###### [leetcode] 207. Course Schedule

There are a total of n courses you have to take, labeled from 0 to n - 1.

Some courses may have prerequisites, for example to take course 0 you have to first take course 1, which is expressed as a pair: [0,1]

Given the total number of courses and a list of prerequisite pairs, is it possible for you to finish all courses?

For example:

2, [[1,0]]

There are a total of 2 courses to take. To take course 1 you should have finished course 0. So it is possible.

2, [[1,0],[0,1]]

There are a total of 2 courses to take. To take course 1 you should have finished course 0, and to take course 0 you should also have finished course 1. So it is impossible.

Note:
The input prerequisites is a graph represented by a list of edges, not adjacency matrices. Read more about how a graph is represented.

Hints:

1. This problem is equivalent to finding if a cycle exists in a directed graph. If a cycle exists, no topological ordering exists and therefore it will be impossible to take all courses.
2. Topological Sort via DFS - A great video tutorial (21 minutes) on Coursera explaining the basic concepts of Topological Sort.
3. Topological sort could also be done via BFS.

BFS 实现topological sort。

class Solution {
public:
bool canFinish(int numCourses, vector<pair<int, int>>& prerequisites) {
vector<vector<int>> graph(numCourses, vector<int>(0));
vector<int> in_degree(numCourses,0);

// initilize in-degree
for(auto a:prerequisites){
graph[a.second].push_back(a.first);
in_degree[a.first]++;
}

queue<int> q;
for(int i=0; i<numCourses;i++){
if(in_degree[i]==0) q.push(i);
}

while(!q.empty()){
int k = q.front();
q.pop();
for(auto a:graph[k]){
in_degree[a]--;
if(in_degree[a]==0) q.push(a);
}
}

for(int i=0; i<numCourses; i++){
if(in_degree[i]!=0) return false;
}
return true;
}
};

class Solution {
public:
bool canFinish(int numCourses, vector<pair<int, int>>& prerequisites) {
vector<vector<int> > graph(numCourses, vector<int>(0));
vector<int> visit(numCourses, 0);
// visit: 0 has not been visited
//        1 has been visited
//       -1 is being visited in current flow

for(auto a:prerequisites){
graph[a.second].push_back(a.first);
}

for(int i=0; i<numCourses; i++){
if(!canFinish(graph, visit, i)) return false;
}

return true;
}

bool canFinish(vector<vector<int> >& graph, vector<int>& visit, int k){
if (visit[k]==-1) return false;
if (visit[k]==1) return true;

visit[k]=-1;
for(auto a:graph[k]){
if(!canFinish(graph, visit, a)) return false;
}

visit[k] = 1;
return true;
}
};

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[leetcode] 207. Course Schedule