《THE INTERNET OF THINGS(From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems)》一书简要翻译

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1    RFID标签 (RFID Tags

本章的重点是RFID标签,提供了RFID的概述和标签的各种历史、用途,以及背后的原理。

Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) has a long history and is part of the technological revolution both current and past. RFID enables quick payment of tolls and quick identification of items. In addition, RFID provides benefits, such as tracking assets, monitoring conditions for safety, and helping to prevent counterfeiting.

RFID plays an integral part in the technological revolution along with the Internet and mobile devices, which are connecting the world together. This chapter focuses on the RFID tag and provides an overview and history of the various types of tags, their uses, and the physics behind their operation.

RFID系统包括三个基本组成部分。第一部分是连接到货物上的RFID标签。第二部分是RFID标签读取器。第三部分是后台系统组件及RFID信息数据库。

All RFID systems contain three basic components. The first is the RFID tag that is attached to an asset or item. The tag contains information about that asset or item and also may incorporate sensors. The second component is the RFID interrogator, which communicates with (also called interrogating) the RFID tags. The third component is the backend system, which links the RFID interrogators to a centralized database. The centralized database contains additional information, such as price, for each RFID tagged item.

RFID标签大体可分为四类:

无源RFID标签:

没有电池或其他电源的RFID标签。

有源RFID标签:

本身具有全部电源,通常是一个电池,并有收发信号的能力。允许接受弱信号和远距离信号的标签。

半无源的 RFID标签:

是拥有智能电源驱动芯片,一个信号发射器、一个信号接收器。

半主动RFID标签:

有智能电源驱动芯片并利用反射波进行沟通的被动接收标签。

RFID tags generally fall into one of four categories: (1) passive, (2) active,(3) semi active, and (4) semi passive. The semi active and semi passive categories are currently somewhat grey areas in that they are very similar to either the active or passive categories, respectively, and often overlap. In this chapter, the following definitions will be applied to the above four categories of RFID tags. Passive tags are defined (in this chapter) as having no battery or onboard power source and communicates through backscatter. Active tags are defined as having an onboard power source, usually a battery, and having a powered receiver and transmitter. The powered receiver and transmitter allow for reception of very weak signals and transmission of signals over a long distance or through interference. Semi active tags are those tags having an onboard power supply powering a microchip (intelligence), a transmitter, and a passive receiver. A semi passive tag is defined as having an onboard power supply powering only the microchip (intelligence), a passive receiver, and uses backscatter to communicate.

 

2    RFID的自动识别和数据采集(RFID Automatic Identification and Data Capture

自动识别与数据采集(AIDC)技术正越来越多地在供应链管理中发挥着重要作用,生产流程管理,移动资产跟踪,库存管理,仓储以及各种通过地点与时间的移动所产生的应用。跟踪这些项目历来是由条码技术完成,从效率,健壮性,自动化方面的困难,无力提供可靠或者动态的数据等,而无线射频识别(RFID)技术,通过与其他条码和传感技术的比较,有能力克服这些缺点并可以创建一种新的自动识别基础结构。

Automatic identification data capture (AIDC) technologies are becoming increasingly important in the management of supply chain, manufacturing flow management, mobile asset tracking, inventory management, warehousing, and any application where physical items move through location on time. Tracking these items has historically been done by the use of bar-code technologies, which suffer from lack of efficiency, robustness, difficulty in automation, inability to have secure or dynamic data, etc., whereas the electronic technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has the ability to overcome several of these barcode limitations This paper presents a comparative basis for the creation of on AIDC infrastructure via RFID versus other technologies, such as barcode and sensor technologies.

3    RFID的数据仓库和分析(RFID Data Warehousing and Analysis

主要介绍了RFID数据仓库的概念和结构、性能。描述了为了消除数据冗余而如何进行大量有效的RFID数据分析,通过大容量对象的移动获得无耗损的压缩数据和通过提取高级别的注册数据来获得有损耗的压缩数据。

4    RFID数据管理:存在的问题和解决方案(RFID Data Management: Issues, Solutions

在这章,我们回顾了RFID数据处理和整合的主要技术,主要关注的问题是在实际的RFID应用中提出一套标准可以评估现有的RFID技术和产品。对研究RFID的数据处理和整合中出现的问题进行了公开讨论。

While RFID technology provides promising benefits, such as inventory visibility and business process automation, several significant challenges, such as data processing and management, integration architecture design, security, and privacy need to be seriously addressed before these benefits can be fully realized. In this chapter, we survey the main techniques for RFID data processing and integration, a central concern in applying RFID in real-world applications, and propose a set of criteria for assessing the existing RFID techniques and products. Open research issues for RFID data processing and integration are also discussed.

下图为针对企业RFID解决方案的总体架构图:

 

RFID-enabled applications refer to the use of RFID technology and computerized systems (e.g., networking services, databases, Web servers) for achieving advanced business goals like real-time products tracking, automatic warehouse management, just to cite a few. It is of interest to note that deploying an RFID application by directly hooking RFID readers to backend systems is considered as disastrous as watering a lawn by hooking a garden hose directly to a fire hydrant. An appropriate architecture is the key to the success of RFID applications. The building blocks in RFID applications are provided through an RFID framework (Figure 4.1). Typically, the purpose of an RFID framework is to enable data to be: (1) transmitted by a portable device (i.e., an RFID tag), which is read by an RFID reader; (2) processed; and (3) adapted according to the needs of a particular application. Figure 4.1 depicts the main components of a generic RFID system. Interactions in such a system occur in three layers: devices, data processing, and data integration. The RFID devices layer consists of RFID tags and readers as well as RFID protocols (e.g., ISO 14443, electronic product code (EPC) Class 0 and 1) for reading and writing RFID data.

The RFID data processing layer consists of a number of software components for communicating with RFID readers, filtering and cleaning RFID data, and adapting RFID data for high-level applications, including semantic filtering and automatic data transformation and aggregation. RFID data can be formatted using, for example, the Physical Markup Language (PML) and sent to different targets as messages, streams, or other formats via Web services: JMS, HTTP response, or TCP/IP data packets. The RFID data integration layer is concerned with the applications that exploit RFID data, such as supply chain management. RFID data could be both local RFID data and the one from its business partners, which is typically the case when applications involve multiple business entities.

