Jessica is 35 year old.
She graduated from middle school 20 years ago.
This year her middle school class has its 20 year class reunion.
All of her classmates and teachers were invited to attend.
It was going to be at a hotel near where their school used to be.
Like many other buildings, the school had been torn down. It had been replaced by some apartment buildings.
At first, she wasn’t sure if she could go to the reunion.
One reason was that there wasn’t anyone in particular that she wanted to see (from her school days).
Another reason was that she was very busy.
She was a working mother with a boy 8 years old and a husband who is rarely at home.
Going to the union meant that she would have to arrange for someone to take care of things while she was away.
That wouldn’t be easy.
She didn’t want to take her boy with her, and her husband wouldn’t take time off from work.
Then she got a message from Sharon, one of her old classmates.
Sharon was contacting people from their class and urging everyone to come.
In their school days, Sharon was class monitor, and now she was helping to organize the reunion.
Sharon was urging everyone to come to the reunion
They exchange messages and Jessica said she wouldn’t make it.
Then Sharon gave her a call, and they talk for almost an hour.
Sharon really wanted her to come, and so did the couple of Jessica‘s’ old friends.
They were all wandering how she was doing.
None of them has seen or heard from her since graduation.
They were a specially careers she hadn’t gone to the first reunion 10 years ago.
Jessica decided to arrange thing so that she could go.
Her husband finally agreed to take care of things while she was away.
He agreed to do it, because her mother had offered to come and stayed for a while, so Jessica could attend the reunion.
Since he and her mother didn’t get along, he decided to change his schedule and work from home for a few days.
He really didn’t want his mother to come though he didn’t say so.
When she got to the reunion she was shocked.
Everyone had aged so much and many were out of shape.
Some who used to be good looking had lost their looks completely and others looked much better than before.
It was strange how time had changed people in such different ways.
Anyway, she decided since she was there, she would try to enjoy it.
To replace something means to put something else in its place.
When something gets old and begins to break down, it may need to be replaced.
The person who replaces someone is the person’s replacement.
To tear something down means to break it apart.
To tear a person down means to hurt them by saying negative things about them.
It may take a long time to tear down a big building.
To construct something means to build it or put it together.
Large construction projects include buildings, bridges and organizations.
The opposite of constructive is destructive.
To be constructive means to help build an idea or process by contributing something helpful, such as positive feedback.
To organize something means to arrange things in an orderly logical way.
An organization is something that has logical structure such as a well-managed company.
Some people are poorly organized, so they have a hard time finding things.
They are too disorganized to get anything done on time.
An event or party can be well organized, poorly organized or completely disorganized.
When things are not arranged well, you need to organize.
To support something such as an idea is to help add strength to it.
The opposite of support is to undermine or weaken.
If you support someone, it means you are trying to help them succeed.
To work against someone means to undermine them, or make them less effective.
Public information is available to anyone who wants to know it.
If a store is open to the public, it means anyone can come in.
A public company makes its shares available for purchase by any investor.
Many people make money by investing in public companies.
Anyone can invest in a public company by buying its shares.
Private information is not open to everyone, but is only available to trusted friends or family.
Information about one’s secret hopes and dreams is usually private.
You had better keep information about your passwords private or you may lose a lot.
The password to your bank account is private information.
Most people keep their personal information private.
Confidential information is secret information.
Confidential information is not supposed to be shared with others.
The details of a secret design or how a company makes decisions are often confidential. Revealing confidential information may be illegal.
Gossip is information that is often exchanged because it’s exciting or fun, even though it may not be true.
Office gossip is often entertaining but it can also be damaging.
Gossip may hurt or embarrass the person being gossiped about.
People who gossip often enjoy embarrassing or hurting other people.
Opinions are what people think or feel about something as a pose to facts or information.
Factual information is based on facts or evidences but opinions are what people think or feel.
Someone’s opinion is what they think or feel about something.
Opinions often differ, and when they do people may argue.
M: Is this the Ace service center?
W: Yes, it is, sir. May I help you?
M: Yes, I’m calling to complain about your service.
W: Certainly, sir. I’m sorry to hear that.
Let me see if there is something I can do to help you. Please tell me what happened.
M: I ordered a new washing machine on your website. It was more than a week ago.
W: Before you go on, may I have your order number please?
M: Sure, it’s ABC1005.
W: And may I have the last four digits of your social security number?
M: I don’t have a social security number. I’m an illegal alien.
W: Very funny sir. OK, then, what is your first pet’s name? M: Mister Kitty.
W: OK. I see your order information. Now, what’s the problem?
M: I ordered a washing machine and paid for it.
Then I chose a delivery date from a set of choices.
It was supposed to be delivery today, but it’s still not here.
W: Did anyone contact you?
M: No, I haven’t received any messages.
W: I’m sorry to hear that, sir.
W: I see here that the washing machine you ordered hasn’t arrived in our warehouse yet.
It can’t be delivery until next week.
M: You don’t even have it yet? Why haven’t I been notified?
I took time off from work to be at home today.
W: You should have been notified, by phone or email.
M: I wasn’t. I haven’t received any notification. This is very upsetting.
W: I understand, sir. I’m really sorry for this.
M: Being sorry isn’t enough. I’m really upset.
This is no way to do business.
W: Yes, sir. I understand.
W: I can send you a 50 dollar gift coupon as a way to express our appreciation for your patience.
M: I don’t care about the money. I don’t blame you of course.
But I want you to know how disappointed I am with ACE. I expected a much better service.
W: I’m really sorry, sir. Is there anything else I can do for you?
M: Yes, there is. I’d like to cancel the order and get the refund.
W: I’m sorry to hear that, sir. But I understand. I’ll see to what you get your refund.
M: How long will it take before I get the refund?
W: You should see the credit on your credit card billing statement.
M: Thanks for your help.
W: You’re welcome, sir. And once again, please accept my apologies.
Jessica’s 20-year class reunion was held at a fancy hotel.
When she arrived, she wasn’t sure she was in the right place.
At first, she didn’t recognize anyone.
She felt a bit awkward and out of place.
But it wasn’t long before a strange man came up to her.
He was already losing his hair, and he was wearing thick glasses.
Don’t you remember me? He asked.
When he said who he was, she barely remembered him, especially since he had changed so much.
Then he told her that he always had a crash on her.
He said she looked beautiful and he immediately took a selfies of them, with his arm tight around her waist.
This made her feel a bit strange.
She smiled to him and pretended to be happy to see him.
But in fact, she wasn’t sure how to react, though he seemed nice.
She finally excused herself and went to the lady’s room.
She was beginning to regret having come to the reunion.
She had always been shy and she still was.
When she returned to the party, Sherry invited her to sit at her table.
Dinner was going to be served soon and some of the classmates were going to give speeches. Sharon asked Jessica to say a few words too, because people were curious.
This was a surprise.
Jessica had never been very popular and she didn’t think anyone had noticed her.
She had always felt like an outsider, with only a couple of close friends.
Still she had been one of the best students and people remembered her.
As the evening wore on, Jessica began to really enjoy herself.
She talked with her old friends and was amazed, by how some others had changed.
For example, Tommy used to be good-looking and athletic.
He was one of the most popular students and a star basketball player.
His one problem was math.
He had had a hard time in math, especially in geometry.
This was because he wasn’t a logical thinker.
Except for basketball, he didn’t want to do anything, unless it was easy.
Tom was no longer good-looking.
His nose, which had always been large, had grown even larger.
He had also gained a lot of weight.
His wife had left him, so for the first time ever, he was alone.
He looked lonely and depressed, not at all like he used to be.
Steven was nobody in high school.
People hardly noticed him.
He was small, quiet and a bit ugly, with crooked teeth.
What he was good at was English.
His English was even better than their teacher’s.
After graduating, he went to a low-ranked university and eventually dropped out.
For a while, he worked as a tour guide.
Then, 10 years ago, he and some friends started a little company which has now a great success.
In fact, he had become a rich, generous man.
He had a nice warm smile and his success hadn’t gone to his head.
It was a pleasure to be around him.
His success hadn’t gone to his head means that his success didn’t make him think he was better than others.
Betty used to be the most beautiful girl in school.
She wasn’t very smart but she was a great singer.
She made a video of her singing and it went virus.
She became famous overnight but it only lasted for about 2 years.
After that, her fans lost interest in her.
She tried to become an actress but she failed.
She had been too stiff and nervous in front of the camera.
Betty had a nice husband who seemed to adore her.
The one treasure in her life happened about 5 years ago when she lost her daughter to a rare form of cancer.
Because of that her hair had begun to turn grey.
Jessica couldn’t help but felt sorry for her.
Betty had on her girl, but things didn’t work out.
Betty had had such high hopes and tremendous energy as a girl but things didn’t work out.
And then there was John.
John used to be the school bully.
He had been big, strong and mean.
He hadn’t been nice to anybody.
It seemed that he was always angry and ready to hit someone.
After graduating he joined the army and went overseas to fight no war.
He saw many people die and he grew to hate fighting of any kind.
Then one day he was nearly killed when the helicopter he was in was shot down.
He survived the crash but he lost a leg and was hospitalized for nearly a year.
Now he had completely changed.
He had gentle, kind eyes and beautiful smile.
He was working for an organization that provides support for elderly people.
From Jessica’s point of view, John had turned out to be a wonderful surprise.
In the end, Jessica was glad she went to her reunion.
It was interesting to see how people had changed through the years.
Still she was happy to get home and appreciated everything that she had.
Some people can remain calm even when everyone else is confused and upset.
When you are calm, you can think clearly and make good decisions.
Some people are easily upset and have a hard time controlling their emotions.
A broken heart is what happens when a love relationship is broken off.
Someone with a broken heart is usually depressed which means they feel awful and don’t enjoy life.
If someone you love breaks off the relationship it feels like the end of the world.
She broke his heart when she told him their relationship was over.
To fall in love with someone can be a wonderful experience with powerful emotions.
People in love often share their deepest feelings and emotions which is intimacy.
Being in love can blind you from see things as they really are, so it is easy to make a bad decision.
When you are in love with someone you can hardly think of anything else.
The emotions of love have inspired poets throughout history. She has found the man of her dreams.
To find someone attractive usually means there is a physical desire to be with them.
Physical attraction may sometimes lead to love, but in many cases, it may only lead to a short term sexual relationship.
Physically attractive people attract people of the opposite or same sex, depending on their sexual orientation. Many women use makeup to make themselves more physically attractive.
To flirt with someone means to let him or her know that you want to be approached.
Some people use their eyes or a smile to flirt.
The skill of flirting is something that comes naturally to some people, but for many people, they just act awkwardly.
If someone is flirting with you, they are coming on to you. You may reject their advance or accept it and begin a relationship.
Jealousy is what often happens when 2 people compete for the love of the same person.
The one who loses may be very jealous of the other and try to breaks things up.
If 2 men are rivals for the same woman, they may dislike or even hate each other because of jealousy.
A jealous person often wants to possess the person they love.
Feelings of jealousy may last for a long time and can destroy friendships.
Some people can remain calm even when everyone else is confused and upset.
When you are calm you can think clearly and make good decisions.
