oracle dba 常用sql語句

常用SQL查询:
 
1、查看表空间的名称及大小
 
select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size
from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d
where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name
group by t.tablespace_name;
 
2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小
 
select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,
round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space
from dba_data_files
order by tablespace_name;
 
3、查看回滚段名称及大小
 
select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status,
(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent,
max_extents, v.curext CurExtent
From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v
Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)
order by segment_name;
 
4、查看控制文件
 
select name from v$controlfile;
 
5、查看日志文件
 
select member from v$logfile;
 
6、查看表空间的使用情况
 
select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name
from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;
 
SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,
(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"
FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C
WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME;
 
7、查看数据库库对象
 
select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;
 
8、查看数据库的版本 
 
Select version FROM Product_component_version
Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';
 
9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式
 
Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;
 
10、捕捉运行很久的SQL
 
column username format a12
column opname format a16
column progress format a8
 
select username,sid,opname,
      round(sofar*100 / totalwork,0) || '%' as progress,
      time_remaining,sql_text
from v$session_longops , v$sql
where time_remaining <> 0
and sql_address = address
and sql_hash_value = hash_value
/
11。查看数据表的参数信息
SELECT   partition_name, high_value, high_value_length, tablespace_name,
        pct_free, pct_used, ini_trans, max_trans, initial_extent,
        next_extent, min_extent, max_extent, pct_increase, FREELISTS,
        freelist_groups, LOGGING, BUFFER_POOL, num_rows, blocks,
        empty_blocks, avg_space, chain_cnt, avg_row_len, sample_size,
        last_analyzed
   FROM dba_tab_partitions
  --WHERE table_name = :tname AND table_owner = :towner
ORDER BY partition_position
 
12.查看还没提交的事务
select * from v$locked_object;
select * from v$transaction;
 
13。查找object为哪些进程所用
select
p.spid,
s.sid,
s.serial# serial_num,
s.username user_name,
a.type  object_type,
s.osuser os_user_name,
a.owner,
a.object object_name,
decode(sign(48 - command),
1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,
p.program oracle_process,
s.terminal terminal,
s.program program,
s.status session_status 
from v$session s, v$access a, v$process p 
where s.paddr = p.addr and
     s.type = 'USER' and  
     a.sid = s.sid   and
  a.object='SUBSCRIBER_ATTR'
order by s.username, s.osuser
 
14。回滚段查看
select rownum, sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name Name, v$rollstat.extents
Extents, v$rollstat.rssize Size_in_Bytes, v$rollstat.xacts XActs,
v$rollstat.gets Gets, v$rollstat.waits Waits, v$rollstat.writes Writes,
sys.dba_rollback_segs.status status from v$rollstat, sys.dba_rollback_segs,
v$rollname where v$rollname.name(+) = sys.dba_rollback_segs.segment_name and
v$rollstat.usn (+) = v$rollname.usn order by rownum
 
15。耗资源的进程(top session)
select s.schemaname schema_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1,
to_char(command), 'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,    status
session_status,   s.osuser os_user_name,   s.sid,         p.spid ,         s.serial# serial_num, 
nvl(s.username, '[Oracle process]') user_name,   s.terminal terminal,  
s.program program,   st.value criteria_value  from v$sesstat st,   v$session s  , v$process p 
where st.sid = s.sid and   st.statistic# = to_number('38') and   ('ALL' = 'ALL'
or s.status = 'ALL') and p.addr = s.paddr order by st.value desc,  p.spid asc, s.username asc, s.osuser asc
 
16。查看锁(lock)情况
select /*+ RULE */ ls.osuser os_user_name,   ls.username user_name, 
decode(ls.type, 'RW', 'Row wait enqueue lock', 'TM', 'DML enqueue lock', 'TX',
'Transaction enqueue lock', 'UL', 'User supplied lock') lock_type, 
o.object_name object,   decode(ls.lmode, 1, null, 2, 'Row Share', 3,
'Row Exclusive', 4, 'Share', 5, 'Share Row Exclusive', 6, 'Exclusive', null)
lock_mode,    o.owner,   ls.sid,   ls.serial# serial_num,   ls.id1,   ls.id2  
from sys.dba_objects o, (   select s.osuser,    s.username,    l.type,   
l.lmode,    s.sid,    s.serial#,    l.id1,    l.id2   from v$session s,   
v$lock l   where s.sid = l.sid ) ls  where o.object_id = ls.id1 and    o.owner
<> 'SYS'   order by o.owner, o.object_name
 
17。查看等待(wait)情况
SELECT v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count count, SUM(v$sysstat.value) sum_value
FROM v$waitstat, v$sysstat WHERE v$sysstat.name IN ('db block gets',
'consistent gets') group by v$waitstat.class, v$waitstat.count
 
18。查看sga情况
SELECT NAME, BYTES FROM SYS.V_$SGASTAT ORDER BY NAME ASC
 
19。查看catched object
SELECT owner,              name,              db_link,              namespace,
           type,              sharable_mem,              loads,              executions, 
          locks,              pins,              kept        FROM v$db_object_cache
        
