Christina is on a two week vocation.
This is the first vocation she has had for a long time.
The last vocation she took was more than two years ago.
Now she is visiting a friend in San Francisco.
Her friend and her husband are living near the center of the city.
He works for a start-up company in Silicon Valley.
While he is working, she works part-time at a department store.
-How long has it been since her last vocation? –It’s been more than 2 years.
-What kind of company does her friend’s husband work for? –A start-up company.
Christina hasn’t seen her friend for a longtime.
The last time they saw each other was three years ago.
At that time, they were both working at a department store.
Then Christina quitted her job and started her own business.
She designs women’s clothing.
She has two employees now and her company is slowly growing.
-How long has it been since Christina last saw her friend? –It has been 3 years.
-Where were Christina and her friend working before she started her own business? –They were working at a department store.
-How long has it been since Christina started her own business? –It’s been 3 years.
Christina has come to San Francisco by herself.
Her husband didn’t come, because he has to work.
He tried to start a company two years ago, but it didn’t work out.
His company failed after only a few months.
So now he is working at another company and saving money.
Once he saves enough money, he plans to start another company. He doesn’t want to give up.
-Why hasn’t Christina’s husband come with her? –He has to work.
-Why is Christina’s husband saving money? –He wants to start a new company.
This is the second time Christina has been to San Francisco.
The first time was when she was a high school student.
That was more than ten years ago.
During that trip, she was only in San Francisco for a few days.
After that, she went to Los Angeles and New York.
This time she and her friend plan to relax and have fun.
-How many times has Christina been to San Francisco? –She has been to San Francisco twice.
-How long did she stay in San Francisco on her first trip? –A few days.
Christina arrived two days ago, the day before yesterday.
Her friend met her at the airport, and drove her to her apartment.
Her apartment is just north of the airport, about 20 minutes from San Francisco.
It’s a small apartment, but it’s on a hill, and it has a great view.
Yesterday they went downtown, and rode the cable cars.
Christina was surprised by how steep the hills are.
Then they walked along the ocean, and ate lunch at a sea food restaurant.
From the restaurant, they could see the Golden Gate Bridge.
-How long has she been here? –For two days.
Tomorrow they are planning to drive to Yosemite National Park.
By car, it’s about four hours away.
Christina has never been there before, so she is excited.
She has heard that the park is very beautiful.
Her friend has been to Yosemite several times.
She says it’s one of the most beautiful places in the world.
Christina just hopes that her friend is a good driver.
-How many times has she been to the Yosemite? –Never.
Headaches can be very painful, and can last for a long time.
If you have a headache, your head hurts.
A sprained ankle can be so painful that you can’t walk.
Someone with a sprained ankle may need to use crutches to walk.
If you have a sore throat, it may be painful to swallow.
A sore throat can be caused by viruses or bacteria.
A burn is an injury to the skin caused by fire or heat.
If you get to close to a fire, you will be burned.
An earache is a sharp, dull or burning pain in the ear.
Common causes of an earache include an infection, a changing air pressure, or water in the ear.
Mountains are land forms higher than 2000 feet or about 600 meters above sea level.
Hills are like mountains but not as tall.
Mountains are formed by forces deep within the Earth, and are made of different types of rocks.
Rivers are streams of water that usually begin in mountains and flow into the sea.
Many early cities were built alongside rivers.
Most of the world’s water is in the oceans, which are large bodies of salt water.
The oceans are also an important source of oxygen.
Deserts are areas of land that receive little or no rainfall.
The amount of rainfall in some deserts is so low that only a few plants can survive.
A valley is a low relatively flat area between hills or mountains, often with a river running through it.
Some valleys are formed by flowing water, and others are formed by glaciers.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean, covering more area than all the continents put together.
Desert temperatures can range from cold at night to very hot during the daytime, often above 120 degrees F.
M: Have you eaten yet?
W: No, I haven’t, and I’m hungry.
M: Me too. Let’s go out for dinner.
W: Where to?
M: What about Joe’s Italian?
W: How many times have you eaten there?
M: I eat there a lot. It’s one of my favorite places.
-Why is she hungry? –She hasn’t eaten yet.
W: I went there two weeks ago, and the service was terrible.
M: Really? Then let’s go someplace else.
-Why doesn’t she want to go to Joe’s Italian? –She went there two weeks ago and the service was terrible.
M: What do you suggest?
W: How about the Royal Indian? It’s not far from here.
M: I’ve never heard of it. Is it good?
W: Yes, I’ve been there several times, and I’ve never been disappointed.
-What’s one reason she suggests Royal Indian? –It’s not far away.
-Has she been to the Royal Indian before? –Yes, she has.
M: OK, let’s try it. I haven’t eaten Indian food for a long time.
W: You won’t be disappointed, and the prices are reasonable.
M: Ah, so you mean I’m going to pay.
W: Well, that would certainly be nice.
-How expensive is the restaurant? –It’s reasonably priced.
M: What about reservations?
W: If we get there early enough, we won’t need them.
M: I hope you are right.
W: Don’t worry, if we have to wait, I’ll pay the bill.
-What would happen if they don’t get there early enough? –They may have to wait.
When she went there two weeks ago, the service was awful.
She has been there several times.
Today Christina and her friend are enjoying themselves.
This morning they got up very early and drove out of San Francisco.
They crossed the Bay Bridge before the early morning commute and drove south.
Because it was so early, there were almost no cars.
-How heavy was the traffic? –There were almost no cars.
After driving for an hour and a half, they stopped and had breakfast.
They ordered pancakes and coffee.
They also had some fresh fruit.
When they finished eating, it was seven o’clock.
Then they got back into the car, and drove south.
Christina wanted to listen to music, so they turned on the radio.
An hour later, they stopped for gas.
They noticed that there was also a charging station for electric cars.
-How did they order for breakfast? –They ordered pancakes and coffee.
-What did they do after they finished eating? –They got back into the car and drove south.
It’s now 1:15 (one fifteen), and they are in Yosemite Park.
They have been there for two hours, since 11:15(eleven fifteen).
They are looking at Yosemite falls, which is the highest waterfall in the park.
The water drops a total of 740 meters from the top of the upper fall to the base of the lower fall.
-When did they arrive at the park? –They got there at 11:15.
In another fifteen minutes, they planned to eat lunch at a magnificent old hotel in the park.
It was built in 1927 and has a great view.
They wanted to stay there but they couldn’t get reservations.
To get a room at that hotel, you usually need to make reservations several months in advance.
-When do you need to make reservations? –You need to make reservations several months in advance.
-Why couldn’t they get reservations? –They didn’t reserve early enough.
They planned to stay in the park until around four o’clock.
By then, they will have been in the park for nearly five hours.
Then they will get back into the car and drive back to San Francisco.
They plan to eat dinner somewhere along the way.
If the traffic isn’t too bad, they should be back in San Francisco by ten o’clock.
-When do they expect to be back in San Francisco? –They expect to be back by 10 o’clock.
-How long would they have been in the park if they leave as scheduled? –For nearly 5 hours.
Early tomorrow morning, they are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridge and go north along the coast.
From some places you can look out on the ocean and see whales and other sea life.
Christina has never seen a whale before, so she is looking forward to it.
And tomorrow night they have something special planned.
They are going to watch a baseball game.
Christina has never seen a baseball game, but she has heard that it is very popular in the US.
And the San Francisco baseball team is one of the best.
-What does she hope to see from the coast? –She hopes to see whales.
-What are they going to do tomorrow morning? –They are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridge.
A force is a push or a pull on an object.
A force changes the motion of a moving object.
A force can be strong or weak and it always has a direction.
The Earth is a planet that goes around the sun in a circular orbit.
The speed of its motion doesn’t change, but the direction of its motion does.
The Earth has a layer of gas above its surface which helps to support life.
Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
At the center of an atom is its nucleus which has a positive electric charge.
Outside the nucleus are electrons which have a negative charge.
Asteroids and comets are objects that obey our sun, but are smaller than planets.
Asteroids that pass close to the Earth are called near-earth objects.
The layer of gases just above the Earth’s surface is our atmosphere.
The atmosphere is made of gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.
Without an atmosphere there would be no life on Earth.
If they collide with Earth they could cause an extinction event.
A force can increase or decrease the speed of an object, and it can change the direction of motion.
The electric force between the nucleus and the electrons holds the atom together.
The two lines on the left intersect each other at a right angle which is 90 degrees.
The two lines on the right are parallel which means they never cross.
The adjacent sides of a rectangle are perpendicular which means they meet a 90-degree angle.
The opposite sides of a rectangle are equal and parallel which means they never cross.
The area of a rectangle is the length times the width.
A circle is a two dimensional figure with a radius and a circumference which is the distance around the circle.
The area of a circle is Pi R squared, where R is the radius and Pi is the ratio of the circle circumference to its diameter.
A sphere is a three dimensional figure with a radius and a volume which is four thirds Pi R cubed.
All points on the surface of a sphere are equidistant from its center.