Some people are easily upset and have a hard time controlling their emotions.
Sometimes it’s best to control your emotions and be calm rather than react in anger. Their actions can upset everyone around them.
People react to disappointing news in different ways.
Sometimes they get discouraged and lose their confidence.
Sometimes they get depressed and begin to cry or even get drunk. When disappointed, be calm, think clearly and act constructively.
When disappointed, it’s much better to face the facts and decide what to do next than get discouraged.
She was really disappointed when she failed to pass the examination. Discouraging news can cause people to lose their confidence.
People are furious when they are extremely angry.
People who are furious at each other may end up fighting or trying to hurt each other.
Some people become furious when they are driving and another driver cuts in front of them. When people are furious at each other they often yell and insult each other.
To be excited is usually a good thing.
People can become excited while watch a soccer match and seeing their team score a goal.
The opposite of exciting is dull or boring.
Everyone was excited when they heard that their favorite team had won the game. He expected the game to be exciting, but it was so boring that he left early.
Someone is terrified if they are extremely afraid and shaking with fear.
Terrified people will often scream and run away from whatever threatening them.
Being in the earthquake was a terrifying experience, especially for the children.
When people are furious at each other they often yell and insult each other.
People who can’t control their emotions are difficult to work with.
When people are furious at each other, they often yell and insult each other.
He was terrified when he thought the building he was in was going to collapse in the earthquake.
W1: What are you so excited about?
W2: Have you heard? John and Soaker are getting a divorce.
W1: No, I haven’t. But I’m not surprised. To be honest, I never expected their marriage to last very long. She’s so aggressive and bossy.
W2: Well, I think John had an affair. He met someone on a business trip.
W1: Really? How did you find that out?
W2: Sherry told me a few minutes ago.
W1: Oh, Sherry. She is such a gossip. I wouldn’t believe anything she says.
W2: No, really. This time I think we can trust her. I don’t think she’s making it up.
W1: Wow, this IS news. What about their baby?
W2: I don’t know. I haven’t heard anything about that.
W1: Well, that’s too bad. Even though I don’t like either one of them, I feel sorry for them. It’s so sad when this happens, especially for the child.
W2: Yes, right. It’s easy to get court up off in a gossip and forget about the serious consequences.
To have an affair means foe a married person to have a romantic relationship outside of the marriage.
W1: Still, I can’t say I’m surprised. Can you imagine living with someone like that?
W2: No, I can’t. She is so self-centered.
W1: And what about him?
W2: I don’t know him well, but he seems nice.
W1: I think so too. I’m not sure how he ever fell for her.
W2: Are you kidding? Hormones. You have to admit that she’s physically attractive.
He probably couldn’t help himself. And now it seems he has fallen for someone else.
W1: I guess he can’t control himself. I’ve heard he has a drinking problem too.
W2: Oh I wasn’t aware of that. Well, what’s new, right? Something’s never change.
W1: That’s for sure. Hey, what about lunch?
W2: No, thanks. I’d better get back to work.
Emma’s Best is a small but growing health food company.
It was started in 1995 by a married couple who were tired of working for large companies.
The two founders were Ed and Emma Smith, both health-conscious vegetarians.
Despite the risks, Ed and Emma wanted to start their own business.
They knew it would be hard work, but they were determined to try.
Their plan was to create a business that provided healthy food to busy people.
They wanted it to be something they could be pride of.
When they started the company, organic food was becoming more popular.
People were becoming more food-conscious and worried about food safety.
In fact, people were willing to pay higher prices for food that was free of harmful chemicals.
In addition, an increasing number of people had little time to go shopping and cook at home.
They wanted meals that were healthy but easy to prepare.
There were very few frozen meals available at the time and none of them were vegetarian or organic. There were gap in market.
To be more conscious of something means to be more aware of it.
Ed and Emma immediately saw the opportunity and launched their first product.
It was a frozen pasta meal with a mix of vegetables and delicious cream sauce.
The market response was enthusiastic and profitable beyond their expectations.
Their product was an instant success.
To their surprise, it was soon being eaten by millions of people not only vegetarians or those interested organic foods.
It was being bought because it was easy to prepare and tested good.
And of course it was healthy.
People were willing to pay more for food that was free of harmful chemicals.
To their surprise, it was soon eaten by a wide variety of people.
Other products followed in rapid succession.
As a result, at the end of 5 years, the company was producing over 100 frozen meals.
Since then, they have increased the number of meals to over 150, including pizzas, sandwiches and snacks. Their foods are carried by natural food stores and supermarkets thought out North America.
Although they have expand the production for facilities, and increased the number of employees they have met a private company.
They enjoy the fact that they are a family-own business, sensitive to the need of customers.
They don’t have to worry about pleasing shareholders.
Rather than paying dividends to shareholders, Emma’s Best has a profit-sharing plan that benefits its employee.
Dividends are that are paid to the shareholders.
Bonuses and salary increases keep employees happy and motivated to work hard.
As a result, employee turnover is low and the company has been recognized as one of the best companies to work for.
In addition, Emma’s Best supports local charities, especially those that provide healthy food to children from low-income families.
Given it success, the company feels an obligation to contribute to society.
In spite of the fact that other companies now produce similar products, Emma’s Best remains the market leader.
Their total commitment to quality has made the difference and they are proud of the accomplishments.
If employees are happy and motivated, employee turnover is usually low.
They have remained a private company.
People are often nervous or apprehensive before performing in front of an audience.
People who are really nervous may feel tense, which is the opposite of relaxed.
When someone is nervous their muscles often tense up and their heart rate increases.
Sometimes, taking a deep breath can help a nervous person feel more relaxed.
People are often nervous or apprehensive before performing in front of an audience.
Someone who strongly believes their ability to do something is often confident.
The best way to build confidence is to practice what you are going to do until you can do it with ease.
The key to building confidence and reducing nervousness is effective and frequent practice. Someone with confidence can perform at a higher level than someone who is nervous.
To be indifferent means to not care one way or the other about something.
If you are indifferent to a person or a project, it means that the person or project isn’t important to you.
People who are indifferent are often cold and uncaring about others.
People who are indifferent may not value anything or anyone but themselves.
To be appreciative is to be thankful or grateful for something.
If someone does something nice for you, you should appreciate it.
It’s important to show your appreciation for someone’s support or help.
To be depressed is the opposite of to be happy.
When someone is depressed they feel very sad.
Depression can be caused by disappointing news or by failing to reach a goal. When people are depressed, they are usually pessimistic about the future.
Aggressive people often push their own ideas or try to force others to follow them.
Someone who is passive will usually not resist efforts of the others.
A passive person is often seen as weak and easy to control.
An aggressive person pushes or attacks, and a passive person doesn’t resist.
An optimistic person believes in a positive future.
Optimists see a glass that half full rather than half empty.
The opposite of an optimist is a pessimist.
Pessimists see a glass as half empty rather than half full.
A pessimist sees things with a negative light and have little hope for the future.
Sensitive people are emotional and have strong feelings about things
It’s important to be careful when dealing with sensitive people because it’s easy to upset them.
Insensitive people don’t seem to be aware of or care about the feeling of others.
He doesn’t realize when she’s upset because he’s quite insensitive to the feelings of others.
It’s important to know how to act around extremely sensitive people.
A mean person doesn’t treat other people well or with kindness.
Mean people often enjoy making people suffer for their mistakes.
To be kind is the opposite of to be mean.
Nobody ever asks him for help because he’s mean and selfish.
He was really mean to her when she disagreed with him and he told her to shut up. He was really mean when he told her how badly she had performed.
Conceited people have a very high opinion of themselves.
They often talk about how great they are and tend to exaggerate their strength.
Modest people don’t show off their strengths, but are often very good at what they do.
Modest people are often overlooked in a job interview because they fail to communicate their strengths.
Conceited people often exaggerate their abilities and can fool people into believing them.
W: ACE Industries. May I help you? This is Sue Mitchell speaking.
M: Hi Sue, this is Ben Wang of Job LINK.
W: Oh hi Ben, how are you? I’ve been excepting your call.
M: I’m sorry to be late. I’ve been travelling.
W: It seems like everyone is travelling these days.
M: That’s for sure. I’m a way more than I’m here. Anyway, I’m calling to see if we can arrange a meeting.
W: Good. There are several matters I’d like to discuss with you.
M: Sure, would later this week be possible?
W: Let me see. According to my schedule, I’ll have some time Thursday afternoon and Friday morning.
M: How long do you think we’ll need?
W: I think an hour should be enough.
M: That should be fine. Would Thursday at 3:30 work for you?
W: Yes, that’s fine.
W: OK, I’m looking forward to seeing you at 3:30 on Thursday.
M: Right, see you then, and thanks.
W: You are welcome, Ben. Take care.
M: Hi Sue, I’m sorry but something urgent has come up, so I’d like to change the time for our meeting on Thursday.
W: Oh I’m sorry to hear that. What about Friday morning?
M: That should work. How early?
W: I’m usually here by 9 o’clock. Could you be here by then?
M: Yes, that shouldn’t be a problem.
W: OK, Friday at 9 o’clock.
M: Once again, sorry for the last minute change.
There are many mysteries in nature.
Mysteries are things we don’t understand, such as how the Egyptian pyramids were built.
In fact, we are surrounded by mysteries.
What we know about the world seems like very little.
Scientists tell us that what we see in the universe is only a small part of what is there.
The rest is invisible, including dark matter and dark energy.
These two unknowns make up around 95% of the universe.
Evidence for their existence comes from their effects on that what we can observe, such as the motion and positions of distant galaxies.
Yet though we know very little, we are able to build airplanes and communicate with smart phones.
In some ways we humans are very smart or at least we think we are.
We still need to face big issues like climate change and that is going to be a huge challenge.
The challenge for humans will be our ability to adapt to our changing environment.
What about other forms of life?
How do they adapt?
Seasonal variations, for example, can be one of the greatest challenges for animals to overcome.
Overcoming such challenges is a great achievement but hardly easy.
Some birds migrate thousands of kilometers each year to deal with seasonal changes.
These migrations are amazing.
Birds don’t carry maps or compasses, yet they know where to go.
They have developed the ability to see the Earth’s magnetic field.
This ability is the wander of nature.
It takes advantage of the fact that the earth is like a huge bar magnet.
It has a north pole, which is positive and a south pole, which is negative.
Somehow the birds are able to see this magnate field and use it to their advantage.
And even the way birds fly together is amazing.
Many migrating birds fly in a V formation.
They do this to conserve energy.
In a V formation, birds can use the energy of the birds in front of them.
This energy comes from the air currents generated by the wings.
Conserving energy is necessary for the birds to survive the long journey.
How do the birds know this?
It’s truly amazing how the birds know this.
Another amazing example of survival is the salmon.
Salmon spend most of their lives in the ocean, which is salt water.
Yet when it’s time to breed they do so in fresh water rivers.
Salmon can adapt their bodies to survive in both saltwater and freshwater.
When it’s breeding time, they return to the same river where they were born.
It seems as if they have built in map that guides them for hundreds of miles.
Once they leave the salt water, they don’t eat.