This requires that the applications understand the semantics of RFID data that is possibly disparately represented. The objective of interactions at this layer is to achieve a seamless weaving of RFID data and business processes. This chapter focuses on the part of the system that lies above the RFID devices layer. (Readers are referred to for more details on physical aspects related to RFID devices and relevant research problems.)

5    RFID安全性:存在的威胁和解决方案(RFID Security: Threats and Solutions

低成本射频识别(RFID)是一种用于远程存储和接收数据用RFID标签。随着RFID技术的用途已经从简单的标记到更复杂对象的使用,RFID面临新的威胁越来越多。因此,对安全的需求已成为一个关键问题。在这一章中,我们首先提供最近有关RFID技术标准的简要概述。然后,我们对RFID风险和与RFID安全相关的威胁进行分析,最后我们提出有效的解决方案。

Low-cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method of remotely storing and receiving data using devices called RFID tags. As the potential use of RFID has grown from tagging simple objects to more sophisticated uses, the RFID managers rely more on the reliability and integrity of the system. And thus they are continuously faced with the onslaught of new threats and vulnerabilities that puts critical assets, business operations, organization reputations, and personal security at risk. So the need for security has emerged as a key issue. In this chapter, we first provide a brief overview of RFID, the most recent standards related to this technology. Then we address both the risks and threats associated with the RFID security and finally we analyze the solutions proposed to date and their effectiveness.

6    重新认识RFID规范(RFID Specification Revisited

在这一章中,我们对电子产品代码(EPCClass1- 2进行了研究。Class1可视为RFID标签的普遍标准。Class1 RFID标签的计算和存储能力是非常有限的。由于这些限制,原始的加密方法是不能使用的。然而,RFID标签对攻击是敏感的,并且在其他技术中可以看到,如无线,蓝牙,智能卡等。因此,一旦 EPC Class - 1- 2标准被破解,那他的安全弱点将暴漏。目前的建议是加强其安全级别和分析算法。最后,本章通过一些公开问题的研究,来提高低安全,低成本的RFID标签。

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is the name given to all technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify and account transactions on people, animals, or objects by means of electromagnetic proximity. RFID technology is not new, as one of its first usages dates from 1940 where a RFID-based Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system was used. There are multiple standards related to RFID technology. In this chapter, the Electronic Product Code (EPC) Class-1 Generation-2 is examined. This standard can be considered as the “universal” standard for Class-1 RFID tags. Class-1 RFID tags are very limited both in their computational and storage capabilities. Because of these severe restrictions, the usage of standard cryptographic primitives is not possible. However, RFID tags are susceptible to attacks also found in other technologies, such as wireless, blue tooth, smart-cards, etc. Therefore, once the EPC Class-1 Generation-2 specification is explained, a security analysis will reveal its weak points. Furthermore, current proposals to enhance its security level are presented and analyzed. Finally, the chapter is concluded identifying some open research issues to increment the security of low-cost RFID tags.

7    无线标签的位置感知(RFIG Geometric Context of Wirless Tags

通过利用光学传感标签和摄像机组合建立一个射频识别与立体几何结构(RFIG)应答体系。一个RFIG标签可以记录和响应与自己相邻的,属于自己范围的RFIG标签,例如整个体系中处于自由和相邻位置的RFIG标签。

Radio frequency tags allow objects to become self-describing, communicating their identity to a close–at-hand radio frequency (RF) reader. Our goal is to build a Radio Frequency Identification and Geometry (RFIG) transponder. In addition to identity, a RFIG tag can record and respond its own geometric context, such as absolute and relative location with respect to adjacent RFIG tags.

RFIG通常可应用于以下几个领域:

快速检查过期物品位置 、监测重要地区障碍物、整理货物次序和位置、自动分拣物品等领域。

Several aspects of RFIG have been described in our previous work (Raskar et al.,2004). The work was motivated in terms of the commercially important application of inventory control. But, we believe that photo sensing tags may have many innovative uses, and, in this chapter, our goal is to present the new ideas in the context of a few promising examples. Below is outlined a broad mode of deployment for geometric analysis. Note that these are speculative uses, not actual work done.

1. Location Feedback, e.g., warehouse management (Figure 7.3): Consider the task of locating boxes containing perishable items about to expire. Even with traditional RF tagging with expiry date information recorded in the indexed database, the employee would have to serially inspect boxes and mark the about-to-expire product boxes. Using RFIG tags, the handheld or fixed projector first locates the queried tags and then illuminates them with symbols, such as X and OK, so that the employee has a visual feedback. Note that a second user can perform similar operations without RF collision with the first reader or the tags because the two projector beams do not overlap.

 

2. Obstruction Detection, e.g., object obstructing a railroad track (Figure 7.4): A common computer vision task with a camera includes detecting abnormal conditions by performing image processing. One example is detecting obstruction on railway tracks; for example, raising an alarm if a person or some suspicious material is on subway tracks. Processing images of videos from camera-based systems to detect such events is difficult because the ambient lighting conditions can change and several other activities can result in false positives. But, one can solve this vision problem by sprinkling RFIG tags along the track. These tags can be illuminated with a fixed or steered beam of temporally modulated light (not necessarily a projector), such as a 40 kHz infrared beam from a sparse array of light emitters. Then, the operation is similar to the “beam break” technique commonly used to detect intruders. But, a wireless tag-based system is ideally suited for applications, where running wires to both ends is impractical. Using retro-reflective markers and detecting a return beam is another common strategy to avoid wires, but sprinkling a large number of markers creates an authoring nightmare. In the case of RFIG, the tags identification and location can be easily reported along with the status of reception of the modulated light. Lack of reception indicates obstruction, which can be relayed to a central monitoring facility where a human observer can carefully observe the scene possibly with a pan/tilt/zoom surveillance camera.