A right triangle is a two dimensional figure with three side, two of which are perpendicular.
To find its area, multiply the length of the two perpendicular sides a and b and divide by 2, A equals 1 half ab.
A rectangle is a 2 dimensional figure with 4 sides.
M: Have you finished eating yet?
W: No, I haven’t. Why are you in such a hurry?
M: I’m sorry, but you are such a slow eater.
W: A slow eater? Well, I try to enjoy my food. You just eat and swallow.
I don’t see how you can even taste it.
M: OK, I’m sorry. Do you mind if I get another glass of wine?
W: No, go ahead. I don’t want you to sit there putting pressure on me.
I thought we were going to have a relaxing evening.
-What does she allow him to do? –She allows him to get another glass of wine. A relaxing evening is the opposite of a high-pressure evening.
M: Yes, you are right. I’d like to relax, but I have a lot on my mind.
W: Work related?
M: Yes, it is. I’ve been getting some strange emails from my boss.
He wants me to cut down on my expenses. Maybe he wants to fire me.
His boss wants him to spend less.
-What is he afraid of? –He may lose his job.
W: Is business bad?
M: Yes, it is. But I don’t want to talk about it.
W: OK, but I’m a good listener. You can tell me if you’d like to.
-What doesn’t he want to talk about? –He doesn’t want to talk about his business.
M: Thanks. Maybe some other time.
I’ll try to stop thinking about it until when it’s tomorrow.
W: Good idea. You need to take a break from work. Your healthy is important, and so am I.
M: Yes, you are. I don’t know what I would do without you.
To deal with something means to do something about it.
Harry is an American businessman.
His job requires him to do a lot of travelling.
He takes nine or ten trips a year.
In the past six months, he has made five trips.
Three were to Asia, and two were to Europe.
The purpose of his trips is to attend meetings and make presentations.
-What does his job require him to do? –Travel a lot.
-What is the purpose of his trips? –Attend meetings and make presentations. His job requires him to attend meetings in many countries.
Harry loves to travel and he’s travelled to many countries.
Most of his trips are for one or two weeks.
His first international trip was 15 years ago when he was 20 years old.
He really wanted to see Asia, so he and his friend flew to Tokyo, Japan.
-How long are most of his trips? –for one or two weeks.
From Tokyo, they travelled around Japan for 2 weeks.
The people they met were very nice, but most of them didn’t speak English.
Harry tried to speak a little Japanese, but it was difficult.
He didn’t do very well.
When he spoke to people, most of them just looked at him.
They didn’t understand what he was trying to say.
-What language did he try to use when he was in Japan? –He tried to speak Japanese.
He has made 5 trips in the last 6 months.
From Japan, they went to Korea for a week, and then they went to China.
In China, they visited the Great Wall near Beijing.
They stayed in Beijing for a few days, and then boarded a train for Shanghai.
It was an overnight train, with sleeping cars.
-What kind of train did they take to Shanghai? –It was an overnight train.
-How long did they stay in Beijing? –for a few days.
During the journey, they enjoyed looking out the window at the countryside.
The view from the train was wonderful.
Harry will never forget watching the sun go down in the evening. It was a beautiful sunset.
-What did they enjoy doing during the journey? –looking out the window at the countryside.
-What won’t Harry ever forget? –Watching the beautiful sunset.
The journey to Shanghai took many hours, but it was an unforgettable experience.
On the train, they met a Chinese professor who spoke English.
He was a middle-aged man, whose hair was turning grey.
He told them about how things were changing in China.
It was wonderful to watch him as he was speaking.
His eyes were full of energy and excitement.
-Who did they meet on the train? –a Chinese professor.
-What did the professor talk about? –He talked about the many changes China was experiencing.
They only stayed in Shanghai a couple of days.
Then they returned to the US and went back to school.
They had one more year to finish their studies.
-Why did they return to the US? –They went back to finish their studies.
Harry’s next few trips were to different part of the world.
He went to Europe twice, each time to different countries.
On one trip, he travelled through the UK and France.
On the next trip, he went to Italy and Greece.
-How many times did he go to Europe? –He went to Europe twice.
After Europe, he travelled to Mexico and South America.
In South America he went to Argentina and Brazil.
He enjoyed watching some great soccer matches.
-What countries did he visit in South America? –Both Argentina and Brazil.
Then he decided to go back to Asia.
But this time he went to Southeast Asia.
He visited Vietnam, Thailand and Singapore.
Each country had a charm of its own.
-Where did he go after he went to South America? –He went to Southeast Asia.
-How many countries did he visit in Southeast Asia? –He visited 3 different countries.
After all these travel Harry decided to make travel part of his career.
He didn’t want to work only in the US.
He didn’t want to work only with Americans.
He wanted to experience other countries and other cultures.
His dream was to work for an international company.
-Why did he decide to work for an international company? –he wanted to experience other countries and other cultures.
-What was his dream? –working for an international company.
5 years ago, his dream came true.
Now he is working for a German high-tech company.
As part of his job, he has to travel a lot.
As a result, he has been to many cities and countries.
And he has met many interesting people.
-What has happened as a result to his job? –He has been to many countries and met many interesting people.
-What kind of company is he working for? –A German hi-tech company.
A dental cavity is a hole in a tooth.
A cavity is caused by bacteria in the mouth.
Brushing your teeth frequently and regularly can help prevent cavities.
A crack tooth can be caused by biting down on something hard.
Dentists treat a crack tooth by covering it with a crown.
A dental X-Ray is a picture of your teeth and gums.
An X-Ray shows what can’t be seen on the surface of the teeth and gums.
Braces are used by dentists to strengthen teeth over a period of years.
Through braces are usually for children, they can also be used for adults with crooked teeth.
To exact a tooth means to remove it from the mouth.
Dentists have to pull hard to exact a tooth.
Braces are used on people with crooked teeth or after an injury.
Biting down on something hard can be very painful.
Dentist often inject something into the gum to block the pain during the extraction process.
The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body through a system of arteries and veins.
It’s located in the chest, between the lungs, and beats about once per second.
The kidneys remove waste and toxins from the blood.
They are bean-shaped organs, and are about 10 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide.
The lungs exchange oxygen from the air, with carbon dioxide from the blood.
They expand when inhaling air, and contract when exhaling air.
The stomach is blow the heart, and is part of the digestive system.
It uses acids to digest food before passing it to the small intestine.
The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that collects urine from the kidneys.
In an adult, the bladder can hold about half liter of urine.
Officer: Good evening, sir. You were driving too fast.
Driver: really? Was I?
Officer: Yes, you were going well above the speed limit.
Driver: I’m sorry officer.
Officer: OK, I need to see your driver’s license.
Driver: Here’s my driver’s license.
-Why has he been stopped? –He was driving too fast.
He has given his driver’s license to the police officer.
Officer: Your license has expired. Are you aware of that?
Driver: No sir, that’s a surprise. I didn’t know.
Officer: It has expired more than a year ago.
-He probably knows that his license has expired, so… -he’s lying.
-What has expired? –His driver’s license.
Officer: Is this your car?
Driver: No sir. It’s a friend’s. I’m borrowing it for a night.
-Click the correct choice. – He probably isn’t telling the truth.
Officer: Get out of the car, and put your hands behind your back.
Driver: Why officer? What have I done?
Officer: Just do as I say.
Driver: OK, officer, I’m cooperating. Please don’t push me.
-To cooperate means.. –to do as asked.
Officer: Get your hands behind your back.
Driver: OK, OK.
Officer: I’m not asking you, I’m ordering you.
Driver: Please officer, I haven’t done anything wrong.
-What is he supposed to do? –to put his hands behind his back.
-To order someone to do something means… -to command them to do it.
Officer: Stay still, and don’t say anything. This is a stolen car. Are you aware of that?
Driver: Are you going to arrest me?
Officer: What do you think? That’s what we do with car thieves.
-Stay still means the same thing as… -Don’t move.
-To be aware of means… -to know.
Driver: If you let me go, I’ll give you a couple of thousand dollars. I haven’t hurt anybody.
Officer: So now you are trying to bribe me. How stupid can you be?
Driver: I just don’t want to go back to jail. Give me a break.
-What is the driver trying to do? –bribe the officer.
Officer: Sure, you’re a nice guy. I’d like to give you a break. But there’s nothing I can do.
Driver: Please officer.
Officer: OK, where’s the money? Let me see it, and I’ll think about it.
-If he takes the money, what would he be taking? –a bribe.
-An honest police officer will never… -accept a bribe.
Quick Serve is a successful home repair company.
It provides quick, reliable repair services to homes.
It was established five years ago, and has been expanding rapidly.
In the last two years, it has opened offices in three new cities.
-How many offices has it opened in the past two years? –It has opened offices in 3 new cities.
-What services does it provide? –It provides home repair services.
-To be reliable means… -to be dependable.
Because of its rapid growth, it has to hire many new employees.
In the last six months, it has hired 50 new employees.
The total number of employees in the company is now over 500.
And the number of customers has increased to more than 5000.
