CentOS7 去除/etc/sudoers中的“root ALL=(ALL) ALL“ 会怎样?

CentOS7 去除/etc/sudoers中的"root ALL=(ALL) ALL" 会怎样?

测试环境: VirtualBox下,最小化安装的CentOS7, 通过windows10powershell控制台ssh连接

结果是: root不能使用sudo执行命令在这里插入图片描述

[root@VboxC7min ~]# sudo yum update net-tools
root 不在 sudoers 文件中。此事将被报告。
[root@VboxC7min ~]#

但是可以不使用 sudo 执行其它任何命令
比如不能用 sudo visudo 但能用 visudo
加回 root ALL=(ALL) ALL
可以使用 sudo visudo
在这里插入图片描述

[root@VboxC7min ~]# sudo yum update net-tools
root 不在 sudoers 文件中。此事将被报告。
[root@VboxC7min ~]# sudo visudo
root 不在 sudoers 文件中。此事将被报告。
您在 /var/spool/mail/root 中有邮件
[root@VboxC7min ~]# sudo visudo
root 不在 sudoers 文件中。此事将被报告。
[root@VboxC7min ~]# visudo
您在 /var/spool/mail/root 中有新邮件
[root@VboxC7min ~]# sudo visudo
visudo: /etc/sudoers.tmp 未更改

CentOS7,最小化安装,刚安装好时的 /etc/sudoers

## Sudoers allows particular users to run various commands as
## the root user, without needing the root password.
##
## Examples are provided at the bottom of the file for collections
## of related commands, which can then be delegated out to particular
## users or groups.
## 
## This file must be edited with the 'visudo' command.

## Host Aliases
## Groups of machines. You may prefer to use hostnames (perhaps using 
## wildcards for entire domains) or IP addresses instead.
# Host_Alias     FILESERVERS = fs1, fs2
# Host_Alias     MAILSERVERS = smtp, smtp2

## User Aliases
## These aren't often necessary, as you can use regular groups
## (ie, from files, LDAP, NIS, etc) in this file - just use %groupname 
## rather than USERALIAS
# User_Alias ADMINS = jsmith, mikem


## Command Aliases
## These are groups of related commands...

## Networking
# Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route, /sbin/ifconfig, /bin/ping, /sbin/dhclient, /usr/bin/net, /sbin/iptables, /usr/bin/rfcomm, /usr/bin/wvdial, /sbin/iwconfig, /sbin/mii-tool

## Installation and management of software
# Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm, /usr/bin/up2date, /usr/bin/yum

## Services
# Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service, /sbin/chkconfig, /usr/bin/systemctl start, /usr/bin/systemctl stop, /usr/bin/systemctl reload, /usr/bin/systemctl restart, /usr/bin/systemctl status, /usr/bin/systemctl enable, /usr/bin/systemctl disable

## Updating the locate database
# Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/bin/updatedb

## Storage
# Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk, /sbin/sfdisk, /sbin/parted, /sbin/partprobe, /bin/mount, /bin/umount

## Delegating permissions
# Cmnd_Alias DELEGATING = /usr/sbin/visudo, /bin/chown, /bin/chmod, /bin/chgrp 

## Processes
# Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall

## Drivers
# Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modprobe

# Defaults specification

#
# Refuse to run if unable to disable echo on the tty.
#
Defaults   !visiblepw

#
# Preserving HOME has security implications since many programs
# use it when searching for configuration files. Note that HOME
# is already set when the the env_reset option is enabled, so
# this option is only effective for configurations where either
# env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.
#
Defaults    always_set_home
Defaults    match_group_by_gid

# Prior to version 1.8.15, groups listed in sudoers that were not
# found in the system group database were passed to the group
# plugin, if any. Starting with 1.8.15, only groups of the form
# %:group are resolved via the group plugin by default.
# We enable always_query_group_plugin to restore old behavior.
# Disable this option for new behavior.
Defaults    always_query_group_plugin

Defaults    env_reset
Defaults    env_keep =  "COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS"
Defaults    env_keep += "MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE"
Defaults    env_keep += "LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES"
Defaults    env_keep += "LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE"
Defaults    env_keep += "LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY"

#
# Adding HOME to env_keep may enable a user to run unrestricted
# commands via sudo.
#
# Defaults   env_keep += "HOME"

Defaults    secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

## Next comes the main part: which users can run what software on 
## which machines (the sudoers file can be shared between multiple
## systems).
## Syntax:
##
## 	user	MACHINE=COMMANDS
##
## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it.
##
## Allow root to run any commands anywhere 
root	ALL=(ALL) 	ALL

## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking, software, 
## service management apps and more.
# %sys ALL = NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, STORAGE, DELEGATING, PROCESSES, LOCATE, DRIVERS

## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands
%wheel	ALL=(ALL)	ALL

## Same thing without a password
# %wheel	ALL=(ALL)	NOPASSWD: ALL

## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the 
## cdrom as root
# %users  ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom, /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom

## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system
# %users  localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now

