sysbench - 数据库功能及性能测试工具

sysbench 的 GitHub
参考资料

1.0 之后的版本使用方法跟之前的有所区别,下面所有内容基于 1.0.9 版本。

另外,为了方便管理测试,最好不要通过命令直接运行测试,而是写成脚本自动化执行测试。

1. 安装及简介

Linux 各大发行版通过自带安装工具直接安装即可,RHEL/CentOS 的安装命令如下:

sudo yum -y install sysbench

sysbench 可以进行以下测试:

  • CPU 运算性能测试
  • 磁盘 IO 性能测试
  • 调度程序性能测试
  • 内存分配及传输速度测试
  • POSIX 线程性能测试
  • 数据库性能测试(OLTP 基准测试,需要通过 /usr/share/sysbench/ 目录中的 Lua 脚本执行,例如 oltp_read_only.lua 脚本执行只读测试)

另外,sysbench 还可以通过运行命令时指定自己的 Lua 脚本来自定义测试。

2. 使用

2.1 查看帮助信息

sysbench --help

可以通过 sysbench --help 查看 sysbench 的可用命令、选项及內建测试类型的帮助信息,不同测试类型可用的命令也不同:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --help
Usage:
  sysbench [options]... [testname] [command]

Commands implemented by most tests: prepare run cleanup help # 可用的命令,四个

General options:            # 通用选项
  --threads=N                     要使用的线程数,默认 1 个 [1]
  --events=N                      最大允许的事件个数 [0]
  --time=N                        最大的总执行时间,以秒为单位 [10]
  --forced-shutdown=STRING        在 --time 时间限制到达后,强制关闭之前等待的秒数,默认“off”禁用(number of seconds to wait after the --time limit before forcing shutdown, or 'off' to disable) [off]
  --thread-stack-size=SIZE        每个线程的堆栈大小 [64K]
  --rate=N                        平均传输速率。0 则无限制 [0]
  --report-interval=N             以秒为单位定期报告具有指定间隔的中间统计信息 0 禁用中间报告 [0]
  --report-checkpoints=[LIST,...] 转储完整的统计信息并在指定的时间点重置所有计数器。参数是一个逗号分隔的值列表,表示从测试开始经过这个时间量时必须执行报告检查点(以秒为单位)。报告检查点默认关闭。 []
  --debug[=on|off]                打印更多 debug 信息 [off]
  --validate[=on|off]             尽可能执行验证检查 [off]
  --help[=on|off]                 显示帮助信息并退出 [off]
  --version[=on|off]              显示版本信息并退出 [off]
  --config-file=FILENAME          包含命令行选项的文件
  --tx-rate=N                     废弃,改用 --rate [0]
  --max-requests=N                废弃,改用 --events [0]
  --max-time=N                    废弃,改用 --time [0]
  --num-threads=N                 废弃,改用 --threads [1]

Pseudo-Random Numbers Generator options:    # 伪随机数发生器选项
  --rand-type=STRING random numbers distribution {uniform,gaussian,special,pareto} [special]
  --rand-spec-iter=N number of iterations used for numbers generation [12]
  --rand-spec-pct=N  percentage of values to be treated as 'special' (for special distribution) [1]
  --rand-spec-res=N  percentage of 'special' values to use (for special distribution) [75]
  --rand-seed=N      seed for random number generator. When 0, the current time is used as a RNG seed. [0]
  --rand-pareto-h=N  parameter h for pareto distribution [0.2]

Log options:    # 日志选项
  --verbosity=N verbosity level {5 - debug, 0 - only critical messages} [3]

  --percentile=N       percentile to calculate in latency statistics (1-100). Use the special value of 0 to disable percentile calculations [95]
  --histogram[=on|off] print latency histogram in report [off]

General database options:   # 通用的数据库选项

  --db-driver=STRING  指定要使用的数据库驱动程序 ('help' to get list of available drivers)
  --db-ps-mode=STRING prepared statements usage mode {auto, disable} [auto]
  --db-debug[=on|off] print database-specific debug information [off]