 

3. Ordered Placement and Orientation, e.g., books in a library (Figure 7.5): A common task in libraries, pharmacies, or for facility managers is maintaining a large number of objects in a predetermined order. For example, in a library, if books are RF tagged, it is easy to obtain a book list within the RF range. However, without location information, it is difficult to find out which books are out of alphabetical order. In addition, without book orientation information, it is difficult to detect books that are placed with spines upside down. With RFIG and a handheld projector, the system lists the book title as well as location. Then, the system sorts books by title as well as by their 2D geometric location. A mismatch in the two sorted lists indicates that the corresponding book is placed in a wrong position. The system knows the current location for the books as well their ideal position. The projector display gives immediate visual feedback and instructions (shown in Figure 7.5 as arrows from current positions to intended positions). A single book also can be tagged with two RFIG transponders, one at the top of the book spine and one at the bottom. Then, comparing the coordinates of these two tags allows one to find out if the book has been placed upside down.

 

4. 3D Path Planning/Guiding, e.g., guiding a robot on an assembly line for arbitrarily oriented objects (Figure 7.6): RFIG tags can be used in factories for robot guidance. The idea is similar to other “laser-guided” operations. Suppose a robot is instructed to grab a certain object from a pile moving on a conveyor belt. RFID can simplify the object recognition problem in the machine’s vision, but precisely locating the object would be difficult. The idea is to use a fixed projector to first locate the RFIG-tagged object and then illuminate the object with a steady, easily identifiable temporal pattern. A camera attached to the robot arm locks onto this pattern by doing pattern matching and allows the robot to home in on the object. Notice that in a majority of the applications described above, the projector behaves similar to devices that we are all familiar with, e.g., remote controls and laser pointers, but with some spatial or temporal modulation of light. The projector is a glorified remote control communicating with a photo sensor in the location sensing phase and a glorified laser pointer in the image projection phase.

 

8    RFID技术应用在动物监测领域的应用(RFID Application in Animal Monitoring

这一章主要介绍了RFID技术在一些与动物有关的活动中使用案例。对目前的RFID标准、RFID技术的使用范围和动物国际组织的相关规定、法规做了细致介绍。

Providing a brief but comprehensive coverage of the use of RFID technologies in animal identification, tagging, and monitoring, this chapter presents the use of RFID technology for supporting all animal-related RFID activities. A reference to the current standardization and coverage of the use of RFID technology, as defined through global organizations and associations, will be provided as an introductory section to these issues. Following this approach, the chapter will provide a comprehensive coverage of the use of RFID in relation to domestic, farm, and wild animals, the particularities that this use has in each case, while, on the other hand, providing example prototype uses for each case. Legislation issues, that are addressed globally, will also be tackled, giving an overview of the existing legislative framework for the use of RFID as regards to animals. Note that emphasis is placed only on RFID technology as it is used for monitoring animal activities. Therefore, basic knowledge of the use and operation of RFID systems is required, even though the chapter does not address technical issues of RFID.

RFID技术在动物监测领域主要的使用对象结构图如下:

Animals can be categorized according to their living conditions and surveillance needs. The purpose of this classification is to locate the parameters for recording of each animal in a specific category (Figure 8.1). Following is a description of the parameters that need to be recorded and traced for each category.

 

用于动物监测领域的RFID标签主要包含胃丸、耳标签、皮下注射三种方式。

1)胃丸是放在反刍动物的胃中或者复胃中,具有射频发射器和信息自动交互功能的电子标签。可用于对反刍动物的监测。主要有陶瓷、金属、单片机等材质,而且是无毒的。

The ruminal bolus is a ceramic capsule retained in the reticulum or the second stomach of ruminants. It incorporates a radio frequency transponder capable of automatically communicating information to a reader. Ruminal boluses can be used as electronic means of ruminant identification. There are different kinds of ruminal boluses available, for example, the ceramic, the monolithic, and the steel-weighted boluses. The ceramic boluses are cylindrical to enable oral administration in young animals. The ceramic material enclosing the electronic transponder is nontoxic.

反刍动物(来源:百度百科)

 

2)电子耳标签是利用锁定装置固定到动物耳朵上利用短程电波频率进行信息传递的RFID标签。它可以保证有问题的牲畜不会进入食物链。然而就像任何外用标签都会比较容易出现损坏一样,目前正在努力开发用于永久电子识别的注射标签。

Electronic RFID transponders are embedded in ear tags, and they work as remotely activated receiver–transmitters, which use a short-range radio frequency. The ear tags are plastic-covered transponders capable of being fixed to the ear of an animal using a locking mechanism or to be attached in such a manner that it cannot be removed from the tag without damaging it.

The electronic transponders mounted in ear tags are an official, but not mandatory, option for identification of dairy cattle in North America and all cattle in the European Union, although visual tags must support the electronic identification in the European Union and in Canada. Externally mounted transponders are easily located and removed upon slaughter of the animal and are unlikely to enter the food chain. However, as any external tag is vulnerable to loss, removal, or damage, efforts to develop permanent electronic identification are focusing on internal forms, such as injected transponders

3)皮下注射是将RFID标签通过注射方式植入动物身体的各个地方,这种标签胶囊是无毒的。

The injectable capsules are also electronic means of identification, with electronic RFID transponders being implanted in several places in the animal’s body. The transponders are covered by a capsule of biomedical glass, which is nontoxic for the animal.

9    RFID技术在物资和车辆跟踪领域的应用(RFID Applications in Assets and Vehicles Tracking

本章简要介绍了RFID主要的技术挑战和发展任务,着重介绍了智能RFID中间件系统和无线智能终端的设计和实施过程及问题。并以仓库管理和车辆管理系统中RFID的应用讨论并提出一些未决问题。

In this RFID application, the mature RFID solution in ultrahigh frequency (900 to 915 MHz) for nonstop vehicle management was adopted. According to the above application requirements, simply deploying RFID tags and readers is not enough. At first, asset query function is expected in any place at any time, which calls for the integration between RFID and wireless communication. This will enhance the mobility and portability in actual enterprise RFID application, and ensure the real time tracking on vehicles and asserts. Second, seamless integration with existing information systems is also expected. As a result, RFID middleware is needed, which cannot only support different kinds of RFID readers hardware, but also support integration to existing enterprise systems, such as ERP, supply chain management and SCM(supply chain management).This will also increase the reliability and scalability of RFID applications. As a result, Wireless Intelligent Terminal and Smart

RFID Middleware systems have been developed and adopted. The organization of this chapter is as follows. Section 9.2 introduces the application scenario and problems for RFID-based tracking, and briefly describes the main technical challenges and developing tasks. Section 9.3 states the design and implementation issues of the Smart RFID Middleware system and the Wireless Intelligent Terminal. Section 9.4 describes the RFID application in two major systems: warehouse management and vehicle management systems. Finally section 9.5 summarizes the chapter and provides some discussion on open issues.

