【Android】ListView中getView的原理与解决多轮重复调用的方法

【0】ListView中getView的工作原理:

[1]ListView asks adapter “give me a view” (getView) for each item of the list.(通过getView来获取每个item)

[2]A new View is returned and displayed(获取到后返回显示)

那么如果我们有大量的数据需要显示的时候,每个Item都去重复执行getView中的创建新的View的动作吗?这样做会耗费大量的资源去执行重复的事情,实际上Android为我们提供了一套重复利用的机制叫做Recycler”:

原理简单描述下就是这样:

在一个完整的ListView第一次出现时,每个Item都是Null的,getView的时候会跑到需要inflate一个Item的代码段,假设整个view只能最多显示10个item,那么当滑动到第11个Item的时候,第一个item会放入“recycler”,如果第11个Item和放入“Recycler”的item的view一致,那么就会使用"Recycler"里面的Item来显示,从而不用再重复inflate一次,这样大大节省了创建View的工作,在需要显示大量数据时显得尤为重要。

工作原理的示意图如下:


学习自http://android.amberfog.com/?p=296

Demo:

这是一个getView的方法,其他细节的Code就不显示了

static class ViewHolder 
	{
		public ImageView localImageView = null;
		public TextView localTextView1 = null;
		public TextView localTextView2 = null;
		public TextView localTextView3 = null;
	}
	
	public View getView(int paramInt, View paramView, ViewGroup paramViewGroup)
	{
		logger.i("This is position:" + paramInt);
		WrapperSonglist localUserShareSonglistEntity = (WrapperSonglist) getItem(paramInt);
		if(localUserShareSonglistEntity != null)
		{
			ViewHolder holder = null;
			if(paramView == null)
			{
				this.logger.d("convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById");
				paramView = this.mInflater.inflate(R.layout.listitem04, paramViewGroup, false);
				holder = new ViewHolder();
				holder.localImageView = (ImageView) paramView.findViewById(R.id.listitem04ImageView);
				holder.localTextView1 = (TextView) paramView.findViewById(R.id.listitem04TextView01);
				holder.localTextView2 = (TextView) paramView.findViewById(R.id.listitem04TextView02);
				holder.localTextView3 = (TextView) paramView.findViewById(R.id.listitem04TextView03);
				paramView.setTag(holder);
			}
			else
			{
				//Used ViewHolder to improve performance
				this.logger.d("convertView != null,Then findViewById(get Holder)");
				holder = (ViewHolder) paramView.getTag();
			}
			if(paramView != null)
			{
				this.logger.d("convertView != null,Then SetValue");
				
				String mstr = localUserShareSonglistEntity.getSonglistImage();
				int id = localUserShareSonglistEntity.getSonglistId();
				holder.localTextView1.setText("[id]:"+id+",bitmap:url:"+mstr);
				
				String name = localUserShareSonglistEntity.getSonglistName();
				holder.localTextView2.setText("[Name]:"+name);
				
				String url = localUserShareSonglistEntity.getSonglistUrl();
				holder.localTextView3.setText("[Url]:"+url);
			}
		}
		return paramView;
	}

当我们第一次启动到Listview的时候如下,只显示了5个Item,那么getView被调用5次:


打印的Log如下:可以看到从0-4都是null,我们需要做inflate的动作,

01-12 17:58:22.144: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:0
01-12 17:58:22.154: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:80 getView ] - convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById
01-12 17:58:22.174: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 17:58:22.174: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:1
01-12 17:58:22.174: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:80 getView ] - convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById
01-12 17:58:22.184: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 17:58:22.184: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:2
01-12 17:58:22.184: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:80 getView ] - convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById
01-12 17:58:22.194: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 17:58:22.194: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:3
01-12 17:58:22.194: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:80 getView ] - convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById
01-12 17:58:22.204: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 17:58:22.204: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:4
01-12 17:58:22.204: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:80 getView ] - convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById
01-12 17:58:22.214: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue

当我们小心往下滑动一个位置,刚出现第6个Item,此时第1个还没有消失时,


这个时候只打印了一个获取第6个Item的Log,如下:可以看到第6个Item还是为null,需要inflate出来新的

01-12 18:02:37.623: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:5
01-12 18:02:37.623: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:80 getView ] - convertView == null,Then inflate and findViewById
01-12 18:02:37.633: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue

如果此时再往下滑动列表,第1个item此时会放入Recycler,第7个Item此时不再是null,而是利用了第1个item的View,如下:


从下面的Log,可以看到从第7个开始就不是null了

01-12 18:52:36.243: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:6

01-12 18:52:36.243: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:89 getView ] - convertView != null,Then findViewById
01-12 18:52:36.243: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 18:52:36.693: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:7
01-12 18:52:36.693: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:89 getView ] - convertView != null,Then findViewById
01-12 18:52:36.693: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 18:52:37.024: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:8
01-12 18:52:37.024: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:89 getView ] - convertView != null,Then findViewById
01-12 18:52:37.034: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue
01-12 18:52:37.604: ERROR/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:69 getView ] - This is position:9
01-12 18:52:37.604: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:89 getView ] - convertView != null,Then findViewById
01-12 18:52:37.604: DEBUG/MusicDemo(1272): @kesen@ [ main: Activity4Adapter.java:98 getView ] - convertView != null,Then SetValue

等所有的item,一共10个都显示之后,不管上下滑动都再也不是NULL了,说明这个时候都是使用Recycle里面的view,而不会再重新inflate了,显然这样节省很多重复的操作

【1】重复多轮调用getView的解决方案

上面的例子我们可以看到,每滑动一次到需要显示的Item的时候就会调用一次getView,理论上是10个Item,均显示一次的话是要调用getView() 10次的,那么为什么有时候很奇怪,10个item显示一次也许会调用getView 20次,甚至40-50次呢?我想肯定很多人都遇到过这个问题

查了很久,其实我也没有找到root cause,只是知道我们在XML文件里面定义listView的时候需要设置height为fill_parent或者是指定的高度值(这个方法明显不靠谱,设置了高度,那么怎么进行不同屏幕的适配)

所以推荐使用下面的,例如:

<ListView 
	android:id="@+id/activity04_list"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="fill_parent" 
/>



网上有人解释说是因为ListView的Item的高度计算方法问题,试了下还是有效果的,希望之后有机会等了解原理后再来解释这个问题,我们可以先这也使用,设置之后会发现没滑动出现一个item才会调用一次getView,这样是合理的调用,而不会出现只有10个item却调用几十次这样比较tricky的事情,也节省了很多资源避免去重复做无用功。

谢谢!









            

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