20。查看V$SQLAREA
SELECT SQL_TEXT, SHARABLE_MEM, PERSISTENT_MEM, RUNTIME_MEM, SORTS,
VERSION_COUNT, LOADED_VERSIONS, OPEN_VERSIONS, USERS_OPENING, EXECUTIONS,
USERS_EXECUTING, LOADS, FIRST_LOAD_TIME, INVALIDATIONS, PARSE_CALLS, DISK_READS,
BUFFER_GETS, ROWS_PROCESSED FROM V$SQLAREA
 
21。查看object分类数量
select decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3 , 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 ,
'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) object_type , count(*) quantity from
sys.obj$ o where o.type# > 1 group by decode (o.type#,1,'INDEX' , 2,'TABLE' , 3
, 'CLUSTER' , 4, 'VIEW' , 5 , 'SYNONYM' , 6 , 'SEQUENCE' , 'OTHER' ) union select
'COLUMN' , count(*) from sys.col$ union select 'DB LINK' , count(*) from
 
22。按用户查看object种类
select u.name schema,   sum(decode(o.type#, 1, 1, NULL)) indexes, 
sum(decode(o.type#, 2, 1, NULL)) tables,   sum(decode(o.type#, 3, 1, NULL))
clusters,   sum(decode(o.type#, 4, 1, NULL)) views,   sum(decode(o.type#, 5, 1,
NULL)) synonyms,   sum(decode(o.type#, 6, 1, NULL)) sequences, 
sum(decode(o.type#, 1, NULL, 2, NULL, 3, NULL, 4, NULL, 5, NULL, 6, NULL, 1))
others   from sys.obj$ o, sys.user$ u   where o.type# >= 1 and    u.user# =
o.owner# and   u.name <> 'PUBLIC'   group by u.name    order by
sys.link$ union select 'CONSTRAINT' , count(*) from sys.con$
 
23。有关connection的相关信息
1)查看有哪些用户连接
select s.osuser os_user_name,    decode(sign(48 - command), 1, to_char(command),
'Action Code #' || to_char(command) ) action,     p.program oracle_process,   
status session_status,    s.terminal terminal,    s.program program,  
s.username user_name,    s.fixed_table_sequence activity_meter,    '' query,  
0 memory,    0 max_memory,     0 cpu_usage,    s.sid,   s.serial# serial_num  
from v$session s,    v$process p   where s.paddr=p.addr and    s.type = 'USER'
order by s.username, s.osuser
2)根据v.sid查看对应连接的资源占用等情况
select n.name,
 v.value,
 n.class,
 n.statistic#
from  v$statname n,
 v$sesstat v
where v.sid = 71 and
 v.statistic# = n.statistic#
order by n.class, n.statistic#
3)根据sid查看对应连接正在运行的sql
select /*+ PUSH_SUBQ */
 command_type,
 sql_text,
 sharable_mem,
 persistent_mem,
 runtime_mem,
 sorts,
 version_count,
 loaded_versions,
 open_versions,
 users_opening,
 executions,
 users_executing,
 loads,
 first_load_time,
 invalidations,
 parse_calls,
 disk_reads,
 buffer_gets,
 rows_processed,
 sysdate start_time,
 sysdate finish_time,
 '>' || address sql_address,
 'N' status
from v$sqlarea
where address = (select sql_address from v$session where sid = 71)
 
24.查询表空间使用情况
select a.tablespace_name,
       round(a.abytes / 1024 / 1024) totalmb,
       round((a.abytes - f.fbytes) / 1024 / 1024) usedmb,
       round(f.fbytes / 1024 / 1024) freemb,
       (1 - round(f.fbytes / a.abytes, 2)) * 100 "%USED",
       round(f.fbytes / a.abytes, 2) * 100 "%FREE"
  from (select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) abytes from dba_data_files group by tablespace_name) a,
       (select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) fbytes from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name) f
 where a.tablespace_name = f.tablespace_name

也可以这样(这个查询较快):

select a.tablespace_name,
       round(a.abytes / 1024 / 1024) totalmb,
       round((a.abytes - f.fbytes) / 1024 / 1024) usedmb,
       round(f.fbytes / 1024 / 1024) freemb,
       (1 - round(f.fbytes / a.abytes, 2)) * 100 "%USED",
       round(f.fbytes / a.abytes, 2) * 100 "%FREE"
  from (select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) abytes from dba_data_files group by tablespace_name) a,
       (select tablespace_name, sum(bytes) fbytes from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name) f
 where a.tablespace_name = f.tablespace_name
 
25. 查询表空间的碎片程度
 
select tablespace_name,count(tablespace_name) from dba_free_space group by tablespace_name
having count(tablespace_name)>10;
 
alter tablespace name coalesce;
alter table name deallocate unused;
 
create or replace view ts_blocks_v as
select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,'free space' segment_name from dba_free_space
union all
select tablespace_name,block_id,bytes,blocks,segment_name from dba_extents;
 
select * from ts_blocks_v;
 
select tablespace_name,sum(bytes),max(bytes),count(block_id) from dba_free_space
group by tablespace_name;
 
26。查询有哪些数据库实例在运行
select inst_name from v$active_instances;

27。查询表占用空间大小

select owner,segment_name,bytes/1024/1024 kb from dba_extents where owner='SCOTT' and segment_name='EMP';
 