-How many people has the company hired in the last 6 months? –It has hired 50 new employees.
-Why does it have to hire new employees? –It has been expanding rapidly.
The company has also improved its business model.
Instead of offering only repair services, it can now help customers to upgrade their appliances.
Quick Serve does this by giving a choice.
Customers can choose to repair an appliance, or upgrade it by buying a new one.
If they choose to buy a new one, they will get a discounted price.
So a customer can either repair a broken refrigerator for a small fee, or buy a new one.
-To upgrade something means… -to add features or quality.
If they buy a new one, they will get a discounted price, along with free installation.
This is possible because several appliance manufacturers have agreed to give Quick Serve big discounts.
Quick Serve then installs the new appliance, and removes the old one.
Feedback from customers has been positive.
-How have customers reacted to this service? –Their feedback has been positive.
-Who have agreed to give Quick Serve big discounts? –Several appliance manufacturers.
A high percentage of customers have taken advantage of this new service.
As a result, Quick Serve has developed a great reputation.
Its dedication to high quality service has proven to be successful.
Its word of mouth approach to advising has been cost effective.
The appliance manufacturers have also been happy with the results.
Their growing relationship with Quick Serve has helped to increase their sales.
-What has proven to be successful? –Its dedication to high quality service. Quick Serve’s approach to business is proving to be successful.
The world’s population is growing.
There are now over 7 billion people in the world.
During the 20th century, the population grows from 1.65 billion to 6 billion.
It’s now growing at a rate of around 1.1% per year.
That mean it increases about 18 million per year.
By 2024, the population has expected to be around 8 billion people.
-How fast is the world’s population growing? –The growth rate is about 1.1% per year.
-What was the population at the end of the 20th century? –around 6 billion people.
The growth rate used to be higher.
In the late 1960s, the rate of growth was about 2%.
Since then, the growth rate has declined.
It is estimated that the growth rate will be less than 1% by 2020.
By the year 2050, the growth rate should be even less.
-What has happened to the growth rate? –It has declined since the 1960s.
It is estimated that the growth rate should be even less.
Even with the declining growth rate, the population will continue to grow.
But it will grow at a slower rate.
In the past 15 years the world’s population has more than doubled.
It has doubled from around 3 billion in 1960 to more than 7 billion in 2011.
-What has more than doubled in the past 15 years? –the world’s population.
The rate of growth varies by country.
The growth rate in India is more than twice that of China.
And the growth rate in Nigeria, which is in Africa, is more than twice India’s growth rate.
Russia, on the other hand, has had a negative growth rate in some years.
When a country has a negative growth rate, its population is decreasing.
-How do the growth rates of India and China compare? –India’s growth rate is higher.
Co-founder of Apple, this entrepreneur was a major figure in the computer industry.
He was self-centered and difficult to work for, but he led the development of many great products.
He died of cancer when he was just 56 years old.
Jack ma is one of the richest and most famous men in China.
He comes from a poor family and failed his college entrance exams twice.
Despite of his many failures, he has built one of the world’s largest internet companies.
David Beckham is one of the world’s richest and most famous athletes.
He started playing professional football when he was just 17.
Much of his success as an athletes is because he practiced harder than many other players.
As a young girl in Pakistan, Malala became famous for her writings on women’s education.
In 2012, she was shot in the head and nearly killed.
She survived the injury and became the world’s most famous teenager.
Born in 1942, Stephen Hawking is one of the world’s most famous scientists.
When he was 23, he was diagnosed with ALS, a real disease of the nerves.
Because of his disease, he is unable to walk and talk.
Though he was difficult to work for, his creative genius inspired others to do great work.
Despite his condition, he has made important discoveries about the creation of the universe.
Shy people are usually quiet and uncomfortable around other people.
They generally dislike going to social events such as parties.
It’s often difficult to make friends with a shy person because they won’t open up.
Outgoing people enjoy being with others, and are comfortable in social situations.
They’re friendly and pleasant to be with, though sometimes they can’t be trusted.
Self-centered people like to be the center of attention.
They like people to look at them and pay attention to them.
Self-centered people often talk too much and don’t listen enough.
Selfish and greedy people don’t share things with others.
They keep things for themselves and always want more.
People who are responsible and trustworthy are important in almost any situation.
They can be depended on to get things down.
These people can be trusted.
Outgoing people often have many friends and can be quite popular.
M: Hey, Steven, you know I’m your friend, right?
Steven: Sure. I know that. What are you trying to say?
M: I’m sorry to say this. But I think you are making a fool of yourself.
Steven: how am I making a fool of myself?
M: Your girlfriend is taking advantage of you.
Steven: Taking advantage of me?
M: Yes, I think so. She’s just using you.
-To use someone means… -to take advantage of them.
Steven: So, maybe she is. But I don’t mind. Even if she is using me, it’s OK. I’m using her too.
M: What do you mean? Are you joining in love with her?
Steven: Yes, I’m in love with her, but that doesn’t mean I’m not using her too.
-Steven doesn’t mind if his girlfriend… -is using him.
-How does Steven feel about his girlfriend? –He’s in love with her.
M: I don’t understand. What do you mean?
Steven: Maybe I’m using her because I enjoy being in love. I can’t imagine life without her. Even if she hurts me sometimes, I love her.
-What can’t he imagine? –life without his girlfriend.
Even if she hurts him sometimes, he enjoys being in love with her.
M: Do you trust her?
Steven: Yes, I trust her. She tells me what’s important to her. She’s honest with me.
She is never lied to me about anything important.
-To trust someone means… -you can believe what they say or promise to do.
M: Are you honest with her?
Steven: Yes, we are honest with each other even when it hurts.
And because we are honest with each other, we trust each other.
M: OK, so you don’t think you’re being taking advantage of?
Steven: No, I don’t, as long as she is honest with me.
The day she isn’t honest with me is the end of our relationship.
And when that happens, my heart will break. But until then, I’m her man.
-Why do they trust each other? –They are honest with each other.
-What will happen when their relationship ends? –His heart will break.
M: OK, I think I understand. I didn’t think you knew what was going on.
Steven: I’m not as stupid as I looked, my friend.
Being in the love with her makes my life exciting.
M: Well, I hope you’re right.
-What makes his life exciting? –being in love with her.
To make a fool of someone means to make them look stupid.
The earth was formed by about 4.6 billion years ago.
The first life appeared about a billion years later.
The first plaints didn’t appear until around 2 billion years ago.
Until about 580 million years ago, life forms were small and microscopic.
Since that time, life has evolved into many different types or species.
However, scientists estimate that more than 99% of them are now extinct.
-When did the first plant appear on earth? –about 2 billion years ago.
There have been several extinction events in the history of the Earth.
In an extinction event, many life forms, or species of life, die out.
The causes of mass extinction events are unsolved mysteries.
These events are not predictable, and can happen at any time.
Scientists think that some of them were started by asteroid impacts or volcanic eruptions.
Events like this can change the global conditions that life depends on.
-What happens in an extinction event? –Many species of life become extinct.
One major extinction event happened about 66 million years ago.
That event may have been started by a large asteroid that hit the Earth.
As a result, the dinosaurs and about half of all species on the planet, died out.
When the asteroid hit the Earth, it started a chain of events.
A chain of events is a series of events linked together, like a chain.
-What may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs? –An asteroid hit the earth and started a chain of events.
This particular chain of events happened over a period of months and years.
When the asteroid hit the Earth, it caused a huge cloud of dust to enter the atmosphere.
This cloud of dust blocked the sun and darkened the Earth for many months.
Without enough sunlight, plants and plant-eating animals quickly died.
With the deaths of so many plants and animals, the food chain collapsed
This led to the deaths of many more species.
-What caused the food chain to collapse? –The deaths of many plants and plant-eating animals.
Mass extinction events have played an important part in the evolution of life.
In fact, some extinction events have helps to accelerate evolution.
For example, some mammals lived through the age of the dinosaurs, but they couldn’t compete.
When the dinosaurs were removed, the mammals were able to compete more successfully.
Once they could compete, mammals evolved to higher state.
Without extinction events, perhaps we wouldn’t be here today.
-What may accelerate the evolution of mammals? –the extinction of dinosaurs.
Mammals couldn’t compete successfully with the dinosaurs, so their evolution was blocked.
Scientists estimated that there had been at least 5 mass extinctions in the last 540 million years.
They also believed that we have entered a new extinction event.
Species are becoming extinct at a much faster rate than before.
Instead of the asteroid or volcanic eruptions, the current event is a result of human activities.
Human activities, for example, have led to global warming.
-What is causing the current mass extinction event? –human activities.
-What do scientists believe has already started? –a new extinction event.
Global warming is a result of an increasing in carbon gases in out atmosphere.
These gases trap heat from the sun, so the Earth is getting warmer.
As a result, sea levels are rising, and weather patterns are changing.
In addition, we humans are destroying the habitats of many plants and animals.
Cutting down forests, and polluting rivers destroys the habitats of many forms of life.