They are determined to finish their journey, despite the many obstacles.
They swim against the strong currents, jump over waterfalls and try to escape the claws of hungry bears.
Many die along the way, but enough of them survive to breed and produce the next generation.
Once they have led their eggs, they die, having completed their journey.
It seems that their purpose in life is just to reproduce.
Migration takes animals to new, more favorable environment when the seasons change.
Some of these journeys are long and dangerous, along routes with no obvious landmarks.
The longest migration is that of the artic tern.
It flies from pole to pole, twice a year.
If a tern achieves its average lifespan of 20 years, the distance it has flown will be equivalent to a journey to the moon and back.
Humans also migrate, but seldom if ever for seasonal variations.
Unfortunately, human migrations are often due to human activities.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, large scale migrations have become a global problem.
Millions of migrants have had to leave their countries and look for new homes.
Many have died along the way or leave its refugees in camps until they are admitted into a new country.
So the question remains as to how our global community will face these challenges.
To criticize someone is to point out their faults or mistakes.
Some people appreciate constructive criticism which can help them develop their skills.
Some people cannot take any criticism without feeling hurt.
To praise someone is to let them know that they have done a good job.
Some people expect to be praised when they have performed well.
It’s important not to praise people when they haven’t done a good enough job.
Knowing when and how to praise someone is an important skill.
To apologize to someone is to admit that you have done something wrong or hurtful.
One way to apologize is to say you are sorry.
If your apology isn’t accepted, it meant the person hasn’t forgiven you.
If someone rejects your apology, it means they haven’t forgiven you.
To forgive someone is to accept their apology.
To order people to do something is to use your power or position to get them to do it.
Many people dislike being ordered to do things.
In many cases it’s better to make a request than order someone to do something.
If someone doesn’t follow order, he or she may be punished.
To encourage someone is to support their efforts and help build their confidence.
A good teacher encourages students to do their best.
To discourage someone is to take away their confidence.
It’s discouraging to work for someone who never shows appreciation for your hard work.
Some people are discouraged if they don’t receive praise or recognition for their work.
There are many different cycles in nature, such as the cycle of seasons.
A cycle is a series of events that repeat, such as the daily cycle of light and dark.
The number of times a cycle repeats itself within a period of time is its frequency.
To evolve means to change or improve over a period of time.
In biology the series of evolution says that event life forms such as human has evolved from lower form of life.
Life forms evolve because they have to adapt in order to survive.
According to science we have all evolved from simple one-called organisms.
A force of attraction brings two objects closer together, such as the force of gravity.
A force of repulsion pushes two objects away from each other, such as the force between two electrons.
Gravity is a force of attraction between two objects with mass.
If two people are attracted to each other they want to be together.
To transform means to change from one form into another.
A transformation occurs when an object takes a new appearance or structure.
Over a period of time, the process of evolution can transform the appearance of a species of life.
A good leader can transform an unsuccessful company into a successful one by changing how it is organized.
In marriage, a wife’s attempt to transform the behavior of her husband is often unsuccessful.
To inherit something means to get it without having to ask or work for it.
A child from a very rich family may inherit a lot of money.
He inherited a large fortune when his parents died, so he doesn’t have to work anymore.
A good friend of mine has never had to work, because evening he has is inherited.
Eye and hair color are inherited traits.
W: Excuse me, do you have a minute?
Boss: I’m sorry, not right now. I’ll be free in about 15 minutes, could you come back then?
W: No, I’m afraid we have an emergency upstairs.
Boss: Can’t you handle it?
W: No, I think it will be best if you were there.
Boss: OK, I’ll finish this call and be right with you.
Boss: OK, what is it?
W: Kevin and Bob are shouting at each other and is upsetting everyone.
Boss: Oh, not again. Those two have got to grow up. Who started it?
W: I’m not sure but they were even pushing each other.
Boss: OK, this is unacceptable. You run on ahead and warn them that I’m coming.
I want them to calm down before I get there. Can you do that?
W: OK, I’ll do what I can to calm them down. But you know Kevin, he is such a hot head.
This isn’t the first time they have had problems.
Boss: OK, Kevin, I’ve warned you before. This is got to stop.
Kevin: Yes, I know. But Bob doesn’t cooperate. He’s impossible to work with.
Boss: Even so you can’t go around pushing people. That’s no way to handle things.
If you weren’t doing such a good job, I’d have to let you go right now.
Your behavior just isn’t acceptable.
Kevin: Yeah, I understand and I’m sorry. I just can’t stand working with him.
Boss: I’m not sure what to do. What would you do if you were me?
Do you have any suggestions?
Kevin: To be honest, if I were you, I wouldn’t have the two of us working in the same office.
I know Bob has been with the company longer than I have, but he’s doing a terrible job.
When you are not around he just bullies people. People are afraid of him.
Boss: OK, I’ll look into a bit more. But you’ve got to promise me to keep cool and not let this happen again.
Kevin: OK, I’ll try to handle things differently next time.
One of the most important human emotions is love.
However, there are many different kinds of love.
Romantic love is certainly one of the most interesting kinds of love.
It can be beautiful, wonderful and heart-breaking, sometimes all at the same time.
Romantic love can make our lives full and meaningful, but it can also be an escape from loneliness and suffering.
If romantic love has a purpose, neither psychology nor biology has discovered it.
However, throughout history, philosophers have offered opinions about it.
The Greek philosopher, Plato, said love makes us complete.
He relates a comic story in which humans originally had four arms, four legs, and two faces.
Then when they angered the gods, they were cut in half.
Since then every person has been searching for their soul mate, the other half of his or her self.
Another philosopher believes that love is an illusion.
In his view, people fall in love because they believe the other person can make them happy.
But in fact, this is just an illusion designed to make us have children.
Once we have children, we are right back to where we were, still searching for happiness.
For nature this is a success, because we have children to maintain our species.
But it leaves us still searching for something more.
Some people say love can be a disguise for our sexual desires or a biological trick to make us have children.
Other kinds of love include the love between a parent and child.
If something is an illusion, it isn’t what it seems to be.
In Buddhism, romantic love is seen as an attempt to satisfy our desires.
These desires are a defect, something we need to overcome.
The way to free ourselves from suffering is to remove desires.
Once free of desires we can reach a state of peace and wisdom.
This state of being is called Niwana.
In one of the China’s greatest classical novels, Dream of the Red Chamber, love is present as a state of foolishness.
A young man falls in love with a beautiful woman who tricks and makes a fool of him.
This results confluent emotions of love in head, which tear him apart.
To cure him, a priest gives him a magic mirror.
The priest tells him to look into the reverse side of the mirror, but never to look in the front side.
When the young man looks into the mirror, he doesn’t like what he sees, so he looks into the forbidden side, the front side.
There he sees a lovely image of his love, who invites him to enter the mirror, to be with her.
He does this several times, until he is finally dragged away in chains.
He dies while looking into the mirror.
Perhaps the point of the story is that all such attachments should be avoided.
He is dragged away in chains and dies while looking into the mirror.
He enters the mirror to be with his love and satisfy his desires.
A famous France writer, Simone de Beauvoir has another point of view.
For her, love is the desire to integrate with another, like in a great friendship.
However, it is important that love is not becoming too dependent on the other person.
Becoming dependent on the other person can lead to boredom or power games.
Lovers should support each other in discovering themselves and developing their potentials.
In this way, romantic love can enrich the world.
Falling in love can be exciting and frightening.
Maybe we lose ourselves and maybe we find ourselves. Will you dare to find out?
Forbidden or prohibited, to be against the rules or not allowed.
Smoking is prohibited on many airplanes.
Athletes are forbidden from taking certain kinds of drugs.
If something is allowed, it isn’t forbidden or prohibited.
Access to that part of the factory is prohibited for security reasons.
Tourists are forbidden from taking pictures inside the museum.
They were forbidden from going to that website because of its content.
Weapons of any kind are prohibited inside the stadium.
Access to that part of the factory is prohibited for security reasons.
Risky, to be a bit dangerous or unsafe.
A risky investment may not be a good idea for people who worry too much.
If you make a risky investment, you may lose a lot of money.
What level of risk are you willing to take?
Meeting someone on the internet can be very risky, so be careful.
Investing in that company is very risky because it has many strong competitors.
Starting a new company can be very risky because most new companies fail within 5 years.
Ridiculous, to be foolish or not make any sense.
Their proposal is ridiculous, because it requires too much time and money.
Without enough quality practice, it’s ridiculous to expect much progress.
At first, we though his proposal was ridiculous, but then we realized that it made sense. He is lazy and the quality of his work is poor, so it’s ridiculous for him to except a bonus.
Innovative, to come up with a new idea or way of doing things.
Innovative people are usually clever and creative.
To innovate means to come up with a new way of doing something.
Innovate of thinking can lead to the development of new products and services.
Agreeing to her innovative ideas was difficult at first, but it turned out to be the right decision.
She left the company because she didn’t think it was innovative enough.
He isn’t innovative because he resists change and always wants to do things the same way.
His innovative proposals made several of the engineers very uncomfortable, but they finally agreed.
If they want to be innovative, they should change the way they have been doing things.
Conservative, to be conservative is to avoid taking risks.
Conservative investors try to make safe investments.
A conservative investor wants to minimize risks.
A conservative approach to management may discourage innovation.
She wants to escape from her parents because they are too conservative.
Her parents are very conservative, so they don’t approve of her wearing so much makeup.
A conservative approach to management may discourage innovation.
To disguise, to change something’s appearance so that it can’t be recognize.
He wasn’t good at disguise himself, so we know who he was right away.
She wore a disguise, so I wasn’t sure who she was.
He fooled everyone into believing in his plan, but it was all a disguise.
She disguised her true intentions so nobody knew what she was planning to do.
She didn’t want anyone to recognize her, so she wore a disguise.
I don’t trust him because he is so good at disguising his real plan.
To clarify, to explain or make something clear.
We weren’t sure what he meant until he clarified his ideas.
Everyone was confused until she clarified what she meant.
There are still many details that need to be clarified.
We can’t agree to your proposal unless you clarify a few points.
His attempt to clarify things only added to confusion.
To confuse, to make things difficult to understand, the opposite of to clarify.
Everyone was confused because her presentation was so disorganized.
He confuses people because he keeps changing his ideas.
The instructions were confusing, so nobody knew what to do.
Her comments during the meeting weren’t very constructive because they were so confusing.
After the explosion, people were confused and unsure about where to go.
A good leader can make decisions even when the situation is confusing.
To ignore, to try not to notice or deal with something, to act as something isn’t there.
We try to ignore her, but she finally stood up and told everyone to shut up.
People don’t respect or like her, so they ignore her in the office.
We are ignorant because we are ignoring the facts.
We can no longer ignore the fact that our company needs to be reorganized.
We can’t ignore the fact that we are losing money.
To confirm, to indicate that something is correct or completed as expected.
We weren’t sure if he was going to accept our offer, until he called and confirmed it.
We can’t start the project without reading confirmation that we agree on the details.
Can you confirm that the payment has been received?
He denied that he was at the meeting, but we have confirmed that he was there.
