1 Binary Relation
A binary relation, R, consists of a set, A, called the domain of R, a set, B, called the codomain of R, and a subset of
1.2 Relation Diagram
A binary relation, R, is:
- a function when it has the <=1 arrow out property.
- surjective when it has the >=1 arrows in property. That is, every point in the righthand, codomain column has at least one arrow pointing to it.
- total when it has the >=1 arrows out property.
- injective when it has the <=1 arrow in property.
- bijective when it has both the =1 arrow out and the =1 arrow in property
1.3 Relation Images
- The image of a set, Y , under a relation, R, written R(Y), is the set of elements of the codomain, B, of R that are related to some element in Y.
- The inverse,
R−1of a relation R : A→Bis the relation from B to A defined by the rule
- The image of a set under relation,
R−1, is called the inverse image of the set.
A function assigns an element of one set, called the domain, to an element of another set, called the codomain.
- Functions may be partial functions, meaning that there may be domain elements for which the function is not defined.
- If a function is defined on every element of its domain, it is called a total function.
- range(f) := f(domain(f))
2.2 Function Compostion
3 Finite Cardinality
- If A is a finite set, the cardinality of A, written |A|, is the number of elements in A.
- Let A, B be (not necessarily finite) sets. Then:
- A surj B iff there is a surjective function from A to B.
- A inj B iff there is an injective total relation from A to B.
- A bij B iff there is a bijection from A to B.
- Mapping Rules:
- |A| >= |B| iff A surj B
- |A| <= |B| iff A inj B
- |A| <= |B| iff A bij B