-Why are sea levels rising? –With the rise in temperature, the polar icecaps are melting.
There is no longer any doubt that this is happening.
Species of life are disappearing at an increasing rate.
Global temperatures are rising and weather patterns are changing.
Scientists are warning us that fast action is necessary to save our future.
If we don’t act, we may go the way of the dinosaurs.
This new extinction event is caused by humans.
The body’s circulatory system includes the heart and blood vessels.
The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body through a network of arteries and veins.
The digestive system breaks down and absorbs food into the body.
It supplies the energy that the body needs for growth and repair.
After digestion, excess food is turned into waste and eliminated from the body.
The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
This is your body’s control system.
It controls your muscles and organs, including your circulatory and digestive systems.
The respiratory system includes the nose and lungs.
It brings air and oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide.
The lungs are where oxygen enters the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed.
The immune system protects the body against infections and diseases.
Sneezing and fever are examples of how the immune system works.
If an infection invades the body, the immune system attacks it.
The nervous system regulates your heartbeat and digestion.
For some diseases, the immune system uses white blood cells and antibodies to attack it.
The digestive system is where food is broken down and absorbed into the body.
The controlled use of fire allowed people to cook food and survive in colder climates.
Fire provided light so that people could work and socialize for longer hours.
With the invention of agriculture people could grow food and settle into communities.
By growing food, people could spend less time hunting and more time for other things such as art.
The domestication of animals allowed people to raise and use animals for food and work.
By raising herds of animal such as sheep, humans had a regular supply of meat and clothing.
The strength of animals such as horse and ox was used for working transportation.
The development of tools and machines has resulted into more efficient manufacture and construction.
With better tools and machines work can be done with fewer people at much lower cost.
The development of science and engineering has improved many things including communications.
With an understanding of electricity, telephones and radios allow people to communicate over long distances.
Science and engineering breakthroughs are rapidly changing the way we live our lives.
Science and engineering have changed the way we communicate with each other.
The use of machines has reduced the number of people needed to make things.
With the development of agriculture, people had more time for other activities.
The ability to raise herds of animals gave human a regular supply of meat and clothing.
M: I took a vocation last night.
W: What are you talking about? Where did you take your vocation?
M: I didn’t go anywhere. I just spent an evening without my smartphone.
W: How was it?
M: It was great. I got a real magazine and read it with no interruption.
It was very peaceful.
W: Yes, I haven’t done that in a long time.
-If someone is interrupted, they have to… -stop what they are doing.
-What hasn’t she done in a long time? –She hasn’t spent time without her smartphone.
-What made the evening different? –He didn’t use his smartphone.
M: You know what? I’m beginning to hate smartphones.
W: Really? But you can’t live without one, right?
M: Yes, that’s the problem. These things are changing the way people live.
-What can’t people live without? –People can’t live without smartphones.
-How does he feel about smartphones? –He’s beginning to hate them.
W: Yes, I just saw a documentary about that.
A husband was complaining to his wife that she was spending too much time on her smartphone.
M: What happen? Did they get a divorce?
W: You guessed it. In the end, they got a divorce.
-What happened to the couple? –They got a divorce.
-What was the wife spending too much time doing? –playing on her smartphone.
M: It’s a bit ironic. Don’t you think?
Smartphones were supposed to bring people together, but they are pulling people apart.
W: Yes, you’re right.
M: Hey, just a minute. I’ve got a message on my smartphone and it can’t wait.
-What do they think is ironic about smartphones? –Instead of bringing people together, they are pulling them apart.
Boss: Hey, wake up and get back to work. What’s wrong with you?
Employee: I’m on my break, sir. And I have a bad headache.
Boss: Well, we’re not paying you to sleep. If you’re going to sleep, sleep someplace else.
Employee: Yes, sir. Sorry. It won’t happen again.
Boss: You had better not.
-How did the employee treat the manager? –respectfully.
Employee: Just a minute. Don’t talk to me like that.
Boss: What did you say?
Employee: You hurt me. You don’t have to treat people like that.
Boss: Well, if you don’t like it, I suggest you leave.
Employee: OK, I will. I‘ve had enough of you. I’ll get a job somewhere else.
-How does the employee feel? –angry.
This man is holding a piece of fruit in his hand.
The piece of fruit is either an orange or an apple.
We can’t see which it is because we can’t see inside the box.
The probability that it is an orange is equal to the probability that it is an apple.
It may be an apple and it may be an orange.
It’s got to be one or the other.
It can’t be anything else.
-What’s the probability that it’s a banana? –The probability is 0%. It may be an apple but it can’t be a banana.
Now let’s look at it from the man’s point of view.
From his point of view, the probabilities are different.
From his point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 100% or 0%.
That’s because he knows what he has.
For him, there is no uncertainly.
If he has an orange, the probability is 100%.
If he doesn’t have an orange, the probability is 0%.
He either has it, or he doesn’t.
-From our point of view, what’s the probability that it’s an orange? -50%.
From our point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 50%.
From his point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 100% or 0%.
So the probability depends on your point of view.
-What’s the probability that it’s a banana? –a 0% probability.
The probability depends on your point of view, or how much you know.
People see things from different points of view.
This often leads to arguments between people.
Here are some examples.
From this man’s point of view, he is relaxing.
He needs to relax because he has been working too hard.
He hasn’t been getting enough sleep.
-If his wife shouts at him and tells him to get up and do something…
-he may shout back and refuse to help her.
His wife sees things differently.
She isn’t aware of how hard he has been working.
From her point of view, he is doing nothing.
However, she knows what needs to be done around the house.
It isn’t fair that she had to work while he does nothing.
-If he gets up and helps her… -She may not appreciate his help.
-From the husband’s point of view, what’s he doing? –He is relaxing.
When people see things from different points of view, they often come to different conclusions.
These differences can cause real communication problems.
People often argue with each other because they see things from a different point of view.
Earthquakes are caused by forces deep within the earth.
When the earth shakes, buildings can collapse, and people can be buried inside.
An explosion is a rapid, violent, release of energy.
Explosions can be caused by chemical reactions, such as inside an engine.
A spark can ignite mixture of gases, and release energy for good or destructive purposes.
Accidents are often caused by people doing foolish things, or by not being careful.
One major cause of accidents is driving too fast.
Accidents with fire can be very serious and can result in very painful injuries.
Epidemics are the rapid spread of diseased such as the flue or Ebola.
Throughout history, epidemics have killed millions of people.
Storms are caused by changes in the atmosphere, results in high winds and heavy rains.
Thunderstorms are caused by electric charges in the atmosphere that produce lighting, which can cause forest fires.
Some storms cause flooding, and major damage to homes and cities.
To reduce the danger of an explosion, it’s important to prevent gas leaks inside the home.
Many forest fires are caused by lightning.
Epidemics have killed more people than all wars and natural disasters.
Followers of the Islam religion are called Moslems (Muslims).
These Moslems are praying inside mosque.
Moslems are called to prayer five times a day, beginning just before sunrise.
Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, Who lived more than 2000 years ago.
Christians believe that Jesus is the son of God.
Christians often gather in churches or cathedrals to worship.
Follower of the Judaism are somewhere called Jews.
These Jews are meeting inside synagogue, which is a place of worship and study.
Judaism was founded over 3500 years ago, in the Middle East.
Judaism was based on the teachings of Moses, who they believed is the most important prophet.
Buddhism began in India, and is based on the teachings of the Buddha.
The religion is about 2500 years old.
Some Buddhists practice a form of the meditation in which they empty their mind of any thought.
Hinduism is the world’s third most popular religion and is the main religion of India.
Hinduism has no founder, and is the mixture of many beliefs.
Some Hindus believe in the cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth.
Jews believe that Moses is the most important prophet.
W: Do you have any more information about the location of the missing aircraft?
M: No, we don’t. The only information we have is that it disappeared.
W: What about the last communication with the aircraft?
M: The last communication was about 15 minutes before it disappeared.
W: Was there anything unusual in the communication?
M: No, there wasn’t anything unusual. Nothing pointed to any kind of problem.
W: Anyway, we are confident that we’ll find it.
It’s a large aircraft so it shouldn’t be difficult to find.
M: How many countries are helping with the search?
W: Right now we have search teams from 3 countries starting the search.
M: It’s a big area to search, so can you give us an estimate about how long it will take?
W: Yes, it’s a big area, so it might take a long time.
But we won’t give up. We’ll search until we find it.
-How long do they plan to search for it? –They plan to search for it until they find it.
M1: Have they found the wreckage yet?
M2: What are you talking about?
M1: You know, the airplane that disappeared last year.
M2: Oh yes. Now I know what’s you’re referring to. Yes, they found some pieces of it.
-How much of the airplane have they found? –some pieces.
M1: What about the black boxes?
M2: No, they still haven’t found the black boxes.
M1: It’s hard to believe they still don’t know what happened.
M2: Perhaps they’ll never know, especially if they don’t find the black boxes.
M1: Whatever happen to it, there is no good reason why a modern airline is allowed to disappear.
M2: I agree with you.