He denied being there, but we have witnesses who can confirm that he was there.
We won’t sign the contract until we receive confirmation that they have made the first payment.
Please confirm or deny that you were at the meeting.
We can’t start the project without written confirmation that we agree on the details.
M1: What’s so funny? What are you writing about?
M2: I’m writing about something I saw earlier this morning.
M1: Really? Do you keep it a general?
M2: Yes, I do. Every weekend I write about things that happened during the week.
M1: How long have you been doing it?
M2: I have been doing it fairly regularly since high school.
M1: Are you going to turn it into a book?
M2: I don’t know. Maybe I will someday, but for now it’s just for me.
M1: So, what was so interesting about what you saw this morning?
M2: I was in the same coffee shop I usually go to and a group of teenagers came in.
I couldn’t help watching them and trying to hear some of their conversation.
M1: That must have been interesting.
M2: Yes, it was. The more I watched them, the more I realized how glad I am that I don’t have to go through that digits of life again.
M1: So it brought back memories, isn’t it?
M2: Yes, it did. It was so clear how uncomfortable some of them were, yet, they were pretending to have a good time.
At least, that’s how what seemed to me.
M1: Why do you think they were pretending?
M2: It was just the way they smiled and laughed.
It seemed unnatural and overdone as if they were good actors.
M2: A couple of the boys were really awkward around the girls and two of the girls were wearing too much makeup. I had to stop myself from laughing.
M1: Yes, I can image it. I can remember wanting to be popular when I was in high school.
Now that you mention it, it wasn’t a great time, though I had some fun too.
M2: I guess it wasn’t so bad at the time, except when I was preparing for my university entrance examinations.
M1: Yes, that was awful.
My parents put tons of pressure on me, so I thought I was going to go crazy.
M1: What about girls? Did you have any girlfriends?
M2: There was one girl I had crush on, but I thought she was interested in somebody else.
I didn’t find out until much later that she was interested in me too.
It was a lost opportunity, one of many.
M1: Really, you should become a writer or make a movie.
You have a great imagination.
M2: To be honest, it’s much easier to image things than actually do things.
M1: You can say that again.
This kind of journals is a collection of observations rather than personal experiences.
A group of teenagers came into the coffee shop where he was sitting.
People have wondered about the nature of light and color since ancient times.
Some people thought that light came from the eye rather than coming into the eye.
To see, light was projected from our eyes to illuminate things as we looked at them.
Now we know that what we see is mostly reflected light, like the light from the moon, which is reflected sun light.
Light comes from a light source such as the sun and either enters our eyes directly or after it has reflected off something.
Light comes from a light source and either enters our eyes directly or indirectly, after reflecting off something.
Lights enters our eyes directly or after it has reflected off something like a tree or flower.
In 1666 Sir Isaac Newton showed that when light passed through a prism, it separated into all the other colors.
This clearly demonstrated that light is composed of many different colors.
The difference between colors is due to their wavelength.
A prism separates light into different colors because each color has a different wavelength.
The angle at which a color bends in a prism depends on its wavelength.
Colors with shorter wavelengths bend more than colors with longer wavelengths.
This explains why red light bends less than yellow light.
The reason is because its wavelength is longer.
Of the visible colors, violet light has the shortest wavelength, so it bends the most.
Each color is a single wavelength of light.
A prism separates light into its component colors.
Besides the sun, any objects that produces its own lights is a direct light source.
If you have ever painted you know that different colors can be combined to create new colors.
For example if you add white to a color you lighten it.
However the three primary colors, red, blue and yellow, cannot be made by mixing other colors.
It isn’t possible to mix any combination of colors to create red, blue or yellow.
Mixing two primary colors creates a secondary color, such as purple, which is made by mixing blue and red.
Mixing three primary colors creates a tertiary color, such as brown or grey.
Colors are wonderful to look at but they also affect people in ways besides sight.
They have a powerful effect on how people feel and behave.
Artists know this and so do business people who want to influence how people feel about their products and advisements.
For example research has shown that people can be more productive if they are working in a blue room.
The color purple is often linked to wealth or royalty and is seen as a mysterious spiritual color.
Some colors have even been associated with changes in blood pressure.
Though color can influence how we feel and act, these effects may depend on personal and cultural factors.
Therefore it’s important not believe everything you hear about the effects of color.
Different colors can be combined to form other colors.
The primary colors cannot be created by mixing other colors.
Purple is made by mixing blue and red.
Some colors have even been associated with changes in blood pressure.
Though there are differences between cultures, there is general agreement about some colors.
The color red, for example, is a warm color associated with energy and excitement in many cultures.
In China red is associated with fire, energy and good fortune.
On the other hand, one experiment shows that exposing students to red before taking a test can have a negative effect.
In fact, of all the colors, research shows that red has the most powerful effect on human behavior.
Certainly, it’s interesting and important to better understand the cycle logical of facts of light and color.
To gain a better understanding of these effects, more research is needed.
To promote, to move someone up in an organization, usually because she has done a good job.
We are going to promote her to manager.
If we don’t promote him, he’ll probably be upset.
The opposite of promote is demote.
We shouldn’t promote anyone unless they really deserve it, which means they have to prove themselves.
I don’t think she deserves a promotion yet, but her boss is insisting that we give it to her.
To transfer, to move someone or something from one place to another.
The company is going to transfer him to Shanghai next month.
She doesn’t want to be transferred because her husband is against moving to another city.
She won’t agree to be transferred unless we give her a promotion and a salary increase.
Transferring him out of sales was a mistake, so we need to find another position for him.
To motivate, to get someone interested and excited about doing something.
She’s really good at motivating her employees.
One way to motivate someone is to encourage them by giving constructive feedback.
He’s no fool, so giving him an award without an increase in salary won’t motivate him.
When he didn’t get his bonus he was really demotivated, so the quality of his work went down. They aren’t working hard enough because they aren’t being motivated.
To postpone, to delay or put off something until a later date.
We have to postpone the presentation because she wasn’t ready to give it.
We can’t continue to postpone the meeting or they’ll cancel it completely.
They are asking to postpone making their first payment, so we may decide to cancel the contract.
To evade, to escape or avoid something.
They’re trying to evade taking responsibility for their failure.
He was arrested for tax-evasion.
The hackers broke into the computer and evaded detection until it was too late to catch them.
They designed the airplane to evade detection by
They can’t evade paying the import tax or they will lose their license to do business in that country.
To assign, to give someone a task to do.
His boss assigned him to increase sales by 50%.
Her company assigns her to find out more about competition.
Her boss assigns her to do too many things at the same time, so she’s frustrated.
It’s very dangerous, so I won’t assign this project to you unless you are willing to take a risk.
To penalize, to find or punish someone for doing something wrong.
They were penalized for breaking the rules.
You will be penalized if you are late.
We knew we would be penalized, but the penalty was unfair, so we dropped out of the competition.
To lay off, to fire or social worker because business is bad.
The company was failing, so he was laid off.
Our company had to lay off 50% of our employees.
A company may have to lay off workers when business is bad.
He lost his job because his company had to lay off most of its employees.
She was laid off, not fired, so it should be easier for her to find a new job.
To recruit, to look for new employees to hire.
They are expanding their business and recruiting new employees.
She joined the company after she was recruited at a job fair.
It isn’t easy for a small company to recruit experienced managers.
He left his job because he was recruited by another company and offered a much higher salary.
To resign, to voluntarily quit one’s job.
His boss didn’t like him so he was asked to resign.
She resigned from her job because of health reasons.
She has decided to resign because she wants to spend more time with her family.
He didn’t want to be transferred so he decided to resign and work for a competitor.
M: Wow, you look different today.
W: You mean more beautiful?
M: What’s your thought the makeup?
W: I feel like dressing up today. Don’t you like it?
M: Do you want me to be honest?
W: Of course, but I know you. You are so old-fashioned.
M: I just think you don’t need so much makeup to look beautiful. That lipstick is like a fire engine. W: Well not everyone agrees with you. And I like looking different once no while.
He thinks she doesn’t need so much makeup to look beautiful and attractive.
She felt like dressing up today, so she put on more makeup than she usually wears. She’s wearing more makeup than usual.
M: I’m glad I’m not a woman. There are too many things to deal with.
W: Yes, you wouldn’t be good at it. You always wear the same old clothes, it’s boring.
M: Maybe it’s boring, but it’s comfortable.
W: You’ll never find a new girlfriend if you don’t change.
M: I’m not interested in women anymore, you know that, there’s nothing but trouble.
W: Am I trouble?
M: You and I are just opposites. You’re always doing something new and I would rather just relax. W: You sound like an old man. You need to act younger. You need to be more exciting.
M: And then what? Find my soul mate?
W: Really, you sound so cynical! Don’t you believe in love?
M: Sure, in the movies maybe.
M: Love is an illusion. It never last and when it starts is difficult to break on.
W: Your problem is that you expect too much from love.
You’re too romantic. You need to be more practical.
M: I thought you were the romantic one.
W: I have a romantic side, yes, but I’m practical. My man has got to be good looking, well-dressed and hopefully rich.
M: Hah, then let me out.
W: Yes, you’ve got a lot to learn.
He thinks love is an illusion and doesn’t last for very long.
W: Now where are we going for dinner? Somewhere expensive?
M: OK, you’ve convinced me that your makeup isn’t so bad. But I think it’s your turn to pay.
W: That’s what you think.
He cares a lot about fashion.
One of the most interesting people in history is probably someone you have never heard of.
We will call him Iceman because his body was frozen in ice for several thousand years.
His body was discovered in 1991 by two hikers in the mountains near the border of Austria and Italy.
The lower part of his body was still frozen in ice, but the upper part was uncovered and visible.
Once the body was extracted from the ice it was taken in for examination.
Upon examination, scientists determined that the Iceman lived around 5300 (53 hundred) years ago.
This was at the end of the Stone Age, nearly 1 thousand years before the great pyramids were built.
This made him the oldest mummy ever found.
Iceman’s body was in good condition when it was found.
People believed that the body was one of the many hikers who had been lost in recent years.
Nobody suspected that the body was as oldest as it was.
It have been persevered by the ice for thousands of years.
Given its good condition, studying it was like opening a window in time.
Scientists could learn a lot about how people lived 5000 years ago.
The Iceman lived at the end of the Stone Age, a time of great change in human history.
Hunting was still a major source of food, but people was beginning to farm.
People was settling down and forming (permanent) communities.
These communities were claiming territory and setting up boundaries.
As a result, sometimes they had to fight to defend their territory from outsiders.
The village where the Iceman lived was probably not far from where he died.
Perhaps he was killed in a battle with outsiders.
Communities were claiming territory and fighting to defend from the outsiders.
It was in good condition because it had been persevered by the ice.
Iceman was about 45 years old when he died.
He was 1.6 meters tall and weighed about 50 kilograms when he was alive.
Along with the body were some other objects.
These included some weapons, including a bone and arrow, a knife and an ax.
He was still wearing one of his shoes and he had a backpack with a wooden frame.
He also had some plants that may had been used for medical purposes.
Further examination of the body showed that he was well feed, with a diet of meat, bread and fruit.