10  RFID开启物流服务(RFID Enabled logistics Services

在这一章中,介绍了电子物流的概念,其关键是可以提高改善和精简物流操作并通过保证数据可靠性来建立相互信任的交易体系。

In this chapter, we introduce the concept of trustworthy pervasive services for enabling next generation E-logistics, the key enabler for improving and streamlining logistics operations. In pervasive services-enabled E-logistics, trustworthiness establishment is usually under resource constraints, presenting challenges for mutual trust establishment as well as data dependability. Thus, we will focus on security for mutual trust and data dependability aspects of pervasive service trustworthiness. We will present mutual authentication protocols for mutual trust establishment and a collaborative model for data dependability resolving data collision problems in pervasive service environments.

在现代社会中物流服务的诚信正在变的越发的重要,选择安全可靠值得信赖的SOA框架创建灵活的物流服务模块再加上RFID技术可以使整个供应链可视可信。

Logistics industry has been and continues to look for information technology (IT) systems and solutions to bridge three flows (physical goods, cash, and information), streamlining the supply chains by integrating transportation, distribution centers, retailers and manufacturers. Built upon the networked logistics systems, modern logistics demand more and more professional logistics services in order to improve profitability and competitiveness. These logistics services diversify and penetrate into all domains of logistics management in order to enhance resource utilization and reducing operational cost. As evidence of this trend, IDC research reported that a third of logistics services segments are keeping involved and being refined.We predict, in the future, that current networked logistics will no doubt be involved in the next generation of E-logistics dominated by pervasive logistics services.

This new pervasive logistics services paradigm promises more flexible and adaptable logistics; available anywhere, anytime, and in any means, these pervasive logistics services ride upon networked logistics systems, making it possible for organizations to better align IT resources with business priorities. This, in turn, demands seamless and/or dynamically created trustworthy communication and interconnections among logistics participants. In this chapter, we will illustrate this pervasive logistics service vision and present a trustworthy pervasive service framework for logistics.

To accomplish this, an architecture supporting the evolution of system development and easy integration of new and legacy systems is needed. Thus, we propose the adoption of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), utilizing technologies, such as Web service-based infrastructure, repository, and application development, to develop a trustworthy environment. This will enable the design, implementation, and control of logistics information essential to the delivery of logistics systems.

本章中还重点介绍RFID物流环境中应用经常遇到的几个问题:频率环境冲突、成本资源限制、隐私问题等。

The low cost demanded for RFID tags, the power restrictions, and being nonresistant to physical tampering are common limits in the RFID system. Therefore, most traditional security schemes widely used in Internet or existing applications are not feasible in RFID environments. Some lightweight and resource-saving security mechanisms must be imposed on the RFID tags and readers to address the authentication and privacy problems.

Powerful track and trace capabilities promised by RFID tags create new threats to user privacy. The bogus identity also increases risks for RFID applications. As a result, some light weight and resource-saving security mechanisms must be imposed on the RFID tags to address the authentication and privacy problems in RFID and in , authors proposed a few privacy solutions. In, the authors provided detailed discussions on a XOR-based, lightweight mutual authentication RFID protocol. The primary advantage of the protocol proposed in is that it only needs simple Hash operation, XOR, and random number generation for both tag and reader (or backend system).This simple function can be implemented easily in passive tags with little incremental cost. Another strong point of the protocol is that the read/write access is integrated into the protocol. This makes it very suitable to the applications in which each tag has many restricted access memory blocks. Its resource-saving feature, scalability, and high performance meet the requirements in metering and payment of E-commerce applications.

Many readers in a RFID application form a reader network through which readers can send the data to a backend system. However, reader collision problems cannot be avoided in such multi reader RFID environments. Unlike the tag collision problem, which has been widely discussed in existing research, the impact of reader collision is not regarded as important as tag collision because it seldom required multi readers in the past few years. For improving read rate and correctness, several readers are put together to form a dense RFID reader environment. In a dense reader environment, reader collision is also becoming a key issue for the application of RFID. The current RFID reader network is a centralized model in which any message is streamed to a single, central backend system.

11  在办公环境中的位置跟踪:全国范围实例研究(Location Tracking in an Office Environment: The Nationwide Case Study

本章的重点是介绍办公环境跟踪系统中组织,社会,空间,时间、技术的综合部署。通过对整个真实办公环境中各种要素调查的结果,得到研究结论和解决方案。

This chapter focuses on studying organizational, social, spatial, temporal, and technical issues related to the deployment of location tracking systems in an office environment.

We have investigated and present findings on how workers perceive the experience of the surveillance and understand the scope of the deployment, the reality of wearing a tag, the pervasive nature of the organizational culture, and its influence in the attitudes observed.

We have explored these issues using an ethnographic approach and qualitative methods, participant observation, and interviews. The fieldwork has been carried out in a real office setting and has taken the form of a case study.