Alcatraz is a small island in San Francisco Bay, 1.5 miles from San Francisco.
From Alcatraz, you can see the famous Golden Gate Bridge.
Alcatraz is also famous, and is now a major tourist attraction.
Tourists can reach the island by boat from the city.
-What can people see from Alcatraz? –The Golden Gate Bridge.
Alcatraz has often appeared in movies, including Escape from Alcatraz, which was made in 1979.
One reason it’s famous is because it used to be a prison, a very special prison.
It was designed for prisoners who were causing trouble in other prisons, such as trying to escape.
It was a maximum security prison, so escape was almost impossible.
The waters around it are cold and only very strong swimmers can swim from the island to San Francisco.
-What kind of prisoners was it designed for? –prisoners who were troublemakers.
-Why is it famous? –It used to be a very special prison.
The first group of prisoners arrived in 1934.
There were 137 prisoners including bank rubbers and murderers.
They came by train from another prison in the state of Kansas.
During that trip, there was heavy security.
The prisoners were under guard and handcuffed.
Nobody wanted them to escape.
-Where do the first group of prisoners come from? –They came from Kansas.
The prison was designed to hold up to 336 prisoners.
However, the average population was only about 270.
Although there were several notorious inmate such as Al Capone, most of the inmates were not well known.
Many had tried to escape from other prisons or working setter to violent.
If a man did not behave at another prison, he could be sent to Alcatraz.
At Alcatraz, there was just one inmate in each prison cell.
-Why were prisoners usually sent to Alcatraz? –They caused trouble at other prisons.
-A notorious inmate is one who… -is very well known.
Prison life at Alcatraz was highly structured and boring.
It was designed to teach prisoners to follow rules.
They had four rights: food, clothing, shelter and medical care.
Everything else was a privilege that had to be earned.
Privileges included working, visits from family members and access to the prison library.
There were also activities such as painting and music.
Once a prisoner showed that he could follow the rules, he could be transferred back to another prison to finish his sentence.
Alcatraz was used as a prison for 29 years.
During that time, no prisoners escaped successfully.
There were 14 escape attempts, involving 36 prisoners.
23 were caught alive and 6 were shot and killed.
2 men tried to escape twice.
2 drowned and 5 were listed as missing and presumed drowned.
The most violent escape attempt occurred on May 2nd 1946, when 6 prisoners tried to escape.
That event is called the battle of the Alcatraz.
-How many prisoners escaped? –none.
While it was in use, Alcatraz had some of the most notorious criminals in American history, such as Al Capone.
Al Capone was a crime boss, who built his career in Chicago.
The prison was finally closed in 1963.
It was closed because it was too expensive to operate.
-Why was the prison finally closed? –It was too expensive to operate.
No prisoners ever escaped from Alcatraz.
A bar graph uses rectangle bars of different lengths to show and compare data.
The lengths of the bars are proportional to the values they represent.
The bars can be vertical, up and down, or horizontal.
A circle graph, often called a pie graph, is shaped like a circle.
It is divided into segments that look like pieces of a pie.
Percentage are used to compare the segments, which are ordered from biggest to smallest.
Line graphs are used to show the relationship between 2 variables such as time and distance.
These variables are plotted on 2 axis, the x axis and the y axis.
The x axis often shows time, while the y axis shows how quantities, such as distance, temperature, or profits, change with time.
A flow chart is a type of graph that shows how a process or project flows from start to finish.
A flow chart consists of start points, inputs, outputs and decision points.
An organizational chart or org chart shows the structure of company.
It shows how people and department within the company are connected.
It defines the roles and responsibilities of people and departments within the company.
Line graphs are very good at showing how things change over time.
An org chart shows how people and departments within a company are connected.
A line graph uses connected points to show how things are related to each other.
Laws are rules that people are supposed to follow.
A system of laws governs the behavior of people within the country.
Criminals are people who break the law.
People who commit a crime are called criminals.
Some criminals are very dangerous and need to be put in jail.
A jail or prison is a place where criminals were lock behind bars, sometimes for many years.
Prisons are designed to keep criminals away from other people.
A court house is where someone charge with committing a crime goes on trial.
In court evidence is present to show the guilty or innocent person on trial.
When someone breaks the law, they may be arrested by the police.
To arrest someone means to take and hold them until they go on trial.
When a person is charged with breaking a law, they are tried in a court of law.
An action that is against the law is an illegal action.
An action that is follow the law is a legal action.
Someone who is found guilty of committing a crime is sent to prison.
W: May I help you sir?
M: I’d like to change some US dollars into Japanese yen please.
W: Yes, certainly, sir. How much would you like to change?
M: I’d like to change 500 dollars.
W: May I see your passport, please?
M: I don’t have it with me, but I do have my driver’s license. Would that be ok?
W: No, I’m sorry, sir. I need to see your passport. It’s the law.
M: Look, I’m not asking for a loan. I just want to convert my dollars into yen.
Why do I need my passport?
W: I understand your frustration, sir. But that’s the law. I cannot do something that is illegal.
-Why does the customer need his passport? –It’s required by law.
M: Ok, do you have any suggestions?
W: Sure, the easiest thing for you to do is to use a machine in one of the hotels near here. You can borrow someone’s passport and then do the conversion.
M: So the machine doesn’t check my fingerprints or anything like that?
W: No, sir. But there’s a limit as how much you can change at one time.
You also have to pay a higher fee.
M: Thanks for your help.
W: You’re welcome, sir.
Al Capone was one of the most famous criminals in American history.
He came from an immigrate family.
His parents came from Italy and his father was a barber.
As a boy, he belonged to a street gangs.
He quit school after finishing the 6th grade.
-Where were his parents from? –They were from Italy.
He built his career as a crime boss in Chicago.
He became boss at 26 when the previous leader was nearly killed.
His crime organization made a lot of money, more than 100 million dollars a year.
Most the money came from illegal activities, especially the sales of illegal liquor.
His organization was also involved in gambling and prostitution.
-What kind of illegal activities was his organization involved with? –Gambling and prostitution.
-Liquor includes… -alcoholic drinks such as whiskey and vodka.
Capone was flashy dresser who enjoyed being famous.
He protected himself by bribing police and public officials.
Though he was involved in the deaths of many, he was never convicted of a serious crime.
When he was finally arrested, it was for minor crimes.
In 1929, he and his body guard were arrested for carrying deadly weapons.
For that, they were sentenced to a year in prison.
Capone was released nine month for good behavior.
-Why were he and his body guard arrested and sent to prison? –They were caught carrying deadly weapons.
-What kind of person was he? –violent and self-centered.
In 1930, Capone was public enemy NO.1 in Chicago.
A year later, he was arrested for failed to pay taxes.
The government had finally found a way to catch him.
After a trail, he was found guilty and sentenced to 11 years in prison.
He spent the first 2 years of his sentence at a prison in Atlanta
Then he was sent to Alcatraz, the country’s most famous prison.
-Why was he sentenced to prison for 11 years? –He was found guilty of tax evasion.
At Alcatraz, he was diagnosed with a disease that began to take over his brain.
As a result, he spent much of his time in the prison hospital.
By the time he was released from the prison in 1939, he was no longer able to lead his organization.
He died of a stroke and pneumonia in 1947.
-Why did he spend much of his time in the prison hospital? –He had a serious disease.
Income is money received from work or from investments.
For a company to survive, its income needs to be more than its expenses.
People who earned a good salary can buy what they need to survive.
A receipt is given to you after you have paid for something.
A receipt is proof that you have paid for something.
A receipt shows that something has been paid for.
After paying for something, be sure to get a receipt.
An invoice is a request for payment.
An invoice lists the prices and the products being bought.
To invoice someone means to give them a bill for the products or services.
Once an invoice is paid, it can be used as a receipt.
Taxes are what we pay to the government for the government services.
Taxes pay for many services, such as education, police and health care.
An income tax is a tax on your income.
In some countries, income taxes are very high.
Interest is what we pay to lenders when we borrow money.
If someone lends you money, you pay interest for the use of that money.
Emotional people often show their feelings and have a bad temper.
They make decisions based on their feelings more than facts.
Sometimes these people make bad decisions because of their emotions.
Leaders are people who take responsibility and are trusted by others.
Good leaders make good decisions and get things down.
In many situations, others look to them for leadership.
Loyal people can be depended on to follow their leader.
They will support and protect their leaders and friends.
A strong team needs a good leader and loyal followers.
Independent people can do things on their own.
They often prefer working by themselves.
Sometimes they have difficulty working in a group.
Creative people come up with new ideas and ways of doing things.
They often have a good imagination and can see things in different ways.
Many artists and musicians are very creative.
Independent people may want to do things their own way.
People don’t like to work for people who are too emotional.
Someone with a bad temper gets angry easily and shouts at others.
W: Congratulations, Lisa.
Lisa: Congratulations for what?
W: We just heard the news.
Lisa: What news? Don’t keep me in suspense.
W: QuickServe has accepted your video proposal.