In fact, he had eaten several meals within the fewer hours of his death.
From all the evidences, he probably had a good live.
Perhaps he was hunting for food when he was caught in a sudden storm.
For several years after the discovery of the body, scientists believed that he died from the cold.
Weather is unpredictable in the area he was found, so perhaps he was caught in an unexpected storm.
However, 10 years after his body was found, new evidences pointed to a new cause of death.
In 2001, examiners x-rayed the body and found an arrowhead deep in the Iceman’s chest.
Further analysis revealed that the Iceman had been shot from behind.
The arrow had cut through an artery and had caused severe bleeding.
Clearly, it was a case of murder, the oldest case of murder ever discovered.
People were beginning to farm, so they needed to settle in one place.
To sue, to take someone called in a legal disagreement.
They broke our contract and didn’t pay, so we sued them and won.
She sued her employer for firing her but she lost because they had the right to fire her.
When she left her job she sued her employer for not keeping its promise to pay her a bonus.
To restrict, to put limits on something. This is a restricted area, so stay away.
We need to restrict them from talking to anyone about our project.
We have unlimited access to their research and there are no restrictions on how we use the information.
To negotiate, to deal with a bargain with others to reach an agreement.
Instead of starting a war, we should negotiate and find a way to compromise.
We are trying to negotiate a better deal, but it isn’t easy.
The price is too high, but if we negotiate we may be able to get a discount.
He never wants to negotiate, so he has lost several important customer.
Responsible for or responsible to, to be responsible for something means to have the job of getting it done or taking care of.
If you are responsible to someone, it means that you are working under their control.
He is responsible to the CEO, so he can’t sign the contract without her final approval.
We need to report this to our boss because we are responsible to her and because she will judge our performance.
We have many responsibilities, but she is the one responsible for product development.
Oversee or supervise, to control a direct process of project.
One of his responsibilities was to supervise rescue operations and keep things under control.
As product manager, she oversees the work of several departments.
Their new project is behind schedule because nobody oversees how the department work together.
To merge, to combine or come together.
Those two companies used to be competitors, but now they have merged into one company.
When the two companies merged, many people were laid off.
They plan to merge with a much larger company, so they will lose her identity.
To acquire, to buy or take possession.
Some big companies grow by acquiring other companies.
One way to protect your business is to acquire your competitors.
One way to acquire new technology is to hire innovative people from other companies.
The best way to acquire a new skill is to find a great teacher or program and practice every day.
An agenda, a plan or a list of items to be discussed at a meeting.
The agenda for the meeting is still unclear.
What are the main points on the agenda for the meeting?
There are too many items on the agenda, so we need to cut it down and focus on fewer things.
A contract, a written document that defines the rules in a relationship.
A contract isn’t usually useful until things begin to go badly in a relationship.
According to our contract, their first payment is due next week.
The contract was too much in their favor, so we didn’t sign it.
Assets and liabilities, assets are what you own, and liabilities are what you owe.
Knowing the assets and liabilities of a company, helps to determine the company’s value.
The company had more liabilities than assets, so we decided not to invest.
Their assets were rapidly increasing in value each year, so we decided to invest.
Boss: Good morning, Lisa. What was it you wanted to see me about?
Lisa: Good morning. Thanks for seeing me on such short notice, I know it’s a busy time for you.
Boss: That’s ok. Lisa. I can see that you’re upset about something. Is something wrong?
Lisa: Yes, actually, there is. And I’ve been thinking about it a lot.
To make it short, I’ve decided to leave the company.
She has been thinking about it a lot.
Boss: You’re going to leave?
Lisa: Yes, I think it’s best. I‘m really not happy here anymore.
Boss: Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. Have you found another job?
Lisa: No, it isn’t that. My husband and I have just decided that I really don’t need to work.
She has decided to quit because she’s not happy working there.
Boss: Well, I’m sorry to hear that you want to leave.
But I really want you to reconsider. You have only been here for a year.
That isn’t very long, and it wouldn’t help your resume if you decide to look for a job in the future.
Lisa: Yes, that may be true, but staying here is really stressful.
You may not be aware of it, but I have real problems with my supervisor, Bill.
She has some serious problems working with her supervisor.
Bill is her supervisor, so he supervises her work.
She’s been working there for about a year.
Boss: Oh, what kind of problems?
Lisa: He takes on projects and assigns them to me with no regard for my other responsibilities. It’s just too much. Then he takes all the credit for my work. Maybe I’m just too sensitive.
Boss: Yes, I know he can act that way.
And I have told him this area he needs to improve.
Anyway, there are people like that in every organization.
Boss: I know it’s difficult but you need to learn how to deal with people like him.
Lisa: Well, I don’t know. It’s really stressful. It isn’t easy for me that talk to him.
Boss: Listen, Lisa. You have great potential, and I don’t want to lose you.
If you already had a job offer, I wouldn’t stand in your way.
But since you don’t, I really want you to stay.
Lisa: I appreciate you saying that. It means a lot.
Boss: So, will you please reconsider your decision?
Lisa: Yes, I’ll talk to my husband.
Boss: As for Bill, please try to work with him for a bit longer.
This is part of your learning experience.
Lisa: Thanks, I really appreciate your advice. You’re a great sales person.
I’m feeling better already.
Boss: You’re welcome, Lisa. I need you to stay. Please give it at least another year.
She had sold Lisa on the idea of staying for another year.
When the body of the Iceman was discovered, nobody realized that he had been murdered.
It was first believed that he got lost in s storm and had died in the cold weather.
However, with the discovery of an arrowhead in his body, it was clear that the Iceman was murdered.
Analysis showed that the arrow had entered his body and cut through an artery in his chest.
This would have caused severe bleeding and weakened him.
With the loss of blood, he couldn’t have survived for very long after being shot.
Further examinations revealed something more about how he may have died.
Using a CT scan, scientists found blood in his brain.
This indicated that he was struck on the head before he died.
Either he was hit on the head or he fell and struck his head on a rock.
This probably happened when he was in a weakened condition after being shot by the arrow.
Additional evidence showed that the arrow itself had been pulled out of the body.
It had been pulled out with force, leaving just the arrowhead inside.
Even more interesting was what was left behind, the copper ax.
The technology needed to make such a weapon was new at the time.
As a result, scientists believe it was a sign of great wealth and position.
This suggests that the Iceman may have been an important leader.
It also raises the question of why the killer didn’t take it with him.
If the Iceman was important, he may have been the leader of his community.
One leading theory about his death is that he was assassinated.
In ancient times, to take power, you often had to kill the leader.
Perhaps the Iceman was the target of an assassination.
The murderer may have followed the Iceman and killed him from behind.
Then, to protect his identity, he pulled out the arrow and covered the body.
He left the copper ax behind so that he couldn’t be identified.
According to this theory, the Iceman was killed by a member of his own community.
Therefore, the murderer was probably someone he knew.
Another theory is that he Iceman was killed, after a battle with outsiders.
Since his community was located along an important trade route, it may have been attacked.
The Iceman may have been a military leader fighting to defend his village.
Perhaps he was in a battle with the attackers on the day that he died.
According to this theory, he was fleeing from the battle and was caught from behind in an isolated area.
However, from an analysis of his stomach, it is unlikely that he was running from anyone.
There was a half-pound of food in his stomach when he died.
Since food only remain in the stomach for about an hour, he must have eaten a larger meal shortly before his death.
Someone who is in a hurry would never take the time to stop and eat such a large meal.
And if he was killed by outsiders, why didn’t they take the copper ax?
So the question remains about what happened on that final day of his life.
The truth is that nobody will ever know what really happened.
The Iceman’s murder will remain a mystery forever.
To interfere, to slow something down or make worse by getting in the way.
Having too many meetings is interfering with our work.
I told her to leave us alone and not to interfere in our problems.
She told me not to interfere, so I left the room and left them deal with the problem.
To reflect, to think about or consider something, or to throw back image, as from a mirror.
Before I make the decision, I’d like some time to reflect.
When you look into a mirror, your image is reflected back to you.
After finishing the project, he looked back and reflected on what might have been done to make it better.
To influence, to have an effect on something. I think she can help us influence the others.
I don’t think we can influence the final result.
They don’t care what we think, so it will be difficult to influence their decision.
With his powerful support, maybe we can influence their decision to postpone the project.
We can’t influence the result, so we don’t need to worry about it.
To focus, to bring attention to something and make it clear.
If we don’t focus on something, we won’t get anything done.
We aren’t sure what to focus on, so everyone is confused.
He focused on too many details and didn’t see the overall shape, so the product was a failure.
To exaggerate, to describe something is larger or more important than it really is.
It’s difficult to believe what he says because he always exaggerates.
She said she could sale anything, but of course that was an exaggeration.
In my opinion, it’s better to exaggerate your skills a bit in an interview rather than be too modest.
To be persuasive, able to cause people to do something by asking or giving reasons.
She is good at selling things because she is very persuasive.
You can be more persuasive if you have facts to support you.
They can’t be persuaded to change their minds, so let’s not waste time with them.
To be convincing, to provide powerful support for believe and to overcome doubts.
The evidence that he was murdered was convincing.
I couldn’t convince them that I was telling the truth so they arrested me.
They weren’t convinced that the data was useful, because it was too disorganized.
The evidence we use to persuade them was very convincing.
To be misleading, to lead away from the truth, to give a false idea.
Their advertisements are misleading, so be careful not to be fooled.
He tried to mislead me into buy it, by exaggerating the benefits.
I won’t vote for him because what he says is misleading and too good to be true.
To be unique, to be highly unusual, or different from others.
I like that design because it’s unique and attractive.
She has a unique personality that some people don’t like.
Everything about her is unique, so people are curious to know more about her.
To be ordinary, to be just like others, not different from any other.
Their products are ordinary, with nothing expect a low price to recommend them.
The food at that restaurant was expensive, but the tease was ordinary.
They said they were special, but their designs were ordinary and boring.
M: Did you see the beautiful sunset tonight? It was glorious.
W: No. I didn’t. But I’m surprised you even notice such things.
M: Really? Why are you surprised?
W: You’re so focused on your work. I didn’t image you have room in your mind for nature.
M: Really, well, I just don’t show it. I make a point of it to notice such things as often as I can.
W: You know I think you should try to show that side of yourself more often.
It would improve your image.
M: So you think my image needs improving?
W: Well, it wouldn’t hurt to be a little less formal and to smile once in a while.
You may also improve the way you dress, maybe with a few more warm colors.
M: I’m afraid I don’t know much about the fashion design and warm colors.
Do you really think the way we dress influences people?
W: You must be kidding. The first impression you give is based on your appearance and clothes. Don’t you ever notice the kind of shoes someone is wearing?
M: No, I hardly notice.
She couldn’t imagine that he had room in his mind to notice things like sunsets.
She was surprised that he noticed the beautiful sunset.
W: Well then, that explains why your shoes are always the same.
How old are the shoes you are wearing now?
M: These? I don’t know. Probably a year so.
W: And I bet you’ve been wearing them almost every day. They look like it.
M: That’s right. These shoes are comfortable and they weren’t expensive.