12  普遍存在的计算安全:蓝牙示例(Pervasive Computing Security: Bluetooth® Example

本章主要介绍蓝牙的概念、功能模块、内部原理、通信协议、加密算法等蓝牙的相关知识。

13  物联网:环境识别的远景展望(Internet of Things: A Context-Awareness  Perspective

本章主要通过介绍物联网的条件、要素,对物联网、识别技术的未来发展进行展望。

The next wave in the era of computing will be outside the realm of the traditional desktop. In the Internet of Things* paradigm , everything of value will be on the network in one form or another. Radio frequency Identification  (RFID) and sensor network technologies will give rise to this new standard, in which information and communication are invisibly embedded in the environment around us. Everyday objects, such as cars, coffee cups, refrigerators, bathtubs, and more advanced, loosely coupled, computational and information services will be in each others interaction range and will communicate with one another. Large amounts of data will circulate in order to create smart and proactive environments that will significantly enhance both the work and leisure experiences of people. Smart interacting objects that adapt to the current situation without any human involvement will become the next logical step to people already connected anytime and anywhere. With the growing presence of WiFi and 3G wireless Internet access, the evolution toward ubiquitous information and communication networks is already evident nowadays. However, for the Internet of Things vision to successfully emerge, the computing criterion will need to go beyond traditional mobile computing scenarios that use smart phones and portables, and evolve into connecting everyday existing objects and embedding intelligence into our environment. For technology to disappear from the consciousness of the user, the Internet of Things demands: (1) a shared understanding of the situation of its users and their appliances, (2) software architectures and pervasive communication networks to process and convey the contextual information to where it is relevant, and (3) the computational artifacts in the Internet of Things that aim for autonomous and smart behavior. With these three fundamental grounds in place, smart connectivity and context-aware computation via anything, anywhere, and anytime can be accomplished.

三.名词解释

(一)RFID

RFIDRadio Frequency Identification的缩写,即射频识别,俗称电子标签。

RFID射频识别是一种非接触式的自动识别技术,它通过射频信号自动识别目标对象并获取相关数据,识别工作无须人工干预,可工作于各种恶劣环境。RFID技术可识别高速运动物体并可同时识别多个标签,操作快捷方便。

物联网中非常重要的技术是RFID电子标签技术。以简单RFID系统为基础,结合已有的网络技术、数据库技术、中间件技术等,构筑一个由大量联网的阅读器和无数移动的标签组成的,比Internet更为庞大的物联网成为RFID技术发展的趋势。

(二)UCC/EAN-128条码

UCC/EAN-128条码符号是ANCC系统(即EAN·UCC系统)中使用的一种条码符号,也是一种商品条码符号。UCC/EAN-128条码是普通128条码(即Code 128)的子集。经原国际物品编码协会(EAN)、美国统一代码委员会(UCC)和国际自动识别制造商协会(AIM)同意,把起始符后面的第一个字符是Code 128中的“功能1(FNC1)字符的符号结构给EAN·UCC系统专门使用。

UCC/EAN-128条码是EAN·UCC系统中唯一可用于表示附加信息的条码,可广泛用于非零售贸易项目、物流单元、资产、位置的标识。目前,UCC/EAN-128条码已被更名为GS1-128条码。

四.应用原理

(一)原理

1RFID原理

 RFID原理之RFID标签:被称为电子标签或智能标签,它是内存带有天线的芯片,芯片中存储有能够识别目标的信息。RFID标签具有持久性,信息接收传播穿透性强,存储信息容量大、种类多等特点。有些RFID标签支持读写功能,目标物体的信息能随时被更新。

RFID的数据传输和处理系统:解读器通过接收标签发出的无线电波接收读取数据。最常见的是被动射频系统,当解读器遇见RFID标签时,发出电磁波,周围形成电磁场,标签从电磁场中获得能量激活标签中的微芯片电路,芯片转换电磁波,然后发送给解读器,解读器把它转换成相关数据。控制计算器就可以处理这些数据从而进行管理控制。在主动射频系统中,标签中装有电池在有效范围内活动。

 

RFID technologies can be classified into three categories: passive RFID, active RFID, and semi passive RFID. Based on the radio frequency used, the passive RFID technologies are usually categorized into low frequency (LF) RFID, high frequency (HF) RFID, ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID, and microwave RFID. The essential components of RFID hardware are:

1. RFID tag: A tiny silicon chip attached to a small antenna.

2. Reader antenna: Used to radiate energy and then capture the energy sent back from the tag. It can be integrated with the reader or connected to the reader by cable.

3. Reader: The device that talks with tags. A reader may support one or more antennae.

The passive RFID tag powers up and exchanges commands/responses by gathering energy from the RF transmitted from the reader antenna by means of inductive coupling (LF and HF) or backscatter coupling (UHF). (Figure 2.3a illustrates the inductive coupling and Figure 2.3b illustrates the backscatter coupling.) The inductive coupling uses the magnetic field while the backscatter coupling uses electromagnetic waves to exchange data between the reader and the tag .

 

2.条码原理

由于条形码的识读是通过条形码的条和空的颜色对比度来实现的,一般情况下,只要能够满足对比度(PCS值)的要求的颜色即可使用。最好的颜色搭配是黑条白空。

由于不同颜色的物体,其反射的可见光的波长不同,白色物体能反射各种波长的可见光,黑色物体则吸收各种波长的可见光,所以当条码扫描器光源发出的光经光阑及凸透镜A后,照射到黑白相间的条码上时,反射光经凸透镜B聚焦后,照射到光电转换器上,于是光电转换器接收到与白条和黑条相应的强弱不同的反射光信号,并转换成相应的电信号输出到放大整形电路.白条、黑条的宽度不同,相应的电信号持续时间长短也不同。

Barcodes can be read by barcode scanners, which we see at a typical point of sale (POS) in retail stores.

   Figure 2.2 illustrates a basic barcode system. Barcodes are read or scanned by a barcode reader and the reader is connected to a computer. The operator has to physically align or point the barcode reader with or to the barcode to read the identification information. The computer software processes the identification information picked up by the scanner. Programmable logic controller (PLC) is often used to control the scanner in a more automated process, such as the production line. The primary scanning technology for barcode is LED (light-emitting diode). More advanced scanning, such as CCD (charge-coupled device), laser, and imager are used in industry automatic processing.