Compiled-in database drivers:   # 內建的数据库驱动程序,默认支持 MySQL 和 PostgreSQL
  mysql - MySQL driver
  pgsql - PostgreSQL driver

mysql options:              # MySQL 数据库专用选项
  --mysql-host=[LIST,...]          MySQL server host [localhost]
  --mysql-port=[LIST,...]          MySQL server port [3306]
  --mysql-socket=[LIST,...]        MySQL socket
  --mysql-user=STRING              MySQL user [sbtest]
  --mysql-password=STRING          MySQL password []
  --mysql-db=STRING                MySQL database name [sbtest]
  --mysql-ssl[=on|off]             use SSL connections, if available in the client library [off]
  --mysql-ssl-cipher=STRING        use specific cipher for SSL connections []
  --mysql-compression[=on|off]     use compression, if available in the client library [off]
  --mysql-debug[=on|off]           trace all client library calls [off]
  --mysql-ignore-errors=[LIST,...] list of errors to ignore, or "all" [1213,1020,1205]
  --mysql-dry-run[=on|off]         Dry run, pretend that all MySQL client API calls are successful without executing them [off]

pgsql options:              # PostgreSQL 数据库专用选项
  --pgsql-host=STRING     PostgreSQL server host [localhost]
  --pgsql-port=N          PostgreSQL server port [5432]
  --pgsql-user=STRING     PostgreSQL user [sbtest]
  --pgsql-password=STRING PostgreSQL password []
  --pgsql-db=STRING       PostgreSQL database name [sbtest]

Compiled-in tests:          # 內建测试类型
  fileio - File I/O test
  cpu - CPU performance test
  memory - Memory functions speed test
  threads - Threads subsystem performance test
  mutex - Mutex performance test

See 'sysbench <testname> help' for a list of options for each test.

sysbench <testname> help

通过 sysbench <testname> help 命令可以查看具体一个测试类型的帮助信息。

# sysbench fileio help
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

fileio options:
  --file-num=N              number of files to create [128]
  --file-block-size=N       block size to use in all IO operations [16384]
  --file-total-size=SIZE    total size of files to create [2G]
  --file-test-mode=STRING   test mode {seqwr, seqrewr, seqrd, rndrd, rndwr, rndrw}
  --file-io-mode=STRING     file operations mode {sync,async,mmap} [sync]
  --file-async-backlog=N    number of asynchronous operatons to queue per thread [128]
  --file-extra-flags=STRING additional flags to use on opening files {sync,dsync,direct} []
  --file-fsync-freq=N       do fsync() after this number of requests (0 - don't use fsync()) [100]
  --file-fsync-all[=on|off] do fsync() after each write operation [off]
  --file-fsync-end[=on|off] do fsync() at the end of test [on]
  --file-fsync-mode=STRING  which method to use for synchronization {fsync, fdatasync} [fsync]
  --file-merged-requests=N  merge at most this number of IO requests if possible (0 - don't merge) [0]
  --file-rw-ratio=N         reads/writes ratio for combined test [1.5]

2.2 测试 CPU

CPU 测试时,会计算素数(对这个数字除以 2 到这个数字平方根之间的所有数字来验证素数)直到某个指定值所需要的时间。单纯的测试一组非常有限 CPU 硬件性能。

CPU 基准测试时可以指定线程数量和素数上限。

先查看帮助信息:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench cpu help
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

cpu options:
  --cpu-max-prime=N 素数发生器的上限(upper limit for primes generator) [10000]

开始测试:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --cpu-max-prime=10000 --threads=2 cpu run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 2
Initializing random number generator from current time


Prime numbers limit: 10000

Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!

CPU speed:
    events per second:   727.23

General statistics:
    total time:                          10.0020s
    total number of events:              7275

Latency (ms):
         min:                                  1.34
         avg:                                  2.75
         max:                                 39.37
         95th percentile:                     12.30
         sum:                              19982.10

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           3637.5000/1.50
    execution time (avg/stddev):   9.9911/0.00

2.3 测试 fileio

使用 fileio 时,需要创建一组测试文件,测试文件需要大于可用内存的大小,避免文件缓存在内存中影响结果。测试流程为:准备测试文件-》测试-》回收测试文件,命令如下:

# sysbench --file-total-size=28G fileio prepare
# sysbench --file-total-size=28G --file-test-mode=rndrw --time=300 --max-requests=0 fileio run
# sysbench --file-total-size=28G fileio cleanup

对于 I/O 基准测试,可以通过 --file-test-mode 告诉 sysbench 要运行的工作负载的类型,可用类型有:

  • seqwr:顺序写入
  • seqrewr:顺序重写
  • seqrd:顺序读取
  • rndrd:随机读取
  • rndwr:随机写入
  • rndrw:随机读取/写入

上面的例子中使用的是随机读取/写入(rndrw)。通过 --time 选项指定测试持续时间(以秒为单位)。

帮助信息:

# sysbench fileio help
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

fileio options:
  --file-num=N              number of files to create [128]
  --file-block-size=N       block size to use in all IO operations [16384]
  --file-total-size=SIZE    total size of files to create [2G]
  --file-test-mode=STRING   test mode {seqwr, seqrewr, seqrd, rndrd, rndwr, rndrw}
  --file-io-mode=STRING     file operations mode {sync,async,mmap} [sync]
  --file-async-backlog=N    number of asynchronous operatons to queue per thread [128]
  --file-extra-flags=STRING additional flags to use on opening files {sync,dsync,direct} []
  --file-fsync-freq=N       do fsync() after this number of requests (0 - don't use fsync()) [100]
  --file-fsync-all[=on|off] do fsync() after each write operation [off]
  --file-fsync-end[=on|off] do fsync() at the end of test [on]
  --file-fsync-mode=STRING  which method to use for synchronization {fsync, fdatasync} [fsync]
  --file-merged-requests=N  merge at most this number of IO requests if possible (0 - don't merge) [0]
  --file-rw-ratio=N         reads/writes ratio for combined test [1.5]

命令的完整输出如下:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --file-total-size=28G fileio prepare
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

128 files, 229376Kb each, 28672Mb total
Creating files for the test...
Extra file open flags: 0
Creating file test_file.0
Creating file test_file.1
...此处总共创建了 128 个文件,每个 229376Kb,总共 28672Mb
Creating file test_file.127
30064771072 bytes written in 255.52 seconds (112.21 MiB/sec).
[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --file-total-size=28G --file-test-mode=rndrw --time=300 --max-requests=0 fileio run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 1
Initializing random number generator from current time

Extra file open flags: 0
128 files, 224MiB each
28GiB total file size
Block size 16KiB
Number of IO requests: 0
Read/Write ratio for combined random IO test: 1.50
Periodic FSYNC enabled, calling fsync() each 100 requests.
Calling fsync() at the end of test, Enabled.
Using synchronous I/O mode
Doing random r/w test
Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!


File operations:
    reads/s:                      96.00
    writes/s:                     64.00
    fsyncs/s:                     204.47

Throughput:
    read, MiB/s:                  1.50
    written, MiB/s:               1.00

General statistics:
    total time:                          300.0016s
    total number of events:              109341

Latency (ms):
         min:                                  0.00
         avg:                                  2.74
         max:                                256.76
         95th percentile:                      7.17
         sum:                             299726.28

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           109341.0000/0.00
    execution time (avg/stddev):   299.7263/0.00

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --file-total-size=28G fileio cleanup
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Removing test files...

2.4 测试 memory

当在 sysbench 中进行内存测试时,会分配一个内存缓冲区并在此执行读写操作,每次操作都会读完或写满缓冲区。然后重复此操作直到达到指定大小(--memory-total-size)。可以提供多个线程(--threads),不同的缓冲区大小(--memory-block-size)和请求类型(读或写,顺序或随机)。

帮助信息:

# sysbench memory help
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

memory options:
  --memory-block-size=SIZE    size of memory block for test [1K]
  --memory-total-size=SIZE    total size of data to transfer [100G]
  --memory-scope=STRING       memory access scope {global,local} [global]
  --memory-hugetlb[=on|off]   allocate memory from HugeTLB pool [off]
  --memory-oper=STRING        type of memory operations {read, write, none} [write]
  --memory-access-mode=STRING memory access mode {seq,rnd} [seq]

例如,指定 4 个线程,缓冲区大小为 8KB,在内存中传输 4GB 数据的测试:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --threads=4  --memory-block-size=8k --memory-total-size=4G memory run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 4
Initializing random number generator from current time

Running memory speed test with the following options:
  block size: 8KiB
  total size: 4096MiB
  operation: write
  scope: global

Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!