===========================================================
######### 创建数据库----look $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/buildall.sql #############
 
create database db01
maxlogfiles 10
maxdatafiles 1024
maxinstances 2
logfile
GROUP 1 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_01_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,
GROUP 2 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_02_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,
GROUP 3 ('/u01/oradata/db01/log_03_db01.rdo') SIZE 15M,
datafile 'u01/oradata/db01/system_01_db01.dbf') SIZE 100M,
undo tablespace UNDO
datafile '/u01/oradata/db01/undo_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 40M
default temporary tablespace TEMP
tempfile '/u01/oradata/db01/temp_01_db01.dbf' SIZE 20M
extent management local uniform size 128k
character set AL32UTE8
national character set AL16UTF16
set time_zone='America/New_York';
 
############### 数据字典 ##########


set wrap off

select * from v$dba_users;

grant select on table_name to user/rule;

select * from user_tables;

select * from all_tables;

select * from dba_tables;

revoke dba from user_name;

shutdown immediate

startup nomount

select * from v$instance;

select * from v$sga;

select * from v$tablespace;

alter session set nls_language=american;

alter database mount;

select * from v$database;

alter database open;

desc dictionary

select * from dict;

desc v$fixed_table;

select * from v$fixed_table;

set oracle_sid=foxconn

select * from dba_objects;

set serveroutput on

execute dbms_output.put_line('sfasd');

############# 控制文件 ###########

select * from v$database;

select * from v$tablespace;

select * from v$logfile;

select * from v$log;

select * from v$backup;

/* 备份用户表空间 */

alter tablespace users begin backup;

select * from v$archived_log;

select * from v$controlfile;

alter system set control_files='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl',

'$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl' scope=spfile;

cp $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl01.ctl $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/u01/ctrl02.ctl

startup pfile='../initSID.ora'

select * from v$parameter where name like 'control%' ;

show parameter control;

select * from v$controlfile_record_section;

select * from v$tempfile;

/* 备份控制文件 */

alter database backup controlfile to '../filepath/control.bak';

/* 备份控制文件,并将二进制控制文件变为了 asc 的文本文件 */

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

############### redo log ##############

archive log list;

alter system archive log start;-- 启动自动存档

alter system switch logfile;-- 强行进行一次日志 switch

alter system checkpoint;-- 强制进行一次 checkpoint

alter tablspace users begin backup;

alter tablespace offline;

/*checkpoint 同步频率参数 FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, 同步频率越高,系统恢复所需时间越短 */

show parameter fast;

show parameter log_checkpoint;

/* 加入一个日志组 */

alter database add logfile group 3 ('/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' size 10M);

/* 加入日志组的一个成员 */

alter database add logfile member '/$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to group 3;

/* 删除日志组 : 当前日志组不能删;活动的日志组不能删;非归档的日志组不能删 */

alter database drop logfile group 3;

/* 删除日志组中的某个成员,但每个组的最后一个成员不能被删除 */

alter databse drop logfile member '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo';

/* 清除在线日志 */

alter database clear logfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo';

alter database clear logfile group 3;

/* 清除非归档日志 */

alter database clear unarchived logfile group 3;

/* 重命名日志文件 */

alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.rdo' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6a.rdo';

show parameter db_create;

alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1='path_name';

select * from v$log;

select * from v$logfile;

/* 数据库归档模式到非归档模式的互换 , 要启动到 mount 状态下才能改变 ;startup mount; 然后再打开数据库 .*/

alter database noarchivelog/archivelog;

achive log start;--- 启动自动归档

alter system archive all; --手工归档所有日志文件

select * from v$archived_log;

show parameter log_archive;

###### 分析日志文件 logmnr ##############

1) 在 init.ora 中 set utl_file_dir 参数

2) 重新启动 oracle

3) create 目录文件

desc dbms_logmnr_d;

dbms_logmnr_d.build;

4) 加入日志文件 add/remove log file

dhms_logmnr.add_logfile

dbms_logmnr.removefile

5) start logmnr

dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr

6) 分析出来的内容查询 v$logmnr_content --sqlredo/sqlundo

实践:

desc dbms_logmnr_d;

/* 对数据表做一些操作,为恢复操作做准备 */

update 表 set qty=10 where stor_id=6380;

delete 表 where stor_id=7066;

/***********************************/

utl_file_dir 的路径

execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('foxdict.ora','$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump');

execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/ora_log_file6.log',dbms_logmnr.newfile);

execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'$ORACLE_HOME/oracle/admin/fox/cdump/foxdict.ora');

######### tablespace ##############

select * form v$tablespace;

select * from v$datafile;

/* 表空间和数据文件的对应关系 */

select t1.name,t2.name from v$tablespace t1,v$datafile t2 where t1.ts#=t2.ts#;

alter tablespace users add datafile 'path' size 10M;

select * from dba_rollback_segs;

/* 限制用户在某表空间的使用限额 */

alter user user_name quota 10m on tablespace_name;

create tablespace xxx [datafile 'path_name/datafile_name'] [size xxx] [extent management local/dictionary] [default storage(xxx)];

exmple: create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5M MAXSIZE 200M;

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management dictionary default storage(initial 100k next 100k pctincrease 10) offline;

