使用kubeadm的方式部署v1.17.0版本k8s

官方提供的三种Kubernetes部署方式:

1、minikube   Minikube是一个工具,可以在本地快速运行一个单点的Kubernetes,尝试Kubernetes或日常开发的用户使用。不能用于生产环境。官方地址:https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/minikube/

2、kubeadm   Kubeadm也是一个工具,提供kubeadm init和kubeadm join,用于快速部署Kubernetes集群。官方地址:https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/setup-tools/kubeadm/kubeadm/

3、二进制包   从官方下载发行版的二进制包,手动部署每个组件,组成Kubernetes集群。

kubeadm的安装文档

没有特殊说明的情况下,以下操作默认在所有主机执行。

准备工作

  • 配置ip、dns、hostname、hosts文件
  • 关闭防火墙、selinux、swap分区
  • 安装依赖包
  • 同步时间
  • 内核参数优化

环境信息

  • 操作系统:CentOS Linux release 7.7.1908(core)

  • docker:19.03.5

  • kubernetes:v1.17.0

  • 主机名和ip:

hostname ip
master 10.10.3.52
node01 10.10.3.53
node02 10.10.3.54

同步所有主机的hosts文件:

cat <<EOF >>/etc/hosts

10.10.3.52 master
10.10.3.53 node01
10.10.3.54 node02

EOF

关闭 防火墙&selinux&swap

systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld
setenforce 0
sed -i 's/^SELINUX=.*/SELINUX=disabled/' /etc/selinux/config
swapoff -a
sed -i '/ swap / s/^\(.*\)$/#\1/g' /etc/fstab

安装依赖包

在每台机器上安装依赖包:

yum install -y epel-release
yum install -y conntrack ntpdate ntp ipvsadm ipset jq iptables curl sysstat libseccomp wget

同步时间

在每台机器上执行同步时间:

ntpdate time1.aliyun.com

加载内核模块

modprobe ip_vs_rr
modprobe br_netfilter

优化内核参数

cat > /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf << EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables=1
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle=0
vm.swappiness=0 # 禁止使用 swap 空间,只有当系统 OOM 时才允许使用它
vm.overcommit_memory=1 # 不检查物理内存是否够用
vm.panic_on_oom=0 # 开启 OOM
fs.inotify.max_user_instances=8192
fs.inotify.max_user_watches=1048576
fs.file-max=52706963
fs.nr_open=52706963
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max=2310720
EOF
sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/kubernetes.conf

安装kubernetes和docker

  • 安装k8s和docker
  • 所有节点添加k8s和docker的yum源
  • yum安装docker,启动docker
  • yum安装kubeadm,kubelet和kubectl
  • 部署主节点,部署网络插件,工作节点注册到主节点
  • 在每台机器上都需要操作

添加kubernetes的yum源

cat <<EOF >>/etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes repo
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64/
gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
enabled=1
EOF

添加docker的yum源

wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

安装docker

yum -y install docker-ce

启动docker


systemctl enable docker
systemctl start docker

cat <<EOF >>/etc/docker/daemon.json
{
"registry-mirrors": ["https://dlbpv56y.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF

systemctl restart docker

安装kubeadm,kubelet和kubectl(kubectl可以不必在所有节点上安装)

yum -y install kubelet kubeadm kubectl
systemctl enable kubelet

部署Kubernetes Master

此操作在master节点执行(注意ip请更换成自己环境中的主节点ip;这步等的时间长一些,我用了10分钟)

kubeadm init --apiserver-advertise-address=10.10.3.52 --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers --kubernetes-version v1.17.0 --service-cidr=10.1.0.0/16 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16

输出内容:

[root@master ~]# kubeadm init --apiserver-advertise-address=10.10.3.52 --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers --kubernetes-version v1.17.0 --service-cidr=10.1.0.0/16 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16
W0102 10:56:48.971892   16147 validation.go:28] Cannot validate kube-proxy config - no validator is available
W0102 10:56:48.972021   16147 validation.go:28] Cannot validate kubelet config - no validator is available
[init] Using Kubernetes version: v1.17.0
[preflight] Running pre-flight checks
    [WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/
[preflight] Pulling images required for setting up a Kubernetes cluster
[preflight] This might take a minute or two, depending on the speed of your internet connection
[preflight] You can also perform this action in beforehand using 'kubeadm config images pull'
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env"
[kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml"
[kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet
[certs] Using certificateDir folder "/etc/kubernetes/pki"
[certs] Generating "ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver" certificate and key
[certs] apiserver serving cert is signed for DNS names [master01 kubernetes kubernetes.default kubernetes.default.svc kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local] and IPs [10.1.0.1 192.168.1.230]
[certs] Generating "apiserver-kubelet-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "front-proxy-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/ca" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "etcd/server" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/server serving cert is signed for DNS names [master01 localhost] and IPs [192.168.1.230 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/peer" certificate and key
[certs] etcd/peer serving cert is signed for DNS names [master01 localhost] and IPs [192.168.1.230 127.0.0.1 ::1]
[certs] Generating "etcd/healthcheck-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "apiserver-etcd-client" certificate and key
[certs] Generating "sa" key and public key
[kubeconfig] Using kubeconfig folder "/etc/kubernetes"
[kubeconfig] Writing "admin.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "kubelet.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "controller-manager.conf" kubeconfig file
[kubeconfig] Writing "scheduler.conf" kubeconfig file
[control-plane] Using manifest folder "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-apiserver"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-controller-manager"
W0102 11:05:25.166035   16147 manifests.go:214] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[control-plane] Creating static Pod manifest for "kube-scheduler"
W0102 11:05:25.167026   16147 manifests.go:214] the default kube-apiserver authorization-mode is "Node,RBAC"; using "Node,RBAC"
[etcd] Creating static Pod manifest for local etcd in "/etc/kubernetes/manifests"
[wait-control-plane] Waiting for the kubelet to boot up the control plane as static Pods from directory "/etc/kubernetes/manifests". This can take up to 4m0s
[apiclient] All control plane components are healthy after 36.502566 seconds
[upload-config] Storing the configuration used in ConfigMap "kubeadm-config" in the "kube-system" Namespace
[kubelet] Creating a ConfigMap "kubelet-config-1.17" in namespace kube-system with the configuration for the kubelets in the cluster
[upload-certs] Skipping phase. Please see --upload-certs
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node master01 as control-plane by adding the label "node-role.kubernetes.io/master=''"
[mark-control-plane] Marking the node master01 as control-plane by adding the taints [node-role.kubernetes.io/master:NoSchedule]
[bootstrap-token] Using token: h21v01.ca56fof5m8myjy3e
[bootstrap-token] Configuring bootstrap tokens, cluster-info ConfigMap, RBAC Roles
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow Node Bootstrap tokens to post CSRs in order for nodes to get long term certificate credentials
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow the csrapprover controller automatically approve CSRs from a Node Bootstrap Token
[bootstrap-token] configured RBAC rules to allow certificate rotation for all node client certificates in the cluster
[bootstrap-token] Creating the "cluster-info" ConfigMap in the "kube-public" namespace
[kubelet-finalize] Updating "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf" to point to a rotatable kubelet client certificate and key
[addons] Applied essential addon: CoreDNS
[addons] Applied essential addon: kube-proxy

Your Kubernetes control-plane has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

Then you can join any number of worker nodes by running the following on each as root:

kubeadm join 192.168.1.230:6443 --token h21v01.ca56fof5m8myjy3e \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:4596521eed7d2daf11832be58b03bee46b9c248829ce31886d40fe2e997b1919 

根据输出的提示,还需要做以下几个动作:

  • 1、开始使用集群前,需要在主节点上执行(这步是配置kubectl):
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
  • 2、还需要部署一个pod 网络,我们选择flannel