(二)性能综述

本部分通过列举条码与RFID在实际应用中的优缺点,对两种识别技术进行对比。

1.条码

11 优点

条形码是迄今为止最经济、实用,应用范围最广的一种自动识别技术。条码可以利用任何的黑白打印机进行打印,可以方便直接的在任何物品上粘贴。而且条码的制作成本低廉,甚至其中还包括硬件成本。条码的使用减少了企业的运营成本、劳务成本,减少了收入损失,保证了业务流程中的错误数据。以下是条码技术与传统手工相比的几个显著优点:

1、 可靠性强:可靠性较高:键盘输入数据出错率为三百分之一,利用光学字符识别技术出错率为万分之一,而采用条形码技术误码率低于百万分之一。

2、 效率高:条形码的读取速度非常快,平均每秒40个字符。与键盘输入相比,条形码输入的速度是键盘输入的5倍多。

3、 成本低、易操作:条形码与其它自动化识别技术成本相比较,仅仅需要一小张贴纸和相对构造简单的光学扫描仪器、打印机即可,成本相当低廉。

4、 采集信息量较大:利用传统的一维条形码一次可采集几十位字符的信息量,二维条形码更可以携带数千个字符的信息。

Today’s barcodes have two forms: one dimensional (1D) barcode and two dimensional (2D) barcode. The 1D barcodes use bars and gaps to encode identification information such as serial numbers. The 2D barcodes consist of more complicated patterns and may encode up to 4 kilobytes of data.

 Figure 2.1 shows the two types of barcodes. Although 1Dis the more prevalent barcode used in daily life, the 2D barcode is becoming increasingly popular because it needs significantly lower surface area to encode the same amount of data as compared to 1Dbarcodes. Barcodes can be printed from most printers. One dimensional barcodes usually have coded readable ID printed along with the barcode.

5、 灵活实用:条形码的标识既可以作为一种识别手段单独的使用,也可以和有关识别设备组成一个系统实现自动化识别,还可以和其他控制设备联接起来实现自动化管理。

12 不足

然而作为最稳定和使用范围最广的识别技术,条形码依然存在几个不足。

1、在恶劣环境下,如人为粗心导致的破坏、外部因素的影响,如在雨水和低温环境下,标签是非常容易被破坏的。

2、在阅读条码的时候,贴有条形码的标签和条形码扫描仪必须在很近而且固定的距离及方位。这也就意味着大多数时候,必须进行手工扫描。

3、条形码技术没有能力去进行穿透扫描,因此工人必须将物流包装打开扫描其中每一个对象,从而产生密集的人工劳动。而且很明显条形码技术无法对高速运动的标签进行扫描,从而降低工作效率。

4、条形码标签所容纳的信息较为有限,随着物品分类的逐步细化,不能很好的满足人们对物品在质量安全、规格、使用说明等方面全方位的需求信息。

2RFID

11 安全

RFID标签内多为存储物品的重要数据,如果其内容被修改或删除将造成重大损失和安全隐患,所以RFID标签内的数据存取都需要有密码保护,因为RFID标签的存储空间较大,使其可以应用更加安全可靠的复杂加密算法,便于正常渠道的安全检查,使其内容不易被伪造及变更,以防止未经授权的阅读和写入。这是条形码技术所不能做到的。

Security checks can be added into RFID tags to prevent unauthorized reading and writing. Fear of the disclosure of privacy slows down the practice of many advance technologies. The RFID is one of them. Fortunately, a more sophisticated authentication encryption algorithm is being implemented in the RFID tags and readers. By adding such security check functions into the implementation, RFID is becoming the dependable technology to prevent ID theft and counterfeiting. On the contrary, its close counterpart— barcode—does not have such capability.

12 范围

1RFID标签支持快速大范围的扫描,RFID读取器可同时读取数个 RFID标签。RFID标签还可根据频率的不同可以支持几厘米到几百米的读写距离,而条形码以及其他的识别技术读取范围较短,必须在近距离而且没有物体阻挡的情况下,才可以辨读条形码。

High reading speed, multiple reading and writing simultaneously: Depending on the technology used, the reading speed of RFID can be up to 1000 tags/ s. Higher reading speed leads to higher throughput in the system.

RFID has a longer reading/writing range compared to barcodes and most other identification technologies. The sensing range of RFID tags varies from a few centimeters to hundreds of meters .

2、穿透性和无屏障阅读。在贴有RFID标签的物品被覆盖的情况下,RFID能够穿透纸张、木材和塑料等非金属或非透明的材质进行穿透性通信。举例来说,当贴有RFID电子标签的产品装在船舶集装箱中的时候,没有必要打开集装箱一个接一个的阅读标签物品,因为通常数据读取器能够通过阻碍视线的材料。

 The RFID technology does not need to be line-of-sight. For example, when shipping a container with RFID tags installed on products within the container, it is not necessary to open the container and read the tagged items one-by-one because the readers can typically read tag data through or around blocking materials.

3、使用范围广。RFID标签具有较强的抗污染能力和耐久性。传统条形码的载体是纸张,因此容易受到污染,但 RFID对水、油和化学药品等物质具有很强抵抗性。此外,由于条形码是附于塑料袋或外包装纸箱上,所以特别容易受到折损;RFID卷标是将数据存在芯片中,因此可以免受污损。同时读取RFID标签的时候不需要光源,这也是条形码不能相比的。

13 前景

1、大容量存储应对需求信息的增加。RFID标签的存储范围从几百K到几M,一维条形码的容量是 50Bytes,二维条形码最大的容量可储存 2 3000字符, RFID最大的容量则有数 M。随着记忆载体的发展,数据容量也有不断扩大的趋势,未来物品所需携带的资料量会越来越大,对卷标所能扩充容量的需求也相应增加。现行一维EAN/UPC条形码,其容量不过几十个字符,而容量最大的二维条形码(PDF417),最多也只能存储2725个数字,容量受限制,决定了条形码只能充当一种标示数据,而不能直接对产品进行描述,如果我们想知道产品的有关信息,必须事先建立以条形码所表示的代码为索引字段的数据库,然后通过识读条形码进入数据库。

RFID标签本身可以存放大量的用户信息和业务信息,与传统的自动身份识别与数据采集技术相比,对后台数据库的紧密程度有所降低。

The data carried by an RFID tag is rewritable. The memory storage ranges from several bytes to a few megabytes. With the user memory, the business information carried by the tag can be changed during any point of the process dynamically. More data can be carried on the tag itself so that the tightly coupled back end database may not be required, which is not the case in the traditional AIDC approach.