Lisa: Already? I just submitted it a week ago.
W: Maybe so, but they liked it so much that they made a quick decision.
They want you to get started on it as soon as possible.
-What did Lisa do a week ago? –She summited her proposal.
Lisa: That’s great news. But I’m still working on some other projects.
They need to be finished first.
W: Can’t you delay some of our other projects?
Lisa: I’m not sure. How important is this project?
W: They are putting a lot of pressure on us now especially since they read your proposal.
They really like it. It’s a very creative way of presenting their company.
It had everybody laughing.
Lisa: Yes, that was the idea. It was fun to do and our whole team thought it was funny.
W: Well, great job. I think it’s the best work your team has ever down.
-What may need to be delayed? –Some of their other projects.
-To delay something means to… -postpone it.
W: When can you get started on the project?
Lisa: Are they going to pay extra? In my proposal,
I said the earliest start date would be one month after signing the contract.
W: Was that in the proposal?
Lisa: Yes, it was. Have they signed the contract yet?
W: No, they haven’t. But I’m sure they will right away.
-When do the contract say the project will begin?-one month after signing the contract.
-Why does she think they should pay extra? –They want to get started earlier than what was in the proposal.
The proposal said that the earliest start date would be one month after signing the contract.
Lisa: They’ll also need to make an advance payment. That was in the proposal too.
We can’t stop everything else just because they are excited.
W: OK, I’ll get back to them and let them know.
Lisa: Yes, please do. I’ve been through these kinds of thing before.
-What are they going to ask for from QuickServe? –an advance payment and an extra fee to start the project early.
-To get back to them means… -to contact them.
Look at these two pie graphs.
They show how these two people spend their days, not including weekends.
The one on the top shows how Emma divides up her days.
She is a designer who works for a large company.
-20% of the day is how much hours? -4.8 hours.
As Emma’s graph shows, the biggest portion of her day is spent working.
She works an average of 8 hours a day, which is 1/3 of her day.
She gets an average of 6 hours of sleep, which is 25% of her day.
That’s less sleep than Martin gets.
According to his graph, he gets an average of 7 hours of sleep, which is about 29% of his day.
On the other hands, Martin, who is an engineer, works more hours than Emma does.
Martin averages 9 hours a day at work, compared to Emma’s 8.
That’s 37.5%, compare to 33%.
Other factors shown in the graphs include time for meals and commuting to work.
-What percent of the day does Emma spend at her work? -33%.
Other activities include getting dressed and household choice, such as doing laundry and paying bills.
As you can see, for Martin, commuting is taking a large amount of his time.
If he could reduce his commute time, he will have more time for other things.
And it isn’t just the time.
When the traffic is really heavy, his commute is stressful.
It would be great if he could work from home for 1 or 2 days a week.
His life will be more enjoyable.
-In what category are things like doing the laundry or paying bills? –other.
And looking at Emma’s graph, we see that she probably needs more sleep.
Perhaps she should spend a bit less time socializing with her friends.
On the other hand, socializing with her friends is something she really values.
As for putting on makeup, she isn’t willing to change that.
For her, exercising, socializing and staying beautiful help her deal with the stress of work.
In conclusion, Emma and Martin both wish there were more hours in a day.
These next graph shows how various factors compare an importance to 1500 job applicants.
These applicants were between 20 and 25 years old.
They were asked to list which factors were most important to a good job.
As the graph shows, money was the most important factor for 25% of the applicants.
However, other factors were also important.
The second most important factor was the working environment.
-According to this graph, what was the second most important factor? –a good work environment.
In other words, for many, money isn’t everything.
People want to like where they work.
In fact, if we combine working environment and coworkers, the total is 35%.
This is well above the 25% for salary and benefits.
Taking together, they are more important than salary and benefits.
Career path is also important, especially for younger applicants.
They want to see that their job helps build the successful career.
For older workers, this may not be as important.
Older workers often put a higher value on the balance between life and work.
What do you think?
Which conclusion most accurately summarize this graph? –A good job needs to satisfy several needs.
-People who want their work to be challenging are people who…-enjoy solving problems.
The best jobs satisfy several needs, not just salary and benefits.
The government of a country is its control system.
Governments make laws and provide services to their citizens.
The land over which a government has control is its territory.
A country’s territory has boundaries or borders.
When you leave or enter a country’s territory, you usually need a passport.
A country’s military provides defends for its territory and its citizens.
The military includes an army, an air force and a navy.
The main purpose of a military is to defend a country from attack.
A country’s criminal justice system includes the police, courts and prisons.
Its purpose is to enforce the law and protect people from criminal activities.
A country’s social services system provides support to people in need.
It provides basic health care services and helps poor people support their children.
When a country wants to change its boundaries, there may be a war.
Most of the citizens of a country live within its territory.
Some governments have powerful leaders who control things.
A country’s borders mark its territory and separate it from its neighbors.
Most governments pay for their services by collecting taxes from its citizens.
The armed forces of a country have many weapons such as guns, tanks and planes.
The criminal justice system is responsible for enforcing the law.
What rules a country? –some governments have powerful leaders who control things.
What is located in the capital? –the center government is located in the country’s capital city.
The territory of a country is defined by its boundaries.
A state of anarchy exists when a country has no effective government.
In anarchy, there is nobody to make decisions and enforce the laws.
An autocracy is the simplest form of government.
In autocracy, the government is controlled by single individual, known as the autocrat.
Whether or not an autocracy is successful depends on the character and ability of the leader.
In an oligarchy, a small group of people controls the government.
Membership of its group often depends on family connections, wealth, or military power.
In a republic, individuals are elected to represent the citizens.
The power of the government in a republic is limited by constitution.
A constitution is a written document that makes the rules for a government to follow.
This limits the power of the government.
A constitution defines the relationship between the government and its citizens.
Who make decisions and enforce the laws in an anarchy? –nobody.
-What is a common way for oligarchy to increase their wealth? –bribery and corruption.
Bribery and corruption are common as a way to increase the wealth of the oligarchs.
Without a good government, decisions that need to be made, won’t be made.
M1: I hear you lost your job. Is that right?
M2: Yes, that’s right. I quit. I quit because of the way my boss treats people.
M1: What happened?
M2: I wasn’t feeling good one day and he yelled at me.
When I told him not to yell at me, he threatened me.
M1: Is that all? That’s what bosses do.
M2: Sure, sometimes maybe. But my boss treated everyone badly and I was tired of it.
It was the last string.
M1: The last string?
M2: Yes, you know? It reaches the point where I couldn’t take it anymore.
-What was the last string? –being yelled at and threatened that day.
-What did his boss do? –His boss threatened him.
M1: I see. So now you don’t have a job?
M2: Right, I don’t have a job. But at least I don’t have to deal with my boss anymore.
M1: What are you going to do now?
M2: To be honest, I’m not sure. But I’ll find something. I’ll get a job even if it pays less than before.
-What doesn’t he have to deal with anymore? –his ex-boss.
M1: Are you sorry you quit?
M2: Yes and no. I guess I should have found another job first, and then quit.
M1: Why didn’t you?
M2: As I said, he pushed me too far. There are some things that I just won’t take.
-What should have done? –looked for another job before quitting.
M1: What about your wife?
M2: She isn’t happy that I don’t have a job. But she understands.
She knows I have a temper. And she knows I wasn’t happy working there.
-What does his wife know about him? –He has a temper.
M1: Well I guess I’m lucky. My job isn’t great but I like the people I’m working with.
And I like my manager.
M2: Are you planning to stay there?
M1: I don’t know. For now it’s ok, but of course it all depends on how things change.
Is he planning to stay at his job? –It depends.
M2: Well if you hear of any job openings, let me know, ok?
M1: Sure, send me your resume and I’ll let people know you are looking.
He won’t take being treated badly and threatened too many times.
His boss pushed him too far one too many times, so he couldn’t wait to quit.
His boss treated him badly one too many times. He isn’t sure what he is going to do.
Lang Lang is one of the world’s greatest concert pianists.
His first contact with Western music was when he was just 2 years old.
He watched a cartoon in which a cat played a famous piece by Franz Liszt.
From this experience, he decided he wanted to learn to play the piano.
When he was 3 and a half years old, he started piano lessons.
Two years later, he won first place in a piano completion.
This early success gave his father high hopes that Lang Lang would become a great pianist.
-What experience introduced Lang Lang to Western music? –He watched a cartoon in which a cat played the piano.
When Lang Lang was 9 years old, his father quit his job and took him to Beijing.
They left everything behind including his mother who had to work.
Lang Lang didn’t want to leave her behind, but his father insisted.
His father wanted him to study at the famous Central Conservatory of Music.
-Why did they leave his mother behind? –She had to work to support him.
-Why did his father to Beijing? –His father wanted him to study in the famous collage.
When they moved to Beijing, they rented a flat in a poor area of the city.
During this time, Lang Lang practiced for several hours a day.
He started practicing at 5 o’clock, which upset his neighbors.
They would often pound on his door and ask him to stop practicing.