I bet yours were expensive.
W: Well, they weren’t cheap.
I think it’s important to dress right, to dress for the occasion and make a good impression.
To bet something means to
M: OK, why don’t we go shopping together this weekend? You can be my fashion advisor.
W: What’s it for me?
M: if I like your advice, I’ll buy you another pair of shoes. How’s that?
W: OK, but they won’t be cheap. You understand that, right?
M: Of course, it will be worth it, if you think my new look will improve my image.
W: I guarantee it. With me as an advisor, you can’t go wrong.
He suggests that they go shopping together.
He hardly notices things such as shoes or clothing styles.
Sam Malone has been working at Ace Express for the past six years.
Ace is a shipping company based in Hong Kong.
It ships dangerous chemicals to all parts of the world.
Last year Sam was promoted to Vice President.
Along with the promotion, he was given a beautiful office. He was also given a 20% raise in salary.
Sam is well respected within the company and he likes his co-workers.
However, he wants to take on new challenges and is looking for a change.
If he stays at Ace he doesn’t see any chance of another promotion.
He is also beginning to worry about the company’s future.
He thinks there is a high probability that the company will be acquired.
If that happens he may lose his job.
Last month he started looking for a new job.
According to his research about 40% of jobs are found through acquaintances.
So the first thing he did was to contract his closest friends.
He let them know that he was looking for something new.
Many of his friends and acquaintances are in the shipping business, but some have moved into other industries.
He also checked out several companies on the internet and updated his resume.
This morning Sam got a message from a company based in Japan.
It’s a medical supply company that wants to expand its business in China.
They have a small office in Hong Kong and will be conducting interviews next week.
Sam is interested in learning more about the company so he replied to their message and sat up an interview.
Even if it doesn’t work out it will be a learning experience for him.
In planning for the interview Sam has made some notes about what to do at an interview.
First he needs to be well prepared.
He needs to know as much as he can about the company, including its history.
He also needs to know how to present himself, including his appearance and body language.
It has been years since he was last interviewed, so he needs to be prepared to answer some questions about himself.
For example he needs to able to explain what’s on his resume, including his strengths and skills.
In any interview situation, it’s important to look right and behave appropriately.
He doesn’t want to give a bad first impression.
For example he should be careful not to talk too much.
That means he should stay focused and keep his commands short.
Throughout the interview he should observe their facial expressions and make eye contract.
It’s going to be important to listen carefully to what they say and keep things as relaxed as possible.
He needs to remind himself that he is also interviewing them.
He may find that their company isn’t right for him.
Therefore he should be ready to ask them questions especially about the expectations.
In an interview like this, both sides have the same concern.
They don’t want to make the wrong choice.
To give a good impression means to get them to feel like that he is someone they can work with.
It’s important that he wear the appropriate clothes to the interview.
Even if they want to hire him, the job may not be what he is looking for.
Relaxed, to be calm and at peace, not anxious or tense.
She was trying to relax, but then she got a call from her boss.
He hasn’t relaxed for a long time, so he’s exhausted and difficult to be around.
It used to be that people could relax at home, but now they are still working, even in bed.
Arrogant, to have an exaggeration of sense of one’s importance or abilities, the opposite of modest.
I wasn’t impressed by her arrogant attitude.
Sometimes the rich and powerful can be very arrogant and greedy.
Everyone was happy to see him make a fool of himself because he’s usually so arrogant.
Prejudiced, to have negative feeling towards something without good reason or
expriy, she has a prejudice against people who come from the countryside.
As a company we don't allow Prejudice of any kind including race or religious differences.
He dislikes her, so his opinions about the quality of her work are prejudiced against her.
We can’t trust their research because their data is obviously prejudiced in their favor.
Neutral, to be without prejudiced and not take sides.
We expect the judge of trial to be neutral and allow both sides to present the evidence to the jerry.
The referees of the match need to be neutral, so that the game is fair.
The talks between the two countries are being held in a neutral location.
I don’t want to get involved in the argument and would prefer to remain neutral.
Proper or appropriate, the way it supposes to be.
That kind of language isn’t appropriate in this situation, because it doesn’t show respect.
When he came to the interview, he wasn’t dressed properly, so he made a bad impression.
He didn’t realize that that kind of language wasn’t appropriate and made him look foolish.
I expect you to act appropriately and whatever you do, don’t drink too much!
Acquaintance, somebody known or met before.
I’m contracting several of my acquaintances to see if they know any of the job opportunities.
I don’t know him well but he is an acquaintance of mine from a long time ago.
He says he is an acquaintance of yours, so I’d like you to tell me if you know him.
He says he’s an acquaintance of mine, but I don’t remember him.
Appearance, how something looks, what something looks like.
He could improve his appearance by buying some new clothes.
He doesn’t care about his appearance so he doesn’t make a good impression.
Their manager thinks appearance is important so he wants everyone to dress appropriately.
We could tell from his appearance that he wasn’t feeling well.
Consequence, an outcome or result.
Many forms of life will become extinct as a consequence of global warming.
One consequence of his drinking has been the poor quality of his work.
We are all suffering from the consequences of his reckless investments.
I’m not sure he understands the consequences of his arrogant attitude. He will have to deal with the consequences of his rude behavior.
Factor, something that affects or influences the end of result.
One factor that need to be considered is his arrogant personality.
Her health is one factor we can’t afford to ignore.
Her beauty wasn’t a factor in his decision to hire her, or was it?
An important factor in their decision not to invest was the lack of good leadership.
Exception, to be unique or treat it differently.
Everyone has to be in the office before 9:00 with exception of the sales department.
I’m sorry but I can’t make an exception and allow you to bring your dog to the office.
Without exception, I’d like to congratulate everyone for their outstanding work.
There will be no exceptions to the rule that all employees must treat each other with respect. Without exception, I expect everyone to work through the weekend.
W: Guess what? I’ve got some news.
M: Oh, you mean about Jack?
W: Yes, have you heard?
M: Yes, Eliza messaged me a few minutes ago.
W: Isn’t it wonderful? He’s been accepted to Stanford.
She was excited when she got the news.
M: Really? That’s not what I heard.
W: Oh? What have you heard?
M: I heard he didn’t get in.
W: So it was just a rumor.
M: If that was you heard, it isn’t true.
He really wanted to get in, but from I heard, he’s just on the waiting list.
The rumor that he was accepted wasn’t true.
It was just a rumor that he was accepted.
W: Oh, then there’s still a chance that he’ll get in.
M: I guess so. But even if he gets in, how is he going to pay for it?
It’s very expensive, and his family isn’t wealthy.
W: Well, he can always get a student loan, or maybe he’ll get a scholarship.
One way to pay would be to get a student loan and work part-time.
M: If he gets a loan, it’ll be for a lot of money. He’ll be taking on a lot of debt.
W: Still, a degree from Stanford is worth a lot, and I’ve heard that they have a lot of money for scholarships.
M: I wonder what he’ll do. If he gets in, I hope he gets a scholarship.
He has a chance for a scholarship because the University has a lot of scholarship money.
There is a lot of scholarship money.
It’s difficult to get a scholarship.
W: What will he do if he doesn’t get into Stanford? What are there any choices?
M: The only other school I’ve heard him mention is Cambridge in England.
W: Oh, well, that’s not a bad choice.
M: What about you? Have you heard anything?
W: Me? I’ll tell you if you promise not to tell anyone, OK?
M: Sure, if it’s a secret, you can trust me.
W: I’ve been accepted in MIT on a full scholarship.
In this case, she’s being sarcastic, so she thinks it’s a great choice.
M: MIT? You joking, right?
W: No, I’m serious.
M: Why haven’t you told anyone?
W: I don’t know. I think I’ll wait until everyone else has heard for their choices.
I really didn’t except to get in.
M: Yes, especially for the full scholarship.
Some people would be jealous when they hear about it.
But we all know you are smart, so there’s something you should be proud of.
W: Thanks, I’m really excited.
He thought she was serious.
He think some people will be jealous when they hear the news.
A flow chart, like this one, shows how process begins and ends, and the steps in between.
The process can be of almost any kind, from manufacturing a tire to creating an advisement.
Therefore, learning how to describe and explain a process in English is important.
It’s important for teachers, engineers and people who provide customer support.
One process that we are all familiar with is our body’s circulatory system.
This system provides oxygen throughout our body, and eliminates carbon dioxide, which is the waste product.
If something goes wrong with the system, we need to repair it quickly, or we die.
So it’s important to understand it and keep it functioning properly.
First, the most important requirement for the system to work is the supply of air.
Without fresh air with sufficient oxygen, the process won’t keep us healthy and alive.
So the process begins by breathing in air, which happens when the lungs expand and dry in air.
Once inside the lungs, oxygen in the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood.
This exchange happens when blood cells release carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen.
This blood is now oxygenated blood, which means it carries oxygen.
To summarize, the process begins by inhaling air and oxygenating the blood.
The oxygenated blood in the lungs then flows back to the heart.
The CO2 which came from the blood is exhaled and the next cycle begins.
Note the blood in the lungs flows in the loop from the heart.
The blood which enters the loop from the heart carries carbon dioxide.
Once the carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen, the blood continues the loop and exist into the heart.
The oxygenated blood is then pumped to the rest of the body.
As you can see, everything depends on the flow of the blood to and from the heart.
So how does the heart do this?
First, the heart, which is a muscle, has 4 chambers.
From one chamber, blood is pumped to the lungs.
This is blood that carries carbon dioxide.
When the oxygenated blood from the lungs comes back to the heart, it enters another chamber. This chamber is called the left atrium.
Form the left atrium, the oxygenated blood is pumped into another chamber, the left ventricle.
The left ventricle then pumps the blood into the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body.
From the aorta, the oxygenated blood passes through a network of smaller arteries throughout the entire body, including the brain.
Blood returns to the heart through a system of veins and enter the upper right chamber, the right atrium.
Now that we understand a little about the circulatory system, we can ask what needs to operate.
Of course it can’t operate without energy.
This energy is supplied by another system, the digestive system, which gets energy from food.
And of course these systems need to be supported and controlled.
Our skeletal system provides support and out muscular system provides control and movement.
Without support and movement, we couldn’t get the food that we need for energy.
Only plants can do this because they have a completely different system, which gets energy directly from the sun.
To summarize, the human body is like a huge complex factory.
The language we use to describe how it functions is the same language we use to describe almost any industrial process.
The vocabulary is different but the processes, flows and logical relations are almost identical.
Think of some of familiar in your life or job, and see if you can describe and explain it in English.
It’s important to keep it functioning properly, or we will die.
The system won’t work without a supply of air.
To stay healthy and alive, we need fresh air with sufficient oxygen.
Our skeletal system provides physical support for our bodies.
Our bodies function very much like a huge, complex factory.
The digestive system supplies energy to the circulatory system.
Plants get energy directly from the sun by using photosynthesis.
After exchanging CO2 for oxygen, oxygenated blood flows to the heart.
From the heart it is pumped to the rest of the body.
The carbon dioxide which was exchanged for oxygen is breathed out.
This happens when the lungs contract.