## Read drop-in files from /etc/sudoers.d (the # here does not mean a comment)
#includedir /etc/sudoers.d

注释翻译
## Sudoers allows particular users to run various commands as
## the root user, without needing the root password.
## 该文件允许特定用户像root用户一样使用各种命令,且不需要root的密码 

## Examples are provided at the bottom of the file for collections
## of related commands, which can then be delegated out to particular
## users or groups.
## 在文件的底部提供了很多相关命令的示例以供选择,这些示例都可以被特定用户或用户组所使用  

## This file must be edited with the ‘visudo‘ command.
## 该文件必须使用 "visudo" 命令进行编辑

## Host Aliases  主机别名(主机名)
## Groups of machines. You may prefer to use hostnames (perhap using 
## wildcards for entire domains) or IP addresses instead.
## 对于一组服务器,你可能会更喜欢使用主机名(可能是全域名的通配符)或IP地址代替,这时可以配置主机别名
# Host_Alias     FILESERVERS = fs1, fs2
# Host_Alias     MAILSERVERS = smtp, smtp2


## User Aliases 用户别名
## These aren‘t often necessary, as you can use regular groups
## (ie, from files, LDAP, NIS, etc) in this file - just use %groupname 
## rather than USERALIAS
## 这并不很常用,因为你可以通过使用组来代替一组用户的别名  
# User_Alias ADMINS = jsmith, mikem


## Command Aliases 命令别名
## These are groups of related commands...
## 指定一系列相互关联的命令(当然可以是一个)的别名,通过赋予该别名sudo权限,  
## 可以通过sudo调用所有别名包含的命令,下面是一些示例

## Networking  网络操作相关命令别名  
Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route, /sbin/ifconfig, /bin/ping, /sbin/dhclient,
 /usr/bin/net, /sbin/iptables, /usr/bin/rfcomm, /usr/bin/wvdial, /sbin/iwconfig, 
 /sbin/mii-tool
## Installation and management of software  软件安装管理相关命令别名  
Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm, /usr/bin/up2date, /usr/bin/yum

## Services   服务相关命令别名 
Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service, /sbin/chkconfig

## Updating the locate database 本地数据库升级命令别名  
Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/sbin/updatedb

## Storage  磁盘操作相关命令别名
Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk, /sbin/sfdisk, /sbin/parted, /sbin/partprobe, /bin/mount, /bin/umount

## Delegating permissions  代理权限相关命令别名 
Cmnd_Alias DELEGATING = /usr/sbin/visudo, /bin/chown, /bin/chmod, /bin/chgrp

## Processes  进程相关命令别名
Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall

## Drivers   驱动命令别名
Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modprobe

#环境变量的相关配置
# Defaults specification
#
# Disable "ssh hostname sudo <cmd>", because it will show the password in clear. 
#         You have to run "ssh -t hostname sudo <cmd>".
#
Defaults    requiretty
Defaults    env_reset
Defaults    env_keep = "COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE INPUTRC KDEDIR                         LS_COLORS MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME                         LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION                         LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC                         LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS                         _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY"






## Next comes the main part: which users can run what software on
## which machines (the sudoers file can be shared between multiple
## systems).
## 下面是规则配置:什么用户在哪台服务器上可以执行哪些命令(sudoers文件可以在多个系统上共享)
## Syntax: 语法
##      user    MACHINE    =   COMMANDS
##      用户    登录的主机   =(可以变换的身份) 可以执行的命令  
##
## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it.
## 命令部分可以附带一些其它的选项  


## Allow root to run any commands anywhere 
## 允许root用户用sudo运行任意路径下的任意命令 
root    ALL=(ALL)       ALL

## Allows members of the ‘sys‘ group to run networking, software,
## service management apps and more.
# %sys ALL = NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, STORAGE, DELEGATING, PROCESSES, LOCATE, DRIVERS
## 允许sys中户组中的用户使用NETWORKING等所有别名中配置的命令

## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands
# %wheel        ALL=(ALL)       ALL
## 允许wheel用户组中的用户执行所有命令  
## Same thing without a password
## 允许wheel用户组中的用户在不输入该用户的密码的情况下使用所有命令
# %wheel        ALL=(ALL)       NOPASSWD: ALL
## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the
## cdrom as root
## 允许users用户组中的用户像root用户一样使用mount、unmount、chrom命令 
# %users  ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom, /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom
## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system
# %users  localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now
## 允许users用户组中的用户像root用户一样使用shutdown命令

打开 /etc/sudoers 文件, 推荐用 visudo 命令

可以 sudo vi /etc/sudoers , 但推荐使用 visudo 命令

打开并编辑 /etc/sudoers
# 打开/etc/sudoers
sudo visudo

检查/etc/sudoers文件的语法错误、所有者和模式:
# 检查/etc/sudoers文件的语法错误、所有者和模式:
sudo visudo -c

sudo visudo -c

visudo 的参数
c启用check-only模式
-q启用安静模式,此模式下不显示错误信息, 低版本不可用
-s启用严格检查sudoers文件, 低版本不可用
阅读终点,创作起航,您可以撰写心得或摘录文章要点写篇博文。去创作
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