They were so angry that he often feared that they would beat him up.
-Where did they leave when they moved to Beijing? –They lived in the poor area of the city.
-What was one reason why his lessons were difficult? –His teacher always gave him a hard time. His lessons were to prepare for entrance into the Conservatory.
Lang Lang usually had piano lessons once a week to prepare for the conservatory.
Nearly 2000 students were applying for just 12 places at the conservatory.
His lessons were expensive and very difficult especially because of his piano teacher.
His music teacher didn’t like Lang Lang.
He called his teacher “professor angry” because she always gave him a hard time.
-What was one reason why his lessons were difficult? –His teacher always gave him a hard time.
His lessons were to prepare for entrance into the Conservatory.
One afternoon his teacher told him he had no talent and told him to go home.
Upon hearing the news, his father screamed and seemed to lose his mind.
His father told him that everything was destroyed and there was no reason to live.
He ordered Lang Lang to jump off the 11th floor balcony.
After this, Lang Lang almost went crazy.
He didn’t want to play the piano anymore.
-What did his father tell him to do? –jump off the balcony.
-What did his father tell him to do? –There was no reason to live.
For several months, he neither played the piano nor spoke to his father.
Then some friends encouraged him to play a piece for them and he realized his great love of the piano.
For the next 19 months, he practiced hard and his father encouraged him.
Finally, when he was 10, he was accepted into the conservatory with a full scholarship.
-Why did he start practicing again? –He realized his great love of the piano.
In 1995, when he was 13 years old, he played music by Chopin in the Beijing Concert Hall.
In that same year, he won first place in an international completion for young musicians in Japan.
When he was 15 he moved to the United States and began studies with a famous pianist that occur things xxx.
Since then his career has grown and he has become a major star.
One American music critic called him the biggest most exciting keyboard talent I have count for many year of piano recitals.
-What did he do when he was 15? –He went to study in the United States.
In 2010, Lang Lang signed a recording contract for several million dollars.
In 2011, he performed at the white house for president Obama of the United States and Hu Jintao of China.
With all of these success and fame, Lang Lang tries to encourage others.
He uses his fame to spread the popularity of the classical music and encourage the young musicians.
And in the end Lang Lang and his father have rebuilt their relationship.
In his autobiography, Mr. Lang dedicated the book to his mother and father.
A person’s debt is how much he or she owes to others.
Debt can be in the form of money, products, or services owe to someone else.
If you borrow money, you were taking on new debt.
An asset is something that has value, such as money, property or even a nice personality.
Assets can be used to pay off debts.
Specialize knowledge or skills are also assets that can be used to get a job or earn money.
Real estate is property such as land, houses and buildings.
Buying, selling, or renting property is a business of real estate.
Buying and selling real estate is a popular form of investment.
Inventory is a detailed list of items in one’s possession.
In business, one’s inventory is the supply of items that are ready for sale.
If a store runs out of things to sale, it needs to resupply its inventory.
An investment is a purchase of an asset with the hope that its value will increase.
A good investment will produce income, such as rental income.
If the value of an asset falls, the investment will lose money.
-If you own a house, it is… -an asset.
To take inventory means to make a detailed list of the items that you have.
When you sell an asset at a higher price than what you paid for it, you have made a profit.
If you buy a house and get a loan, the amount you owe on your loan is part of your debt.
China is the second largest country in the world by land area.
A major issue for China’s continue extension of its deserts, which have led to dust storm each spring.
Many of world’s most polluted cities are located there.
South Asia is referred to as the India subcontinent.
It’s called a subcontinent because it’s separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and seas.
It is one of the world’s poorest regions with about 75% of the poor living in rural areas.
Europe is the western neighbor of Asia.
It’s separated from Asia by the Ural Mountains which extend for 1500 miles and north-south direction for the Arctic Ocean.
The Philippines is the only country in Asia with the majority of Christians.
The Philippines is an island nation with over 7000 islands.
It’s located in the South China Sea.
The country’s capital city is Manila.
Asia is the world’s largest continent covering about 30% of the earth’s land area.
Several island nations are also a part of Asia, including Japan.
The world’s tallest mountains are in Asia, including MT Everest.
The traditional boundary line between them is the Ural mountain range.
As a result, the country is investing heavily to reduce air pollution.
W: Hey, have you decided how you’re going to vote?
M: No, I haven’t. I don’t like any of the candidates.
W: So you aren’t going to vote?
M: Hmm, I don’t know, probably not. It seems like a waste of time.
-What does he think of the candidates? –He doesn’t like any of them.
W: Really? Why do you think it’s a waste of time?
M: Have you listen to any of their speeches?
W: Yes, I have. And I agree that their speeches aren’t very good.
M: Exactly. I can’t believe anything they say.
They are just saying what they think we want to hear.
W: Sure, they want to get elected.
I have admitted that, the system isn’t perfect but it’s all we have.
M: Whether I vote or not won’t make a difference. It’s all a show.
-What do they think of the candidates’ speeches? –They are not very good.
W: Well, I think you should vote. Do a little research about the candidates.
M: Have you?
W: Yes, I have. I’ve looked into their backgrounds and education.
M: How can that help?
W: For example, if they know something about science,
it could help the government make better decisions about issues such as climate change.
M: Yes, that’s a good point. We need well-educated people making decisions.
W: And I looked to see what kind of people are supporting them.
-How has she researched the candidates? –She’s looked into their backgrounds and education.
-She wants to elect people who are… -smart and well-educated.
M: What issues do you think are most important?
W: I guess for me, pollution, housing and taxes are important.
I want to know how the government plans to deal with these issues.
M: Yes, I agree with you.
Maybe I will vote, especially if we can get together and talk more about it.
M: What about dinner tomorrow night?
W: Sorry I’m busy tomorrow night.
M: Oh that’s too bad. Do you have any time in the next few days?
I’ll take you to a nice restaurant.
W: Actually I’m quite busy. But I may have some time Sunday afternoon.
We could have lunch somewhere near the office.
M: Sure that works for me. I’ll give you a call on Saturday and we can decide the details, ok?
W: OK I’ll be looking forward to seeing which candidates you support.
Honeybees play an interesting and important role in nature.
In addition to making honey, honey bees help many plants reproduce.
They do this by pollenating the plant, which means to transfer pollen.
Pollination occurs when pollen is moved within a plant’s flower or carried to another flower.
This is how the plants reproduce.
For reproduction to succeed, the pollen must be transferred from the male part of the flower to the female part.
-Pollination is how some plants… -reproduce.
Many plants depend on pollination for reproduction.
These include many fruits and vegetables.
Besides honeybees, there are many other pollinators, including birds, insects, and other kinds of bees.
Without enough pollinators, many of our favorite fruits and vegetables would become more expensive and hard to find.
These include almonds and cherries.
-Besides honeybees, what are some other pollinators? –birds and insects.
Honeybees are important pollinators and play an important role in agriculture.
Beekeepers are people who keep honeybees.
In addition to connecting honey, some beekeepers provide pollination services to farmers.
They do this by raising and managing colonies of bees.
Farmers need the colonies to pollinate their crops.
Beekeepers can provide and manager bee colonies for farmers.
-How do beekeepers provide pollination services? –They raise and manage colonies of bees.
Honey bees are social insects that live in colonies.
A bee colony consists of a queen bee, male drones, and thousands of female worker bees.
Each colony also contains eggs and immature bees in various stages of development.
The number of bees within a colony depends on seasonal changes.
A colony’s population increases during the warmer seasons, and decreases during colder seasons.
-What does the population of a colony depend on? –seasonal changes.
In recent years many bee colonies have collapsed or disappeared.
A bee colony collapse occurs when a majority of bees in the colony disappear and leave behind the queen.
Some beekeepers have reported of losing 30 to 90% of their colonies.
This loss of bee colonies can cause significant problems for farmers who depend on them to pollinate their crops.
In some parts of the world, a shortage of bees has increased the cost of renting bees, by up to 20%.
-A bee colony collapse occurs when… -a majority of the bees in a colony disappear.
-What has increased the cost of renting bees in some parts of the world? –a shortage of bees.
There are several possible causes for bee colonies collapse.
One possible cause is the use of new pesticides.
Other possible causes include infections from viruses, genetic factors and malnutrition.
Changing weather patterns may also play a role as summers get hotter and winters get colder.
These changes in weather may weaken the bees, making it more difficult for them to fight infections.
-What may make it more difficult for bees to fight infections? –Changing weather conditions.
Whatever the cause of colonies collapse, it’s important to understand that many parts of our world are inter-dependent.
Changes that affect one species may have serious effects on other species.
A change to our environment can start a chain of events that is difficult to predict.
In any complex system, such as the earth’s environment, small changes can have an unforeseen consequences.
The danger of unforeseen consequences is something we all need to understand better.
-The Earth’s environment is … -a complex system.
-The main idea here is: -The Earth’s environment is a complex system.
Goods and services supply what people need or want.
Goods are things such as foods and clothing.
Services include things such as health care and police protection.