/*9i 以后, oracle 建议使用 local 管理,而不使用 dictionary 管理,因为 local 采用 bitmap 管理表空间 ,不会产生系统表空间的自愿争用 ;*/

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m;

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local autoallocate;

/* 在创建表空间时,设置表空间内的段空间管理模式,这里用的是自动管理 */

create tablespace userdata datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/userdata01.dbf' size 100M extent management local uniform size 1m segment space management auto;

alter tablespace userdata mininum extent 10;

alter tablespace userdata default storage(initial 1m next 1m pctincrease 20);

/*undo tablespace( 不能被用在字典管理模下 ) */

create undo tablespace undo1 datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' size 40M extent management local;

show parameter undo;

/*temporary tablespace*/

create temporary tablespace userdata tempfile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' size 10m extent management local;

/* 设置数据库缺省的临时表空间 */

alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 系统 / 临时 / 在线的 undo 表空间不能被 offline*/

alter tablespace tablespace_name offline/online;

alter tablespace tablespace_name read only;

/* 重命名用户表空间 */

alter tablespace tablespace_name rename datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo101.dbf' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf';

/* 重命名系统表空间 , 但在重命名前必须将数据库 shutdown, 并重启到 mount 状态 */

alter database rename file '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system01.dbf' to '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/system02.dbf';

drop tablespace userdata including contents and datafiles;---drop tablespce

/*resize tablespace,autoextend datafile space*/

alter database datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500M;

/*resize datafile*/

alter database datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' resize 50m;

/* 给表空间扩展空间 */

alter tablespace userdata add datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf' size 10m;

/* 将表空间设置成 OMF 状态 */

alter system set db_create_file_dest='$ORACLE_HOME/oradata';

create tablespace userdata;---use OMF status to create tablespace;

drop tablespace userdata;---user OMF status to drop tablespace;

select * from dba_tablespace/v$tablespace/dba_data_files;

/* 将表的某分区移动到另一个表空间 */

alter table table_name move partition partition_name tablespace tablespace_name;

###### ORACLE storage structure and relationships #########

/* 手工分配表空间段的分区 (extend) 大小 */

alter table kong.test12 allocate extent(size 1m datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf');

alter table kong.test12 deallocate unused; --- 释放表中没有用到的分区

show parameter db;

alter system set db_8k_cache_size=10m; --- 配置 8k 块的内存空间块参数

select * from dba_extents/dba_segments/data_tablespace;

select * from dba_free_space/dba_data_file/data_tablespace;

/* 数据对象所占用的字节数 */

select sum(bytes) from dba_extents where onwer='kong' and segment_name ='table_name';

############ UNDO Data ################

show parameter undo;

alter tablespace users offline normal;

alter tablespace users offline immediate;

recover datafile '$ORACLE_HOME/oradata/undo102.dbf';

alter tablespace users online ;

select * from dba_rollback_segs;

alter system set undo_tablespace=undotbs1;

/* 忽略回滚段的错误提示 */

alter system set undo_suppress_errors=true;

/* 在自动管理模式下 , 不会真正建立 rbs1; 在手工管理模式则可以建立 , 且是私有回滚段 */

create rollback segment rbs1 tablespace undotbs;

desc dbms_flashback;

/* 在提交了修改的数据后 ,9i 提供了旧数据的回闪操作 , 将修改前的数据只读给用户看 , 但这部分数据不会又恢复在表中 , 而是旧数据的一个映射 */

execute dbms_flashback.enable_at_time('26-JAN- 04:12:17:00 pm ');

execute dbms_flashback.disable;

/* 回滚段的统计信息 */

select end_time,begin_time,undoblks from v$undostat;

/*undo 表空间的大小计算公式 : UndoSpace=[ UR * (UPS * DBS)] + (DBS * 24)

UR :UNDO_RETENTION 保留的时间 ( 秒 )

UPS : 每秒的回滚数据块

DBS: 系统 EXTENT 和 FILE SIZE( 也就是 db_block_size)*/

select * from dba_rollback_segs/v$rollname/v$rollstat/v$undostat/v$session/v$transaction;

show parameter transactions;

show parameter rollback;

/* 在手工管理模式下 , 建立公共的回滚段 */

create public rollback segment prbs1 tablespace undotbs;

alter rollback segment rbs1 online;---- 在手工管理模式

/* 在手工管理模式中 ,initSID.ora 中指定 undo_management=manual 、 rollback_segment=('rbs1','rbs2',...) 、

transactions=100 、 transactions_per_rollback_segment=10

然后 shutdown immediate ,startup pfile=..../???.ora */

########## Managing Tables ###########

/*char type maxlen=2000;varchar2 type maxlen=4000 bytes

rowid 是 18 位的 64 进制字符串 (10 个 bytes 80 bits)

rowid 组成 : object#( 对象号 )--32bits,6 位

rfile#( 相对文件号 )--10bits,3 位

block#( 块号 )--22bits,6 位

row#( 行号 )--16bits,3 位

64 进制 : A-Z,a-z,0-9,/,+ 共 64 个符号

dbms_rowid 包中的函数可以提供对 rowid 的解释 */

select rowid,dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid),dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) from table_name;

create table test2

(

id int,

lname varchar2(20) not null,

fname varchar2(20) constraint ck_1 check(fname like 'k%'),

empdate date default sysdate)