安装网络插件

一般的网络无法访问quay.io,可以曲线救国,找国内的镜像源,或者从docker hub上拉取flannel的镜像,此处选择第2种方式。

手动拉取flannel镜像
在集群的所有机器上操作

在线安装

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml

手动拉取flannel的docker镜像

docker pull easzlab/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64

修改镜像名称

docker tag easzlab/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64 quay.io/coreos/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64

下载并安装flannel资源配置清单(此操作在master节点上进行)

[root@master ~]# wget  https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
[root@master01 ~]# kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml 
podsecuritypolicy.policy/psp.flannel.unprivileged created
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created
serviceaccount/flannel created
configmap/kube-flannel-cfg created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-amd64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm64 created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le created
daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-s390x created
  • 3、工作节点需要注册到master

node节点加入集群

使用kubeadm join 注册Node节点到Matser

(kubeadm join 的内容,在上面kubeadm init (kubeadm init输出结果的最后写明了) 已经生成好了)

此操作在node节点上进行操作:

kubeadm join 10.10.3.52:6443 --token h21v01.ca56fof5m8myjy3e \
--discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:4596521eed7d2daf11832be58b03bee46b9c248829ce31886d40fe2e997b1919 

查看集群的node状态,安装完网络工具之后,只有显示如下状态,所有节点全部都Ready好了之后才能继续后面的操作

[root@master01 ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME       STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
master01   Ready    master   10m     v1.17.0
node01     Ready    <none>   4m44s   v1.17.0
node02     Ready    <none>   4m41s   v1.17.0
[root@master01 ~]# kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                               READY   STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-9d85f5447-279k7            1/1     Running             0          10m
coredns-9d85f5447-lz8d8            0/1     ContainerCreating   0          10m
etcd-master01                      1/1     Running             0          10m
kube-apiserver-master01            1/1     Running             0          10m
kube-controller-manager-master01   1/1     Running             0          10m
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-5f769        1/1     Running             0          36s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-gl5lm        1/1     Running             0          36s
kube-flannel-ds-amd64-ttbdk        1/1     Running             0          36s
kube-proxy-tgs9j                   1/1     Running             0          5m11s
kube-proxy-vpgng                   1/1     Running             0          10m
kube-proxy-wthxn                   1/1     Running             0          5m8s
kube-scheduler-master01            1/1     Running             0          10m

至此使用kubeadm的方式安装k8s v1.17完毕

测试一下kubernetes集群

##创建一个镜像为nginx的容器

[root@master ~]# kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx
deployment.apps/nginx created

##查看pod的详细信息,events部分可以看到创建过程

[root@master ~]# kubectl describe pod nginx-86c57db685-9xbn6 
Name:         nginx-86c57db685-9xbn6
Namespace:    default
Priority:     0
Node:         node02/192.168.1.242
Start Time:   Thu, 02 Jan 2020 11:49:52 +0800
Labels:       app=nginx
              pod-template-hash=86c57db685
Annotations:  <none>
Status:       Running
IP:           10.244.2.2
IPs:
  IP:           10.244.2.2
Controlled By:  ReplicaSet/nginx-86c57db685
Containers:
  nginx:
    Container ID:   docker://baca9e4f096278fbe8851dcb2eed794aefdcebaa70509d38df1728c409e73cdb
    Image:          nginx
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://nginx@sha256:b2d89d0a210398b4d1120b3e3a7672c16a4ba09c2c4a0395f18b9f7999b768f2
    Port:           <none>
    Host Port:      <none>
    State:          Running
      Started:      Thu, 02 Jan 2020 11:51:49 +0800
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    <none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-4ghv8 (ro)
Conditions:
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True 
  Ready             True 
  ContainersReady   True 
  PodScheduled      True 
Volumes:
  default-token-4ghv8:
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-4ghv8
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations:     node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute for 300s
                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute for 300s
Events:
  Type    Reason     Age    From               Message
  ----    ------     ----   ----               -------
  Normal  Scheduled  3m43s  default-scheduler  Successfully assigned default/nginx-86c57db685-9xbn6 to node02
  Normal  Pulling    3m42s  kubelet, node02    Pulling image "nginx"
  Normal  Pulled     106s   kubelet, node02    Successfully pulled image "nginx"
  Normal  Created    106s   kubelet, node02    Created container nginx
  Normal  Started    106s   kubelet, node02    Started container nginx
##查看pod的ip
[root@master01 ~]# kubectl get pod -o wide
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP           NODE     NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx-86c57db685-9xbn6   1/1     Running   0          2m18s   10.244.2.2   node02   <none>           <none>
##访问nginx
[root@master01 ~]# curl 10.244.2.2
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>

