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下面这些摘“Learning The Bash Shell”的7.3节


1.       Splits the command into tokens that are separated by the fixed set of metacharacters: SPACE, TAB, NEWLINE, ;, (, ), <, >, |, and &. Types of tokens include words, keywords, I/O redirectors, and semicolons.

2.       Checks the first token of each command to see if it is a keyword with no quotes or backslashes. If it's an opening keyword, such as if and other control-structure openers, function, {, or (, then the command is actually a compound command. The shell sets things up internally for the compound command, reads the next command, and starts the process again. If the keyword isn't a compound command opener (e.g., is a control-structure "middle" like then, else, or do, an "end" like fi or done, or a logical operator), the shell signals a syntax error.

3.       Checks the first word of each command against the list of aliases. If a match is found, it substitutes the alias's definition and goes back to Step 1; otherwise, it goes on to Step 4. This scheme allows recursive aliases (see Chapter 3). It also allows aliases for keywords to be defined, e.g., alias aslongas=while or alias procedure=function.

4.       Performs brace expansion. For example, a{b,c} becomes ab ac.

5.       Substitutes the user's home directory ($HOME) for tilde if it is at the beginning of a word. Substitutes user's home directory for ~user. [6]

 Two obscure variations on this: the shell substitutes the current directory ($PWD) for ~+ and the previous directory ($OLDPWD) for ~-.

6.       Performs parameter (variable) substitution for any expression that starts with a dollar sign ($).

7.       Does command substitution for any expression of the form $(string).

8.       Evaluates arithmetic expressions of the form $((string)).

9.       Takes the parts of the line that resulted from parameter, command, and arithmetic substitution and splits them into words again. This time it uses the characters in $IFS as delimiters instead of the set of metacharacters in Step 1.

10.   Performs pathname expansion, a.k.a. wildcard expansion, for any occurrences of *, ?, and [/] pairs.

11.   Uses the first word as a command by looking up its source according to the rest of the list in Chapter 4, i.e., as a function command, then as a built-in, then as a file in any of the directories in $PATH.

12.   Runs the command after setting up I/O redirection and other such things.

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