) tablespace tablespace_name;

 

create global temporary table test2 on commit delete/preserve rows as select * from kong.authors;

create table user.table(...) tablespace tablespace_name storage(...) pctfree10 pctused 40;

alter table user.tablename pctfree 20 pctused 50 storage(...);---changing table storage

/* 手工分配分区 , 分配的数据文件必须是表所在表空间内的数据文件 */

alter table user.table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile '...');

/* 释放表中没有用到的空间 */

alter table table_name deallocate unused;

alter table table_name deallocate unused keep 8k;

/* 将非分区表的表空间搬到新的表空间 , 在移动表空间后,原表中的索引对象将会不可用,必须重建 */

alter table user.table_name move tablespace new_tablespace_name;

create index index_name on user.table_name(column_name) tablespace users;

alter index index_name rebuild;

drop table table_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS];

alter table user.table_name drop column col_name [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS CHECKPOINT 1000];---drop column

/* 给表中不用的列做标记 */

alter table user.table_name set unused column comments CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;

/*drop 表中不用的做了标记列 */

alter table user.table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;

/* 当在 drop col 是出现异常,使用 CONTINUE ,防止重删前面的 column*/

ALTER TABLE USER.TABLE_NAME DROP COLUMNS CONTINUE CHECKPOINT 1000;

select * from dba_tables/dba_objects;

######## managing indexes ##########

/*create index*/

example:

/* 创建一般索引 */

create index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 创建位图索引 */

create bitmap index index_name on table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 索引中不能用 pctused*/

create [bitmap] index index_name on table_name(column_name) tablespace tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) ;

/* 大数据量的索引最好不要做日志 */

create [bitmap] index index_name table_name(column_name1,column_name2) tablespace_name pctfree 20 storage(inital 100k next 100k) nologging;

/* 创建反转索引 */

create index index_name on table_name(column_name) reverse;

/* 创建函数索引 */

create index index_name on table_name(function_name(column_name)) tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 建表时创建约束条件 */

create table user.table_name(column_name number(7) constraint constraint_name primary key deferrable using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace tablespace_name,column_name2 varchar2(25) constraint constraint_name not null,column_name3 number(7)) tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 给创建 bitmap index 分配的内存空间参数,以加速建索引 */

show parameter create_bit;

/* 改变索引的存储参数 */

alter index index_name pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k next 200k);

/* 给索引手工分配一个分区 */

alter index index_name allocate extent (size 200k datafile '$ORACLE/oradata/..');

/* 释放索引中没用的空间 */

alter index index_name deallocate unused;

/* 索引重建 */

alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 普通索引和反转索引的互换 */

alter index index_name rebuild tablespace tablespace_name reverse;

/* 重建索引时,不锁表 */

alter index index_name rebuild online;

/* 给索引整理碎片 */

alter index index_name COALESCE;

/* 分析索引 , 事实上是更新统计的过程 */

analyze index index_name validate structure;

desc index_state;

drop index index_name;

alter index index_name monitoring usage;----- 监视索引是否被用到

alter index index_name nomonitoring usage;---- 取消监视

/* 有关索引信息的视图 */

select * from dba_indexes/dba_ind_columns/dbs_ind_expressions/v$object_usage;

########## 数据完整性的管理 (Maintaining data integrity) ##########

alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name;----drop 约束

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name primary key(column_name1,column_name2);----- 创建主键

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name unique(column_name1,column_name2);--- 创建唯一约束

/* 创建外键约束 */

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name foreign key(column_name1) references table_name(column_name1);

/* 不效验老数据,只约束新的数据 [enable/disable :约束 / 不约束新数据 ;novalidate/validate: 不对 / 对老数据进行验证 ]*/

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name like 'B%') enable/disable novalidate/validate;

/* 修改约束条件,延时验证, commit 时验证 */

alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially deferred;

/* 修改约束条件,立即验证 */

alter table table_name modify constraint constraint_name initially immediate;

alter session set constraints=deferred/immediate;

/*drop 一个有外键的主键表 , 带 cascade constraints 参数级联删除 */

drop table table_name cascade constraints;

/* 当 truncate 外键表时,先将外键设为无效,再 truncate;*/

truncate table table_name;

/* 设约束条件无效 */

alter table table_name disable constraint constraint_name;

alter table table_name enable novalidate constraint constraint_name;

/* 将无效约束的数据行放入 exception 的表中,此表记录了违反数据约束的行的行号;在此之前,要先建 exceptions 表 */

alter table table_name add constraint constraint_name check(column_name >15) enable validate exceptions into exceptions;

/* 运行创建 exceptions 表的脚本 */

start $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlexcpt.sql;

/* 获取约束条件信息的表或视图 */

select * from user_constraints/dba_constraints/dba_cons_columns;

################## managing password security and resources ####################

alter user user_name account unlock/open;---- 锁定 / 打开用户 ;

alter user user_name password expire;--- 设定口令到期

/* 建立口令配置文件 ,failed_login_attempts 口令输多少次后锁, password_lock_times 指多少天后口令被自动解锁 */

create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_times 1/1440;