补充内容:

  • 1、kubectl命令自动补全

安装包

yum install -y bash-completion*

手工执行

source <(kubectl completion bash)

写入环境变量

echo "source <(kubectl completion bash)" >> ~/.bashrc

== 需要手工执行一下,否则tab补全时会提示“-bash: _get_comp_words_by_ref: command not found ” ==

sh /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion 

加载环境变量

source /etc/profile

再次使用kubectl命令进行tab补全就ok了

  • 后续有nodes节点想加入集群的话,由于默认token的有效期为24小时,当过期之后,该token就不可用了,解决方法如下:

重新生成新的token ==> kubeadm token create

1.查看当前的token列表

[root@K8S00 ~]# kubeadm token list
TOKEN                     TTL         EXPIRES                     USAGES                   DESCRIPTION                                                EXTRA GROUPS
7mjtn4.9kds6sabcouxaugd   23h         2019-12-24T15:44:58+08:00   authentication,signing   The default bootstrap token generated by 'kubeadm init'.   system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token

2.重新生成新的token

[root@K8S00 ~]# kubeadm token create
369tcl.oe4punpoj9gaijh7

3.再次查看当前的token列表

[root@K8S00 ~]# kubeadm token list
TOKEN                     TTL         EXPIRES                     USAGES                   DESCRIPTION                                                EXTRA GROUPS
369tcl.oe4punpoj9gaijh7   23h         2019-12-24T16:05:18+08:00   authentication,signing   <none>                                                     system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token
7mjtn4.9kds6sabcouxaugd   23h         2019-12-24T15:44:58+08:00   authentication,signing   The default bootstrap token generated by 'kubeadm init'.   system:bootstrappers:kubeadm:default-node-token

4.获取ca证书sha256编码hash值

[root@K8S00 ~]# openssl x509 -pubkey -in /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der 2>/dev/null | openssl dgst -sha256 -hex | sed 's/^.* //'
7ae10591aa593c2c36fb965d58964a84561e9ccd416ffe7432550a0d0b7e4f90

5.节点加入集群

[root@k8s-node03 ~]# kubeadm join --token 369tcl.oe4punpoj9gaijh7(新的token) --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:7ae10591aa593c2c36fb965d58964a84561e9ccd416ffe7432550a0d0b7e4f90(ca证书sha256编码hash值) 172.22.34.31:6443 --skip-preflight-chec

参考文章:

https://www.cnblogs.com/ElegantSmile/p/12088520.html

https://blog.csdn.net/tangwei0928/article/details/93377100

报错

  • 问题1:
    [kubelet-check] Initial timeout of 40s passed.
    timed out waiting for the condition
    Error writing Crisocket information for the control-plane node

解决:
使用–v=6,看详细报错,如下命令

[root@master ~]# kubeadm init --apiserver-advertise-address=10.10.3.52 --image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers --kubernetes-version v1.17.0 --service-cidr=10.1.0.0/16 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --v 6
swapoff -a    # will turn off the swap 
kubeadm reset
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart kubelet
iptables -F && iptables -t nat -F && iptables -t mangle -F && iptables -X  # will reset iptables
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