2、全程自动化应对现代化生产、物流。例如,在食品药品运输过程中温度和湿度的监测,不可能通过人员手工控制,RFID标签结合温度传感器可以准确监控现状及出现的变化。因此,RFID是更有效的处理,更安全的质量保证载体。

The combination of RFID and sensor technology could bring more value to enterprise applications. For example, during the food transportation, it is important that the temperature of the food be monitored and controlled. Normally the temperature is set on the refrigeration device. In a large container, the temperature may vary at different points within the containers, especially when large numbers of items are being transported. An RFID tag combined with a temperature sensor could locate and precisely monitor the status of each individual item.

3、其他可在未来供应链优化中起到关键的地方比如:及时监控仓库库存,及时补货,改进仓储配销能力;及时监控销售数据,改善零售终端的销售能力;全面监控物品位置,防止假冒产品的插入等等。

RFID is more effective when faster processing, longer read range, flexible data carrying capability and more secure transactions are required. Some of he widely acknowledged benefits of RFID are that it could:

1. Improve warehouse and distribution productivity.

2. Improve retail and point-of-sale productivity.

3. Reduce out-of-stock and shrinkage.

4. Help prevent the insertion of counterfeit products into supply chains.

14 标准

EPC系统是一个非常先进的、综合性的和复杂的系统。其最终目标是为每一单品建立全球的、开放的标识标准。

为了解决第一个问题,EANUCC(目前已经合并改名为GS1全球第一商贸标准化组织)联合推出产品电子标签(EPC)技术。产品电子标签是一种新型的射频识别标签,每个标签包含唯一的电子产品代码,可以对所有实体对象提供唯一有效的标识。它利用计算机自动地对物品的位置及其状态进行管理,并将信息充分应用于物流过程中,详细掌握从企业流向消费者的每一件商品的动态和流通过程,这样可以对具体产品在供应链上进行跟踪。

EPC与现行的商品零售条码GTIN完全兼容,详情请见附录《EPCEAN.UCC之间的兼容问题》。

15 方式

1RFID表现方式多样。RFID标签体积小型化、形状多样化,在读取上并不受尺寸大小与形状限制,不需为了读取精确度而配合纸张的固定尺寸和印刷品质。

2RFID读写方式灵活。RFID标签可重复使用,现今的条形码印刷上去之后就无法更改,RFID标签则可以重复地新增、修改、删除RFID卷标内储存的数据,方便信息的更新。而且RFID标签写入数据的时间相比打印条形码更少、更快捷。

16 不足

虽然RFID相比条形码有着诸多的优势,但其不足之处也非常明显。

However, despite these obvious advantages, there exist some disadvantages as well:

1、虽然RFID产业正努力减少制造成本,但RFID标签的制造费用仍然非常昂贵。

A major drawback of RFID is its cost. The current price for each UHF tag is still costly. The RFID industry is trying hard to reduce the manufacturing cost. Within a few years, the industry hopes to reduce the cost to about 3 cents per tag for UHF tags. A 5 cent RFID tag is already available .

2、读取时仍有特殊环境对其造成影响。举例来说,在对用金属或者液体包围的贴有RFID标签的物品时会影响读取的准确率。

Reading and writing reliability are largely affected by the material of the tagged product and its surrounding environment. For example, it is difficult to read a UHF RFID tag surrounded by liquid or metal. By studying the physics and doing experiments, we observed that by properly placing or encapsulating the RFID tag, the reading performance was improved. New methodologies are being developed to overcome the challenges faced by environmental factors. For example, new UHF tags and readers based on Near-Field Communication (NFC) developed by Impinj demonstrates that NFC UHF RFID tags can be read even when the tags are in liquid . Various tag encapsulation methods and RF technologies are being researched to improve the performance of RFID. We believe that these problems will be solved by technological advancements in this field.

五.物流应用实例

(一)在库

典型的仓库管理应用主要是库存管理及库存变化、信息收集、信息反馈等并将重要信息向管理员报告。仓库管理系统包括系统管理、仓储/检索操作管理、订单管理、计划管理、报告管理、销售管理、数据维护等功能。在仓库管理系统的基础上应用RFID(射频识别技术)将会对内部数据流进行改变和优化。融合了RFID技术后的系统数据流程图,如图9.8

 

Typical warehouse management application provides the functions of inventory management, inventory change, material requisition/returning record, etc. It is important to provide various inventory status reports instantly to managers. Warehouse management systems involve system management, storage/retrieval operation management, order form management, plan for delivering of goods, report management, inquiry management, sales return management, data maintenance, etc. Deployment of RFID in the warehouse management system will change the internal data flow. RFID interface systems are integrated with various software modules, as shown in Figure 9.8.

RFID为基础的管理系统增强了出入库信息采集、监测和物品定位跟踪管理功能。在以条形码为基础德管理系统中,由于需要人员利用手持终端扫描器扫描物品条码数据发送到后台数据库的方式在效率和灵活性上的弊端,严重限制了M2M的信息交换。图9.9为以RFID为基础的出入库流程图。所有货物都通过仓库大门进行货物信息的自动收集,并完成数量清点和信息验证。

 

RFID-based storage/retrieval examination modules provide functions of inbound or outbound checking and location tracking management. In the traditional barcode-based method, the handset terminals scan the barcodes attached to goods and report the collected data to the backend server. Due to lower scanning efficiency and less flexibility of barcodes, there are some strict limitations with the machine-to-machine automatic information exchange. The process of a RFID based solution is shown in Figure 9.9. RFID readers automatically collect all goods information while they are passing through the gate of a warehouse, and then complete counting management and report the goods information to the database of warehouse management system.

货物入库后,以RFID为基础的智能货物位置跟踪管理功能流程,如图9.10。固定位置的RFID探测器会自动检查货物情况,并更新库存信息。在仓库中我们利用RFID可以跟踪货品挑选、加工、包装、转移的全过程。

After goods have been inbound, the RFID-based tracking management system will handle the delivery process of goods, as shown in Figure 9.10. Fixed RFID readers automatically count and check the goods, then the inventory information is updated. In the process of picking, circulating, and processing and packing, goods can be tracked by the RFID readers distributed throughout the warehouse.