/* 创建口令配置文件 */

create profile profile_name limit failed_login_attempts 3 password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function password_grace_time 5;

/* 建立资源配置文件 */

create profile prfile_name limit session_per_user 2 cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;

alter user user_name profile profile_name;

/* 设置口令解锁时间 */

alter profile profile_name limit password_lock_time 1/24;

/*password_life_time 指口令文件多少时间到期, password_grace_time 指在第一次成功登录后到口令到期有多少天时间可改变口令 */

alter profile profile_name limit password_lift_time 2 password_grace_time 3;

/*password_reuse_time 指口令在多少天内可被重用 ,password_reuse_max 口令可被重用的最大次数 */

alter profile profile_name limit password_reuse_time 10[password_reuse_max 3];

alter user user_name identified by input_password;----- 修改用户口令

drop profile profile_name;

/* 建立了 profile 后,且指定给某个用户,则必须用 CASCADE 才能删除 */

drop profile profile_name CASCADE;

alter system set resource_limit=true;--- 启用自愿限制 , 缺省是 false

/* 配置资源参数 */

alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_session 10000 connect_time 60 idle_time 5;

/* 资源参数 (session 级 )

cpu_per_session 每个 session 占用 cpu 的时间 单位 1/100 秒

sessions_per_user 允许每个用户的并行 session 数

connect_time 允许连接的时间 单位分钟

idle_time 连接被空闲多少时间后,被自动断开 单位分钟

logical_reads_per_session 读块数

private_sga 用户能够在 SGA 中使用的私有的空间数 单位 bytes

(call 级 )

cpu_per_call 每次 (1/100 秒 ) 调用 cpu 的时间

logical_reads_per_call 每次调用能够读的块数

*/

alter profile profile_name limit cpu_per_call 1000 logical_reads_per_call 10;

desc dbms_resouce_manager;--- 资源管理器包

/* 获取资源信息的表或视图 */

select * from dba_users/dba_profiles;

###### Managing users ############

show parameter os;

create user testuser1 identified by kxf_001;

grant connect,createtable to testuser1;

alter user testuser1 quota 10m on tablespace_name;

/* 创建用户 */

create user user_name identified by password default tablespace tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire;

/* 数据库级设定缺省临时表空间 */

alter database default temporary tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 制定数据库级的缺省表空间 */

alter database default tablespace tablespace_name;

/* 创建 os 级审核的用户,需知道 os_authent_prefix ,表示 oracle 和 os 口令对应的前缀 ,'OPS$' 为此参数的值,此值可以任意设置 */

create user user_name identified by externally default OPS$tablespace_name tablespace_name temporary tablespace tablespace_name quota 15m on tablespace_name password expire;

/* 修改用户使用表空间的限额 , 回滚表空间和临时表空间不允许授予限额 */

alter user user_name quota 5m on tablespace_name;

/* 删除用户或删除级联用户 ( 用户对象下有对象的要用 CASCADE ,将其下一些对象一起删除 )*/

drop user user_name [CASCADE];

/* 每个用户在哪些表空间下有些什么限额 */

desc dba_ts_quotas;select * from dba_ts_quotas where username='...';

/* 改变用户的缺省表空间 */

alter user user_name default tablespace tablespace_name;

######### Managing Privileges #############

grant create table,create session to user_name;

grant create any table to user_name; revoke create any table from user_name;

/* 授予权限语法 ,public 标识所有用户 ,with admin option 允许能将权限授予第三者的权限 */

grant system_privs,[......] to [user/role/public],[....] [with admin option];

select * from v$pwfile_users;

/* 当 O7_dictionary_accessiblity 参数为 True 时,标识 select any table 时,包括系统表也能 select , 否则,不包含系统表 ; 缺省为 false*/

show parameter O7;

/* 由于 O7_dictionary_accessiblity 为静态参数,不能动态改变,故加 scope=spfile, 下次启动时才生效 */

alter system set O7_dictionary_accessiblity=true scope=spfile;

/* 授予对象中的某些字段的权限,如 select 某表中的某些字段的权限 */

grant [object_privs(column,....)],[...] on object_name to user/role/public,... with grant option;

/*oracle 不允许授予 select 某列的权限 , 但可以授 insert ,update 某列的权限 */

grant insert(column_name1,column_name2,...) on table_name to user_name with grant option;

select * from dba_sys_privs/session_privs/dba_tab_privs/user_tab_privs/dba_col_privs/user_col_privs;

/*db/os/none 审计被记录在 数据库 / 操作系统 / 不审计 缺省是 none*/

show parameter audit_trail;

/* 启动对表的 select 动作 */

audit select on user.table_name by session;

/*by session 在每个 session 中发出 command 只记录一次, by access 则每个 command 都记录 */

audit [create table][select/update/insert on object by session/access][whenever successful/not successful];

desc dbms_fga;--- 进一步设计,则可使用 dbms_fgs 包

/* 取消审计 */

noaudit select on user.table_name;

/* 查被审计信息 */

select * from all_def_audit_opts/dba_stmt_audit_opts/dba_priv_audit_opts/dba_obj_audit_opts;

/* 获取审计记录 */

select * from dba_audit_trail/dba_audit_exists/dba_audit_object/dba_audit_session/dba_audit_statement;