Maintain, to preserve or keep things as they are.
Our qualities are excellent, so your job is to maintain our high standards and improve them as you can.
These historic buildings are very old and need to be maintained.
Because of economic competition, maintaining peaceful relations isn’t easy.
The house is very well maintained, even though it was extremely old.
After their devoice they managed to maintain fairly good relations because of their children.
Disrupt, to cause disorder or confusion.
Smart phones have disrupted the way we live our lives.
Investors want to invest companies that disrupt where things are done.
Sometimes disruptive technologies change the world in ways we don’t like.
When the volcano erupted, it disrupted air travel in the region for almost two weeks.
Investors want to invest in companies that disrupt the way things are done.
His presence in the office is disruptive, so we need to get rid of him as soon as possible.
Settle, to calm things done, or end conflict disagreement.
He is too upset to think clearly, so he needs to settle down.
If we can’t agree, we’ll have to go to court to settle our differences.
They need a strong leader to bring them together and settle their differences.
With the development of agriculture, humans could settle down and form permanent communities.
Solve, to figure out or find the answer or solution to a problem.
The problem is difficult, so we need to find a way to solve it.
We can’t solve that problem without using a computer.
Once they solved the problem, they realized that there were several solutions to choose from.
They couldn’t solve the problem until they could clearly define it.
Prove, to use evidence or logic to support an idea.
The police had to release him because they couldn’t prove that he committed the crime.
The best way to prove that something can be done is to do it.
We can’t prove that he was there unless we can find more evidence.
In mathematics, students learn how to use logic to prove things.
She wants proof that I love her, but what does that mean: an expensive diamond ring?
Exchange, to swap or change one thing for another.
When we buy something, we exchange money for the product.
In the human body, oxygen is exchanged for CO2 in the lungs.
When they exchanged smiles, I knew we were close to an agreement.
In a meeting two people may exchange looks by nodding heads or showing emotions.
Cooperate, to work together or collaborate.
Instead of competing with each other, we should cooperate.
A good manager could cooperate employee together, even when they are in different teams.
He needs to decide whether to cooperate or look for another job.
He wants to do things his own way and refuses to cooperate, so we should get rid of him.
We need him to cooperate instead of refusing to work with us.
Capture, to catch and hold something, the opposite of release.
The prisoners escaped, but they were captured within a few days.
In war, armies try to capture territory and defeat their enemies on the battlefield.
After only a short conversation, she had captured his imagination and he was hopelessly in love.
After he was captured he was held in prison for a year before he was exchanged for another prisoner.
To distribute or share, to pass around or give to others unselfishly.
One reason that company is successful is that it has a profit-sharing plan.
After the earthquake the army came and distributed the food and water to the survivors.
After the earthquake it was important for people to share their food and water supplies with others.
Nobody wanted to share their supplies, so people started fighting.
Some of their profits were distributed to the most productive employees in the form of bonuses.
Eliminate, to get rid of or dispose of.
Waste products must be eliminated from our bodies or we will die.
Teams were eliminated from the competition when they lost too many games.
One way to eliminate corruption is to punish those people who are corrupt.
The government is doing its best to eliminate waste and reward conservation.
All except two candidates have been eliminated, so now we need to decide which one to promote.
How was the job interview?
She did well but she is so unattractive.
I don't think we should hire her, certainly not for a sales position.
Do you really think so?
That seems so unfair.
Why should looks have anything to do with it?
It's just a basic fact of life.
Tall, beautiful people have an advantage.
Maybe so, but we don't have to support that way of thinking.
Look, we have a business to run.
You want me to increase sales, right?
What was the only reason given for not hiring the woman who is in the interview? She did well except for her looks.
Have you ever heard of Jack Ma?
Sure, he is the founder of a huge company in China.
I believe he is one of the richest people in the world.
He's not good looking at all, but look how successful he is.
Yes, but he is an exception.
He faced all kinds of prejudice, but he overcame it.
I really admire him.
In what ways Jack Ma is an exception? He succeeded in spite of the obstacles against him.
The only reason given was the fact that she isn't attractive.
One of the prejudices he overcame was the prejudice against unattractive people.
Perhaps, having to overcome obstacles like that made him stronger.
Maybe he wouldn't have been so successful if he were good looking.
Have you thought of that?
That may have been a factor, sure.
But what about advertising?
Look at all the money companies pay for models in advertising.
You mean the use of beautiful or strange-looking people?
Exactly, it's all around us, because it works.
People notice it.
As far as I'm concerned, it's just a way of fooling people into buying things that they may not need.
It's all based on appearance, and I don't like it.
I don't disagree with you.
But people don't buy something because it's good or bad.
They buy something because it makes them feel good.
Their decisions are based on emotion, not reason.
Is that why you buy things?
Well, it depends on the product, but yes, I guess I do.
What about you?
I try to find out about a product before I buy it.
But in some cases I'm no different from other people.
I'm attracted to advertisements that get my attention.
That's my point.
We want our sales people to attract attention, and make people feel good.
What kind of sales people does she want to hire? People who can make people feel good.
The fact that he wasn't good looking might have been made him stronger.
Maybe he wouldn't have been so successful if he were good looking.
OK, but I'd like our company to do better.
Let's be creative and do something better.
I hear you, but I think you're being naive.
If you think that woman was good, then let's give her a chance.
OK, I'll give her a chance, and I respect, but completely disagree with your decision.
I know, and I thank you for your honest opinion.
Why does she think he has been naive? His decision is unrealistic
Why does she respect but disagree with his decision? She respects what he's trying to do, but she doesn't think it will succeed.
She thinks his decision to hire the woman isn't realistic and goes against experience.
According to her, we are surrounded by advertisements that are based on appearance rather than fact.
Someone who is naive shows a lack of experience and often makes decisions that are not realistic.
Living conditions around the world vary from country to country.
Some countries have very large economies, but the majority of their citizens are poor.
Other countries have smaller economies, but the majority of their citizens are not poor.
So the size of a country’s economy isn’t the factor that determines how wealthy its citizens are.
The size of its population is also an important factor.
Other factor is how a country’s wealth is distributed between the rich and the poor.
Let’s look at some examples.
This chart shows the world’s 5 largest economies in 2015.
It ranks the countries by their Gross Domestic Product, or GDP.
The GDP is one way of measuring the size of an economy.
It is the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year.
As you can see, according to this chart, the US and China had the largest economies.
In 2015, Germany had the fifth largest economy.
A country’s living conditions depend not only on the size of its economy, but also no how its wealth is distributed.
According to the chart, India had the third largest economy in the world.
Its economy was bigger than Japan’s.
However the average living conditions in Japan are much higher than in India.
One reason for this is the difference in population.
India has a much larger population, so its wealth is distributed among a much larger number of people.
You can find this information by checking a country’s GDP per Capita.
Per Capita means per person.
If two countries have the same GDP, but one country has have the number of people, its GDP/Capita is twice as large.
Another important factor is how the wealth of a country is shared.
In some countries, much of the wealth is concentrated in just a few people.
For example, in the US, just 5% of the population had more than 70% of the wealth.
This shows that many US citizens are not wealthy, despite the size of their economy.
In fact, the wealth share held by the wealthiest 10% was more than 10 times bigger than the rest of the population.
One reason is that Japan’s population is much smaller than India’s.
As we have seen, much of the wealth of the US is concentrated in just a few people.
10% of its population has an estimate 75% of the wealth in 2015.
In this chart we see some comparisons with other countries.
In contrast to the US, 10% of Japan’s population had less than half of the total wealth.
In China, in 2014, the estimate share of top 10% were 64%, but this number was raising.
Russia had the highest concentration of the wealth, at over 80%.
India, which has one of the largest economies, had a largest share of world’s poorest people.
Its richest 10% have 370 times the share of wealth than its poorest 10%.
A major challenge is to improve the living conditions of its citizens.
As we have seen, growing an economy isn’t enough.
Population growth and distribution of wealth are also important factor.
Improving education and developing job skills can help people move up in economy.
With better education and training, the poor can increase their ability to get better jobs and raise their income.
However taxes are needed to pay for social services, including health and education.
Some countries tax the rich a higher rate than the poor.
However if taxes are too high, it can discourage investment and risk taking.
This is because investors wouldn’t take risks unless the rewards are high.
So, as you can see, these are complex issues.
Silly, foolish or stupid or ridiculous, the opposite of serious.
He is being silly, so we should just ignore him.
That’s a silly idea, so I don’t think she means what she’s saying.
He expects people to laugh when he’s being silly, but I don’t think it’s funny.
This is no time for silly behavior, so I’m asking everyone to work harder and take things seriously.
That’s a silly idea, so I don’t think she means what she’s saying.
The words silly and serious are antonyms because they have opposite meanings. That kind of silly behavior isn’t acceptable in our office.
Amazing, to be incredible or so good as to be hard to believe, the opposite of ordinary.
That company’s new products are truly amazing.
She gave an amazing performance especially after all the difficulties she had to overcome.
He was in a terrible accident, so it’s amazing that he is still alive.
It’s amazing what people can accomplish if they are determined.
She has an amazing voice, so I love to listen to her sing.
It will be an amazing accomplishment if they can finish the project on schedule.
Crucial, to be of extreme important on the central part, the opposite of optional.
It’s crucial that we get them to sign the contract by the end of the week.
Getting that data is crucial for our success.
It’s crucial that airline pilots get enough sleep before they fly.
We can’t do this without their help, so it’s crucial that you get them to cooperate.
Impressive, to stand out and be unforgettable in a good way.
His presentation was so impressive that we decided to hire him right away.
They have an impressive website, but the quality of their products is pathetic.
She impressed everyone with her powerful speech, but we were soon disappointed by her inability to meet her goals.
Their design was impressive, but the costs were much higher than we could afford, so we had to reject it.
He made an impressive entrance, but when he left the meeting he looked tired and defeated.
Realistic, to be possible and attainable.
That deadline isn’t realistic, so we need to ask for more time.
He isn’t being realistic when he expected to charge such high prices for his products.
His proposal wasn’t realistic because he doesn’t understand the details and potential risks of such a product.
It’s ok for you to have high expectations, but they need to be realistic or you’ll fail.
Sincere, to be honest and trust-worthy.
I think she was being sincere, so I think we can trust her.
Sometime it’s very difficult to know if someone is being sincere, or is just a good liar.
I thought he was being sincere, but when I looked into his background it seems that he can’t be trusted.
Naïve, overly simple and lacking experience.
He wants to change the world, but he is very naïve, so he need someone to help him.
I think we can take advantage of him because he is naïve and impatient.
She’s still young and naïve, so we can’t give her too much responsibility without someone to guide her.
Internet criminals are very clever and can often fool naïve people into giving away confidential information.
Brilliant, highly intelligent or exceptional in brightness, the opposite of dull.
There is no doubt that he is a brilliant scientist, but he is a very poor manager.
It’s amazing how such a brilliant man can be so stupid around women.
The ideas in his paper were brilliant, but the quality of his writing was pathetic.
Cruel, mean, manipulative and hurtful, the opposite of kind.
He can be cruel when he doesn’t like someone, so don’t expect him to be nice to you.