A country needs natural and human resources.
Natural resources include fresh water supplies, farmland and energy sources, such as oil and wind.
Human resources include a skilled workforce that can produce goods and services.
Once we have a supply of goods or services, they need to be distributed throughout a country.
Highways and railways are both ways to transport things from one part of a country to another.
Electricity is distributed through a system of transmission lines.
We live an age of advertising.
Advertising lets people know about goods and services.
It educates people about the product being advertised.
Trade allows for the exchange of goods and services between different countries.
Exports are goods and services that are sold to another country.
Imports are goods and services that are bought from another country.
For example, many countries import oil from country such as Saudi Arabia.
An advertiser’s goal is to convince people to buy something even if they don’t really need it.
Without a system of distribution, goods and services cannot be supplied throughout a country.
Advertisers try to increase the demand for a product or service.
Employees are the people who work for a company.
Some employees do basic work, such as operating a machine, or driving a drunk.
The people who hire and direct the work of other employees are managers.
Interviews are one way to find out about a person who applies for a job.
In an interview, a job applicant can ask questions about the company, and a company can find out about the person’s skills and experience.
An entrepreneur is someone who starts a new company.
Entrepreneur often have new ideas and ways of doing things that can give their company an advantage.
Salary and benefits are used to attract new employees into a company.
If the salary and benefits are good enough, employees may take the job and stay with the company.
Benefits include vocation time, health insurance and bonus for employees who do a good job.
When applying for a job, it’s important to have the skills and experience needed for the job.
Developing and increasing skills and experience is good way to prepare for a good job. Each job a person has is an opportunity to learn new things and develop new skills.
M: You don’t look good. Is something bothering you?
W: Yes, it’s my landlord.
M: Oh, is there something wrong with your flat?
W: No, there’s nothing wrong with the flat. But I’m going to have to move out.
-What’s wrong with her flat? –Nothing.
-She doesn’t look good because… -she has to move out of her flat.
M: Why do you have to move out?
W: For the last two months a friend has been staying with me.
She is staying until she can find a job.
M: That’s nice of you.
W: Yes, but I’m not supposed to have anyone staying there.
M: Was that in the rental agreement?
W: Yes, it was. It’s ok if a friend stays for a few days, but not for more than that.
-Her friend was going to stay… -until she could find a job.
M: So you broke the agreement, even though it was for a good reason.
W: Anyway, one of my neighbors told the landlord about my friend.
So now I’m in trouble. The landlord is angry and says she can’t trust me.
M: That’s ridiculous.
W: I told her about my friend and how I’m trying to help her, but she doesn’t care.
-Who told the landlord about her friend? –a neighbor.
M: Wow, she doesn’t sound very nice.
W: That’s right, she isn’t nice. She’s just interested in money.
In fact, she’s going to keep my security deposit.
M: How can she do that? Nothing is damaged, right?
W: Right, everything in the flat is fine.
She’s keeping the deposit because I broke the rental agreement.
-What is the landlord going to keep? –the security deposit.
M: What about your rent?
W: Yes, that’s another problem. I’ve already pay 3 months’ rent, so I hope I can get it back.
M: What can you do if she doesn’t return it?
W: I don’t know. I’ll talk to my agent. He’s nice and maybe he can help.
Maybe I should refuse to leave the flat until I get it back.
M: Be sure to take pictures of the flat.
W: What for?
M: Just to show the condition of the flat.
Then she can’t say your friend damage it in anyway.
W: Good idea. She’s a small-minded evil woman.
I should never have rented it from her in the first place.
-How many months’ rent has she paid in advance? –She’s paid 3 months’ rent in advance.
One of the neighbors told the landlord about her friend.
She doesn’t look good because she has to move out of her flat.
There’s nothing wrong with her flat.
What kind of careers are the best? And what are the qualifications?
One of the most popular careers for kids is to become an astronaut.
Many kids dream of going into space when they grow up.
They dream of working on the space station or exploring deep space.
To become an astronaut, it’s important to have the right background.
Many astronauts have the background in engineering, physics or medicine.
Sometimes they have military background, such as flying military aircraft.
As for pay, astronauts can earn a good salary, but not great.
Another popular career is to become musician or actor.
Many kids dream of become famous singers or movie stars.
However, most musicians and actors don’t become famous.
They are usually paid by the hour or by the performance.
Only a very few earn lots of money.
So the best advice is not become the musician or actor unless that’s your real passion.
Becoming a professional athlete is another dream job for many.
It’s nice to image playing a favorite sport and getting paid for it.
However, becoming a professional athlete takes a lot of work and practice.
Great athletes practice for hours a day with teammates and coaches.
They also work regularly with trainers to keep their body strong.
The level of pay for athlete depends on the success and level of their performance.
Athletes often have short career because of the physical requirements of their sport.
When they are no longer able to compete at a higher level, some athletes become coaches.
Firefighters and police officers are important jobs that help and protect people.
These careers require applicants to complete training programs and pass written and physical tests.
These jobs can be exciting and dangerous so they require courage and sometimes sacrifice.
When considering salary and benefits, some of the lowest paying jobs are hospitality and beauty industries.
For example food service workers and hair stylist generally have low salaries.
These kind of jobs don’t require much education or training.
But again if you enjoy what you are doing, that may be good enough.
For example, you may really enjoy talking with your customs.
Spending your life doing something you dislike can be very unsatisfied, even if the salary is high.
Some of the highest paid professions include doctors, lawyers and scientists.
However, these professions require high levels of education and training.
The path to becoming a doctor, for example, is a long one.
Doctors require a university degree, several years in medical school and several more years of experience.
Only then they are satisfied as a medical doctor or MD.
So it doesn’t make sense to consider these professions until they for many years.
And of course, you should really care about doing the work well.
Civil wars are fought between citizens of the same country and are fought within the country.
If citizens of a country disagree about a policy or leader, they may fight a civil war.
A world war is fought when countries form alliances and these alliances fight each other.
A world war involves many or most of the world’s most powerful countries.
There were 2 world wars in the 20th century.
Terrorism involves groups of individuals rather than countries.
Terrorists may come from different countries, and may share the same believes.
Terrorists often use car bombings and suicide attacks on innocent people.
A terrorist attack can happen at any time and any place.
An invasion occurs when one country attacks another.
It sends its army into the other country and attempts to take control.
One of the most famous invasions was when France invaded Russia in 1812.
A defensive of war occurs when a country is attacked and needs to defend itself.
Most countries have military so that it can defend itself if it’s attacked.
When France invaded Russia in 1812, the Russian army fought a defensive war and defeated the France army.
A cell is the basic unit of life.
A cell is the smallest structure that can live and reproduce.
Cells grow and develop, reproduce and interact with the environment.
Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes.
It allows plants to capture and use light as an energy source.
Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy into chemical energy.
A virus is a small biological structure that attacks and inters cells.
Once inside a cell a virus reproduces and makes many copies of itself.
Some diseases such as influence are virus.
Bacteria are one-celled form of life that all around us.
Although they have a single cell structure they are very important.
Many bacteria are inside us and help us digest our food.
DNA is a complex molecule that stores information and can make copies of itself.
Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA.
The information stored in DNA tells cell what to do and is necessary for reproduction.
W: good evening, sir. How can I help you?
M1: yes, we just checked in and our room is unacceptable. It’s room 8 in 10.
W: is there something wrong with the room?
M1: yes, there certainly is.
We requested a nonsmoking room but the room smells of smoke.
W: let me check. Yes, that room is supposed to be a nonsmoking room.
M1: well, somebody certainly didn’t follow the rules.
The curtain smells like cigars. We can hardly breathe and the windows won’t open.
W: right, the windows don’t open, sir.
I’m really sorry about this. Let me see if I can find you another room.
M1: yes, please. We certainly can’t stay in that room.
Both of our kids have
asima, so the smells of smoke can cause breathing problems.
W: yes, I understand your concern.
W: sir, I’m afraid we don’t have any other rooms with 2 double beds.
If you’ll excuse me, I’ll speak with my manager.
M1: thank you. We are really tired and we would like to get some rest as soon as possible.
W: yes, I understand. If you don’t mind, could you wait in the lounge near the elevators?
I shouldn’t be long.
M1: sure, I hope it doesn’t take time.
M2: good evening sir, I’m the manager here and I’m sorry to hear about your room.
M1: yes, we’re not happy and we’re really tired. I hope you can help us.
M2: I’m sure we can.
Since we don’t have another nonsmoking room for you, I’ll upgrade you to a suite.
Would that be ok?
M1: yes, that would be fine. There’s no extra cost, right?
M2: no, sir. There will be no extra charge.
M1: and it’s nonsmoking, right?
M2: yes, sir. I have confirmed that it’s nonsmoking.
M1: thanks, I really appreciate your help.
M2: it’s my pleasure, sir. I hope you and your family have a wonderful stay with us.
Here’s my card. If there is anything else I can do for you, please let me know.
M1: I will. Have a good evening.
M2: thank you, sir and once again, let me apologize for the same convenience.