯:包括一些初始化动作,然后是解析initrc文件中的Action并执行,最后就进入死循环等待一些指令到来之后的处理。对应代码中的位置为

5. 加载initrc中的action、service、trigger等

6. 触发队列中的action

7. 进入死循环等待下一步指令

那么init是如何解析和执行initrc中的指令的?

initrc中的Action或者Service是通过Parser.cpp来解析,然后加入到Queue中,在这个阶段中还会加入一些内建的Action。

都添加完之后会去触发early- init,init,charger,late-init这些阶段的指令。

static void LoadBootScripts(ActionManager& action_manager, ServiceList& service_list) {
    Parser parser = CreateParser(action_manager, service_list);

    std::string bootscript = GetProperty("ro.boot.init_rc", "");//这个读出来是空的
    if (bootscript.empty()) {
				//通过ParseConfig来解析initrc文件,如果是目录会递归解析
        parser.ParseConfig("/system/etc/init/hw/init.rc");
        if (!parser.ParseConfig("/system/etc/init")) {
            late_import_paths.emplace_back("/system/etc/init");
        }
        // late_import is available only in Q and earlier release. As we don't
        // have system_ext in those versions, skip late_import for system_ext.
        parser.ParseConfig("/system_ext/etc/init");
        if (!parser.ParseConfig("/product/etc/init")) {
            late_import_paths.emplace_back("/product/etc/init");
        }
        if (!parser.ParseConfig("/odm/etc/init")) {
            late_import_paths.emplace_back("/odm/etc/init");
        }
        if (!parser.ParseConfig("/vendor/etc/init")) {
            late_import_paths.emplace_back("/vendor/etc/init");
        }
    } else {
        parser.ParseConfig(bootscript);
    }
}

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