 

(二)在途

基于RFID的自动车辆识别系统具有物流管理、跟踪和安全管理等功能,非常适合对物流有强大依赖的大型流通企业。尽管一般的车辆监控系统可以对车辆进行注册管理,但它却无法检测车辆运送货物的各种信息和位置情况。

An automatic vehicle identification system is more suitable for large-scale manufacturers, with thousands of vehicles entering and leaving each day. Although an original vehicle monitor system can register the vehicles, it cannot locate the vehicles or check the transported goods. RFID-based solutions can integrate vehicle management, logistics management, and tracking and security management for those large-scale manufacturers.

基于RFID的汽车电子许可证可以成为主动有效的管理工具。RFID读取器部署在大门与后台信息管理系统相结合可以查到进出的汽车信息与所载货物的信息。在主要道路部署的RFID读取器可以了解每辆管内汽车的位置和速度,整个结构如图9.11

RFID-based vehicle electronic licenses can be used to take the initiative to efficiently manage vehicles. With the deployment of RFID readers at main gates, both the information of the trucks and their goods can be checked according to the logistical task in the backend information system. With the deployment of RFID readers at the main cross roads, even the location and speed of a vehicle can be obtained, which makes the cost much lower than deployment of the satellite global positioning system (GPS) technology on each vehicle. The entire system architecture is shown in Figure 9.11.

每辆管内汽车粘贴不可撕毁嵌入RFID芯片的授权标签来验证进出车辆的真伪。在高速移动中的汽车也可以被监控,企业在不同场所安装读取器读取管内汽车的位置信息和货物信息,对任何可疑车辆进行排查和报警。

A RFID electronic license is delivered to each vehicle that is authorized to enter the enterprise. The license embeds unique and untearable RFID chips, so it cannot be replaced with a false license. Moving vehicles can also be interrogated and examined. Enterprise security departments can collect vehicle information at different gates or places, and check this information with the logistic information management system. The unmanned sentries at gates connect with alarm systems to intercept suspicious vehicles, if necessary. With the help of wireless terminal equipment, safeguards can also be set up at temporary checkpoints. Any vehicle passing the collection areas in an enterprise will be recorded. According to records in the information center, any suspicious vehicles can be checked and reported to the police.

基于RFID的车辆信息跟踪系统是全自动的,无须人工干预,从而减少了工作量。另一方面最大限度的保证了货物的安全,防止假冒伪劣产品通过货物运输过程的渗透。

The data and information of the RFID-based vehicle tracking system are collected automatically, without manual intervention, thus it can reduce the workload of safeguards. And, on the other hand, it can effectively avoid the possibility of collusion. As extension applications, tracking transport vehicles can also be used for tracking goods and getting the current location of possible stolen goods, which is extremely important in preventing the further spread of fake and shoddy products.

 

六.结语

通过学习THE INTERNET OF THINGS(From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems)一书,我对RFID的产生、发展、困惑及应用都有了较为全面的初步了解。感知识别技术的目的在于通过收集、分析社会各个组成要素的背景资料,创造一个智能的、整体的可以提供给用户一系列娱乐、商务、生活的环境。虽然目前还面临着诸如非法侵入、异质环境等挑战,但通过日趋完备的硬件和软件建设,必将使未来的智能环境具有高度的适应性。

Context awareness plays an important role in the aforementioned software architectures to enable services customization according to the current situation with minimal human intervention. Acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting relevant context information  regarding the user will be a key ingredient to create a whole new range of smart entertainment and business applications that are more supportive to the user. Although context-aware systems have been in the research epicenter for more than a decade, the ability to convey and select the most appropriate information to achieve non intrusive behavior on multi user-converged service platforms in mobile and heterogeneous environments remains a significant management challenge. Interoperability at the scale of the Internet of Things should go beyond syntactical interfaces and requires the sharing of common semantics across

all software architectures. It also demands a seamless integration of existing computational artifacts (hardware and software) and communication infrastructures. Only then can context information be successfully shared between highly adaptive services across heterogeneous devices on large-scale networks that consider this information relevant for their purposes.

RFID技术在众多领域的应用前景都是美好的,它最大的优势就是提高物品的安全性。RFID所能提供的信息可以用作监控货物、资产甚至是人。在食品药品行业可以在任何环境时刻跟踪和验证货物的真实性;在零售过程中,也可以使用RFID技术来防止货物的丢失。

RFID has the potential to improve numerous processes and provide added safety to the public. RFID simply provides information that can be used to track and monitor goods, assets, and even people. This is of great advantage in the retail and food sectors to track goods, and in the pharmaceutical and medical sectors to track and verify the authenticity of drugs. Equipped with sensors, RFID tags can provide warnings when goods or medications are not kept within acceptable environmental limits. In the retail sectors, companies can use RFID to prevent the loss of goods in the supply chain and in the stores.

RFID is an emerging technology for embedding sensing capabilities in everyday objects and is gaining momentum as a popular means for automatic unique ID number that can be read by an RFID reader. Active RFID tags have their own power supply to transmit their signal, while passive ones use the electrical current induced in the antenna during reception of the incoming radio frequency signal emitted by the RFID reader. The presence of an internal power supply helps to extend the range of operation and the amount of information that can be transmitted.

The majority of passive tags typically have anywhere from 64 or 96 bits to 1 kb of nonvolatile EEPROM memory, while active tags have battery-backed memories as high as 128 kb and more. The ability to store and remotely recognize tags at a high pace (in the order of hundreds per second) makes RFID a promising technology for identification and locating purposes in context-aware and pervasive computing . RFID tags are mainly used for asset tracking and in inventory systems at libraries and shopping malls where they replace the older barcode technology. However, RFID technology is also being applied to the tagging of humans to identify them as well as locate their whereabouts. RFID enabled E-passports are issued by many countries, while implantable RFID chips are used to track patients in a hospital and access their medical records. Philipose et al. and Smith et al. also illustrate how RFID technology can be used to infer human activity. As such, it is clear that RFID provides added value to the domain of context-aware computing and to the Internet of Things paradigm in general for sensing identity and location.

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