I was shocked by how cruel he was when he fired her.
People who are cruel to animals should be punished for their behavior.
Clever, innovative, creative, very smart.
He found a clever solution that allowed us to reduce costs.
Advisers are very clever at getting people to buy things they don’t really need.
He isn’t as clever as he thinks he is, so we may be able to find a weakness in his plan.
It appeared a clever idea at first but it failed because it ignored some important details.
Skeptical, needs proof or evidence to overcome doubts, the opposite of convinced.
I’m sure they will be skeptical of our results so we need to bring convincing evidence.
I’m skeptical that such a simple design can satisfy our requirements.
Your ideas are impressive, but I’m still skeptical, so I need more evidence.
M1: Guess what? I’ve just won the lottery, 50 million dollars.
M2: You are kidding. Are you sure it’s for real and there isn’t a mistake?
M1: No, I’ve checked and confirmed it.
M2: Wow, that’s fantastic. Congratulations.
M1: I never expected this, so now I’ve got to figure out what to do with it.
M2: Yes, you do and be careful. I’m telling you everything is about to change.
M1: Emm, I’m still in shock. So I haven’t had time to think.
M2: With all your money, what about your friends?
M1: You mean you, right?
M2: Sure, why not? Why don’t you give me a new car?
M1: And then what? Sure, if I start giving things to my friends, it will never stop.
I’ve got to think.
M2: One thing for sure, you have no trouble finding a girl-friend now, hah.
M1: Yeah, you’re probably right.
I might as well have some fun and enjoy the rich life for a while.
It would be great to have a nice girl-friend. I’ve never been successful with women.
M2: What are you going to do about your job?
M1: I’ll give notice right away and finish the project I’ve been working on.
M2: That’s nice. I’m sure the company will appreciate it. Then what?
M1: Then I’ll take some time for myself and think about what I want to do.
M2: Any ideas?
M1: Nothing definite. But I’ve been considering starting my own business.
Or maybe invest in something interesting.
M2: Be careful about investing.
One of my best friends became an investor after he sold some stocks of the company he was working for.
He’s really smart but he got fooled into investing a lot of money into a company that went bankrupt.
He ended up losing his entire investment.
M1: What happened then?
M2: His wife devoiced him and took most of his assets with her.
So now he has to work again. So even smart people can be fooled.
M1: Well, I’m in no hurry, so I’ll be careful.
I think the first thing I’ll do is buy a nice house and help my parents.
They’ve worked hard all their lives, but are still barely able to survive on what they have.
M2: Emm, that sounds like a good plan. Whatever you do, don’t let this go to your head.
Try not to lose who you are.
M1: Don’t worry, I won’t. I know what you mean.
He’s sure he won because he has confirmed it.
He needs enough time to figure out what to do with the money.
He hasn’t had enough time to think about what he’s going to do with it.
He isn’t being serious, but is only joking with his friend.
If he starts giving things to his friends, they’ll never stop asking for more.
He’s going to have fun and enjoy been rich for a while.
They think there will be many women who will be attracted to him because of his money.
Many women like men with money.
He’s going to give notice and then finish the project he’s been working on.
He’ll take some time for himself and thinks about what he wants to do.
His friend’s marriage ended in devoice.
In this case, to go to one’s head means to let his sudden wealth make him think he is better than others.
There are several fundamental forces that hold our universe together.
One of these, of course, is gravity, the force between objects that have mass.
Another important force is the electromagnetic force.
The electromagnetic force is responsible for chemical reactions.
Without it there would be no atoms or molecules.
Up until a couple of hundreds of years ago, very little was known about this force.
Learn about the electromagnetic force and how to use it was a major step forward.
It revolution our communicating, respiration and manufacturing. Imagine what life would be like without electricity!
The electromagnetic force has two parts, the electric force and the magnetic force.
The electric force is the force between electrically charged particles, such as the electrons and protons.
Electric charges attract or repel each other with a force that depends on the distance between them.
The magnetic force is the force between the magnetic poles, such as the north and a south pole.
In fact, the earth was like a large bar magnet, with a north and a south pole.
Many animals use the earth’s magnetic field to navigating during their migrations. We can also see this magnetic field when we use a compass.
Why does the earth have a magnetic field?
Many scientists believe that the earth’s magnetic field is due to the earth’s rotation.
Deep inside the earth is a solid iron core, surrounded by a liquid metal outer core.
The moving electron currents inside the
sliq metal create a magnetic field.
The earth’s magnetic field is important, because it protects us from the solar wind.
The solar wind is a current of charged particles coming at us from the sun.
When the solar wind nears the earth, the earth’s magnetic field deflects it away.
This protects the earth from the radiation, which can be dangerous to life. It also protects the satellites that we use to communication.
Scientists now believe that the earth’s magnetic field is about to reverse.
This is called magnetic field reversal.
Every 200 thousand to 300 thousand years the earth’s magnetic field reverses.
In other words the north and south magnetic poles switch places.
This has happened many times in earth’s history, but it has been happening lately.
Recent research provides evidences that there have been 5 magnetic reversals during the past 500 thousand years.
The most recent event happened approximately 41 thousand years ago.
Recent studies have found that the earth’s magnetic field has weakened about 5% per decade. At its current rate the next reversal could happen within the next century.
Some people worry about the effects of a magnetic field reversal.
They think there is a possibility that it could cause many problems.
For example without magnetic field communications could be disrupted.
Birds and other forms of life could become confused and get lost.
Another effect would be an increasing some forms of cancer, especially skin cancer.
This would be because of an increasing amount of radiation, absorbed by our bodies.
The possibility that the field reversal would be an extinction event is very low.
There is very little historical evidences to show that previous reversals have caused extinctions.
Humans have been on earth for millions of years during which there have been many reversals.
Therefore scientists believe that any changes would be temporary.
Another theory is that earth’s outer layer could rotate around the liquid metal outer core that makes up most the earth.
So in the next reversal continents would shape positions from north to south. Imagine if that happens Austria would be in the northern hemisphere.
With so many theories how can we know what to believe?
This is important because some of events requires us to act well in advance.
Otherwise it would be too late to prevent catastrophe.
This underlines the importance of getting reliable information, backed by strong evidence.
Resume, to continue or start again after a pause.
After a short eruption, our work resumed and we worked for another hour.
Work on the project resumed once we passed the safety inspection.
When we lost electricity everything shut down, but a few minutes later the power returned and we resumed our work.
The project has been postponed, and we won’t resume work until we receive the next payment.
Interrupt, to stop something in progress.
I hate to be interrupted when I’m working but sometime it’s necessary.
It’s difficult to have a conversation with her because she always interrupts.
Be careful not to interrupt the boss when he’s speaking.
I’m sorry to interrupt, but I think we need to focus on the main problem.
I’m trying hard to concentrate, so please don’t interrupt me.
Reconsider, to reassess or think again about changing something.
I was planning to vote against him but after hearing him speak I’m going to reconsider.
I didn’t want to hire her at first but then I reconsidered and offered her the job.
I’m glad I reconsidered your plan because it’s turning out to be a big success.
I’ve considered and reconsidered you request, but the answer is still no.
Are you sure you won’t reconsider you decision?
Conclude, to reach a decision, to end something or summarize the main points.
To conclude my presentation here is a summary of my recommendations.
After hearing arguments for and against the project we have reached a conclusion.
Given all the evidence we have come to the conclusion that the pilot was not to blame for the accident.
In conclusion, I think this new pesticide isn’t safe for the environment.
Anticipate, to think in advance, to predict it was had.
I won the game because it was easy to anticipate my opponent’s next move.
He tried to anticipate what we were going to do, but he was completely wrong, so he lost.
I’m anticipating that they won’t begin their attack until the weather conditions improve, but they may surprise us.
Their sales revenues were much less than they anticipated, so they ran out of money.
Permanent, to be fixed or unchanging, the opposite of temporary.
He plans to stay there permanently.
He has decided to become a permanent resident of China.
Humans lived as nomads until they decided to settle down and build permanent communities.
Once they established permanent boundaries, they had to fight to defend their territory from invaders.
Temporary, only lasting for a short time, the opposite of permanent.
We can only offer him a temporary position in the company.
This isn’t the kind of job he wants, but it’s ok if something temporary, until he can find something better.
Until we move into the new building we’ll use this office as our temporary base.
Definite, well defined, precise, certain, unchanging.
We can’t begin the project until you give us a more definite schedule.
We can’t give you a definite answer until we get more information.
We don’t know their exact location, but they are definitely in this general area.
We need you to be more definite about your plans for the next six months.
We can’t issue you a ticket until you give us definite dates.
Obvious, easy to see, stands out.
Of the job candidates we interviewed, he was the obvious choice.
It’s obvious that he can’t afford to buy that house.
It was an obvious lie, but some people still believed it.
From her facial expression, it was obvious that she really disliked him.
Trivial, of little or no importance, insignificant.
It’s a trivial detail, so there’s no need to worry about it.
Those problems are not trivial, so we need to find a solution.
His problem is that he spends too much time dealing with trivial details.
She spends her time worrying about trivial details, so she wastes a lot of time.
W: I just heard what you did. You did it without consulting me.
M: Yes, I talked to them and decided to invest more money.
I didn’t have time to consult with you and I trust them.
W: That’s our money, not yours. We’ve been saving it to buy a house.
You had no right to make that decision without letting me know. How can I trust you?
M: Look, it was an opportunity I couldn’t resist. I’m sure it’s going to be OK.
W: No, it isn’t. It’s a stupid investment and it’s going to fail. I really hate you now.
M: That’s a really strong word for simply disagree.
Why can’t we disagree without becoming so emotional?
W: We aren’t just disagreeing. You’ve broken your promise again.
I can’t trust you any more, especially when you keep doing stupid things that affect me.
She’s upset because he has broken his promise again.
M: You say I’m being stupid but it’s just we don’t agree.
W: No, that’s not the point. You are not listening.
You said you wouldn’t do anything unless we both agreed. And look what you’ve done.
Your promises are just empty words. I really despise you now.
Her point is that he didn’t keep his promise.
M: Well, what should we do? If you keep talking like that, we had better break up.
W: Yes, we should. I’ve had enough.
I don’t want to see you anymore, and I don’t want you to even contact me.
M: Sure, if that’s what you really want. But I want you to know that I haven’t been lying to you.
W: Don’t say anything more. I don’t want to hear it.
You’re fool and you can’t even see what you are doing.
M: Hi, I’m calling to apologize. Did you get my flowers?
W: Yes, but I told you not to call me.
M: Yes, I know. But I don’t want our relationship to end like this.
We’ve been through too much together. Let’s give it another try.
W: I’m sorry. I think it’s too late. This was the last straw.
M: Please give me another chance. You were right about everything.
I’ll try to get the money back.
W: When you get the money back you can call me again.
If you don’t, you can pay me what you owe me and then leave me alone.
M: OK, I’ll get it back. I’ll do anything to get you back in my life.
W: I’ll think about it.
She thinks it’s too late to save their relationship because she can’t take any more of his broken promises. She’s angry because he made an investment without consulting her.