########### Managing Role #################

create role role_name; grant select on table_name to role_name; grant role_name to user_name; set role role_name;

create role role_name;

create role role_name identified by password;

create role role_name identified externally;

set role role_name ; ---- 激活 role

set role role_name identified by password;

alter role role_name not identified;

alter role role_name identified by password;

alter role role_name identified externally;

grant priv_name to role_name [WITH ADMIN OPTION];

grant update(column_name1,col_name2,...) on table_name to role_name;

grant role_name1 to role_name2;

/* 建立 default role, 用户登录时,缺省激活 default role*/

alter user user_name default role role_name1,role_name2,...;

alter user user_name default role all;

alter user user_name default role all except role_name1,...;

alter user user_name default role none;

set role role1 [identified by password],role2,....;

set role all;

set role except role1,role2,...;

set role none;

revoke role_name from user_name;

revoke role_name from public;

drop role role_name;

select * from dba_roles/dba_role_privs/role_role_privs/dba_sys_privs/role_sys_privs/role_tab_privs/session_roles;

########### Basic SQL SELECT ################

select col_name as col_alias from table_name ;

select col_name from table_name where col1 like '_o%'; ----'_' 匹配单个字符

/* 使用字符函数 ( 右边截取 , 字段中包含某个字符 , 左边填充某字符到固定位数 , 右边填充某字符到固定位数 )*/

select substr(col1,-3,5),instr(col2,'g'),LPAD(col3,10,'$'),RPAD(col4,10,'%') from table_name;

/* 使用数字函数 ( 往右 / 左几位四舍五入 , 取整 , 取余 )*/

select round(col1,-2),trunc(col2),mod(col3) from table_name ;

/* 使用日期函数 ( 计算两个日期间相差几个星期 , 两个日期间相隔几个月 , 在某个月份上加几个月 , 某个日期的下一个日期 ,

某日期所在月的最后的日期 , 对某个日期的月分四舍五入,对某个日期的月份进行取整 )*/

select (sysdate-col1)/7 week,months_between(sysdate,col1),add_months(col1,2),next_day(sysdate,'FRIDAY'),last_day(sysdate),

round(sysdate,'MONTH'),trunc(sysdate,'MONTH') from table_name;

/* 使用 NULL 函数 ( 当 expr1 为空取 expr2/ 当 expr1 为空取 expr2, 否则取 expr3/ 当 expr1=expr2 返回空 )*/

select nvl(expr1,expr2),nvl2(expr1,expr2,expr3),nullif(expr1,expr2) from table_name;

select column1,column2,column3, case column2 when '50' then column2*1.1

when '30' then column2*2.1

when '10' then column3/20

else column3

end as ttt

from table_name ; ------ 使用 case 函数

select table1.col1,table2.col2 from table1

[CROSS JOIN table2] | ----- 笛卡儿连接

[NATURAL JOIN table2] | ----- 用两个表中的同名列连接

[JOIN table2 USING (column_name)] | ----- 用两个表中的同名列中的某一列或几列连接

[JOIN table2

ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)] |

[LEFT|RIGHT|FULL OUTER JOIN table2 ------ 相当于 (+)=,=(+) 连接 , 全外连接

ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)]; ------SQL 1999 中的 JOIN 语法 ;

example:

select col1,col2 from table1 t1

join table2 t2

on t1.col1=t2.col2 and t1.col3=t2.col1

join table3 t3

on t2.col1=t3.col3;

select * from table_name where col1 < any (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3);

select * from table_name where col1 < all (select col2 from table_name2 where continue group by col3);

insert into (select col1,col2,col3 form table_name where col1> 50 with check option) values (value1,value2,value3);

MERGE INTO table_name table1

USING table_name2 table2

ON (table1.col1=table2.col2)

WHEN MATCHED THEN

UPDATE SET

table1.col1=table2.col2,

table1.col2=table2.col3,

...

WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN

INSERT VALUES(table2.col1,table2.col2,table2.col3,...); ----- 合并语句

##################### CREATE/ALTER TABLE #######################

alter table table_name drop column column_name ;---drop column

alter table table_name set unused (col1,col2,...);---- 设置列无效,这个比较快。

alter table table_name drop unused columns;--- 删除被设为无效的列

rename table_name1 to table_name2; --- 重命名表

comment on table table_name is 'comment message';---- 给表放入注释信息

create table table_name

(col1 int not null,col2 varchar2(20),col3 varchar2(20),

constraint uk_test2_1 unique(col2,col3))); ----- 定义表中的约束条件

alter table table_name add constraint pk_test2 primary key(col1,col2,...); ---- 创建主键

/* 建立外键 */

create table table_name (rid int,name varchar2(20),constraint fk_test3 foreign key(rid) references other_table_name(id));

alter table table_name add constraint ck_test3 check(name like 'K%');

alter table table_name drop constraint constraint_name;

alter table table_name drop primary key cascade;---- 级联删除主键

alter table table_name disable/enable constraint constraint_name;---- 使约束暂时无效

/* 删除列,并级联删除此列下的约束条件 */

alter table table_name drop column column_name cascade constraint;

select * from user_constraints/user_cons_columns;--- 约束条件相关视图

############## Create Views #####################

CREATE [OR REPLACE] [FORCE|NOFORCE] VIEW view_name [(alias[,alias]...)]

AS subquery

[WITH CHECK OPTION [CONSTRAINT constraint_name]]

[WITH READ ONLY [CONSTRAINT constraint_name]]; ------ 创建视图的语法

example: Create or replace view testview as select col1,col2,col3 from table_name; ------ 创建视图

/* 使用别名 */

Create or replace view testview as select col1,sum(col2) col2_alias from table_name;

/* 创建复杂视图 */

Create view view_name (alias1,alias2,alias3,alias4) as select d.col1,min(e.col1),max(e.col1),avg(e.col1) from table_name1 e,table_name2 d where e.col2=d.col2 group by d.col1;

/* 当用 update 修改数据时,必须满足视图的 col1>10 的条件,不满足则不能被改变 .*/

Create or replace view view_name as select * from table_name where col1>10 with check option;

/* 改变视图的值 . 对于简单视图可以用 update 语法修改表数据,但复杂视图则不一定能改。如使用了函数, group by ,distinct 等的列 */

update view_name set col1=value1;

/*TOP-N 分析 */

select [column_list],rownum from (select [column_list] from table_name order by Top-N_column) where rownum<=N;

/* 找出某列三条最大值的记录 */

example: select rownum as rank ,col1 ,col2 from (select col1 ,col2 from table_name order by col2 desc) where rownum<=3;

############# Other database Object ###############

CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name [INCREMENT BY n]

[START WITH n]

[{MAXVALUE n | NOMAXVALUE}]

[{MINVALUE n | NOMINVALUE}]

[{CYCEL | NOCYCLE}]

[{CACHE n | NOCACHE}]; ----- 创建 SEQUENCE

example:

CREATE SEQUENCE sequence_name INCREMENT BY 10

START WITH 120

MAXVALUE 9999

NOCACHE

NOCYCLE;

select * from user_sequences ;--- 当前用户下记录 sequence 的视图

select sequence_name.nextval,sequence_name.currval from dual;-----sequence 的引用

alter sequence sequence_name INCREMENT BY 20

MAXVALUE 999999

NOCACHE

NOCYCLE; ----- 修改 sequence, 不能改变起始序号

drop sequence sequence_name; ---- 删除 sequence

CREATE [PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name FOR object; ------ 创建同义词

DROP [PUBLIC] SYNONYM synonym_name;---- 删除同义词

CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK link_name USEING OBJECT;---- 创建 DBLINK

select * from object_name@link_name; ---- 访问远程数据库中的对象

/*union 操作,它将两个集合的交集部分压缩,并对数据排序 */

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name;

/*union all 操作,两个集合的交集部分不压缩,且不对数据排序 */

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name union all select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name;

/*intersect 操作,求两个集合的交集 , 它将对重复数据进行压缩,且排序 */

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name intersect select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name;

/*minus 操作,集合减 , 它将压缩两个集合减后的重复记录 , 且对数据排序 */

select col1,col2,col3 from table1_name minus select col1,col2,col3 from table2_name;

/*EXTRACT 抽取时间函数 . 此例是抽取当前日期中的年 */

select EXTRACT(YEAR FROM SYSDATE) from dual;

/*EXTRACT 抽取时间函数 . 此例是抽取当前日期中的月 */

select EXTRACT(MONTH FROM SYSDATE) from dual;

########################## 增强的 group by 子句 #########################

select [column,] group_function(column)...

from table

[WHERE condition]

[GROUP BY [ROLLUP] group_by_expression]

[HAVING having_expression];

[ORDER BY column]; -------ROLLUP 操作字,对 group by 子句的各字段从右到左进行再聚合

example:

/* 其结果看起来象对 col1 做小计 */

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup(col1,col2);

/* 复合 rollup 表达式 */

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by rollup((col1,col2));

select [column,] group_function(column)...

from table

[WHERE condition]

[GROUP BY [CUBE] group_by_expression]

[HAVING having_expression];

[ORDER BY column]; -------CUBE 操作字,除完成 ROLLUP 的功能外,再对 ROLLUP 后的结果集从右到左再聚合

example:

/* 其结果看起来象对 col1 做小计后,再对 col2 做小计,最后算总计 */

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube(col1,col2);

/* 复合 rollup 表达式 */

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by cube((col1,col2));

/* 混合 rollup,cube 表达式 */

select col1,col2,col3,sum(col4) from table group by col1,rollup(col2),cube(col3);

/*GROUPING(expr) 函数,查看 select 语句种以何字段聚合,其取值为 0 或 1*/

select [column,] group_function(column)...,GROUPING(expr)

from table

[WHERE condition]

[GROUP BY [ROLLUP] group_by_expression]

[HAVING having_expression];

[ORDER BY column];

example:

select col1,col2,sum(col3),grouping(col1),grouping(col2) from table group by cube(col1,col2);

/*grouping sets 操作,对 group by 结果集先对 col1 求和,再对 col2 求和,最后将其结果集并在一起 */

select col1,col2,sum(col3) from table group by grouping sets((col1),(col2));


本文来自CSDN博客,转载请标明出处:http://blog.csdn.net/ilovemilk/archive/2008/07/17/2666176.aspx

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