Total operations: 524288 (731249.24 per second)

4096.00 MiB transferred (5712.88 MiB/sec)


General statistics:
    total time:                          0.7150s
    total number of events:              524288

Latency (ms):
         min:                                  0.00
         avg:                                  0.00
         max:                                 43.03
         95th percentile:                      0.00
         sum:                               1871.33

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           131072.0000/0.00
    execution time (avg/stddev):   0.4678/0.04

2.5 测试 threads

测试 threads 时,每个工作线程将被分配一个 mutex(一种锁)。每次执行时,每个线程将循环若干次(通过 --thread-yields 的数量设置),循环时这个线程会锁定,在再次执行时解锁。

通过调整各种参数,可以模拟具有单个或多个锁的高并发线程下的情况。
帮助信息:

# sysbench threads help
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

threads options:
  --thread-yields=N number of yields to do per request [1000]
  --thread-locks=N  number of locks per thread [8]

运行测试:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --thread-yields=2000 --thread-locks=8 threads run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 1
Initializing random number generator from current time


Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!


General statistics:
    total time:                          10.0002s
    total number of events:              16554

Latency (ms):
         min:                                  0.50
         avg:                                  0.60
         max:                                 37.05
         95th percentile:                      0.94
         sum:                               9978.12

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           16554.0000/0.00
    execution time (avg/stddev):   9.9781/0.00

2.6 测试 mutex

测试 mutex 时,sysbench 将为每个线程运行一个请求。这个请求首先会对 CPU 施加一些压力(使用一个简单的增量循环,通过 --mutex-loops 参数设置),然后随机使用一个 mutex(锁),递增一个全局变量并再次释放锁。这个过程根据锁的个数(--mutex-locks)多次重复。随机 mutex 取自大小为 --mutex-num 的参数池。

帮助信息:

# sysbench mutex help
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

mutex options:
  --mutex-num=N   total size of mutex array [4096]
  --mutex-locks=N number of mutex locks to do per thread [50000]
  --mutex-loops=N number of empty loops to do outside mutex lock [10000]

运行测试:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench mutex run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 1
Initializing random number generator from current time


Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!


General statistics:
    total time:                          0.2132s
    total number of events:              1

Latency (ms):
         min:                                213.10
         avg:                                213.10
         max:                                213.10
         95th percentile:                    211.60
         sum:                                213.10

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           1.0000/0.00
    execution time (avg/stddev):   0.2131/0.00

2.7 OLTP 基准测试

OLTP 基准测试模拟了一个简单的事务处理系统的工作负载。然而最新版本的 sysbench 把 OLTP 这个曾经的內建测试类型移除了,如果要用,需要在命令中指定测试类型的位置用 /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua 脚本代替测试类型。

流程:指定数据库-》建表并生成数据-》运行测试-》清理测试表。

首先生成表,注意替换命令中的数据库密码和 MySQL 套接字,如果 MySQL 安装在默认位置,可以去掉 --mysql-socket 选项:

sysbench --db-driver=mysql --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=<pwd> \
  --mysql-socket=<mysql.sock path> --mysql-db=foo --range_size=100 \
  --table_size=10000 --tables=2 --threads=2 --events=0 --time=60 \
  --rand-type=uniform /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua prepare

运行测试,指定了 2 个并发线程,:

sysbench --db-driver=mysql --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=<pwd> \
  --mysql-socket=<mysql.sock path> --mysql-db=foo --range_size=100 \
  --table_size=10000 --tables=2 --threads=2 --events=0 --time=60 \
  --rand-type=uniform /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua run

清理测试时生成的测试表:

sysbench --db-driver=mysql --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=<pwd> \
  --mysql-socket=<mysql.sock path> --mysql-db=foo --range_size=100 \
  --table_size=10000 --tables=2 --threads=2 --events=0 --time=60 \
  --rand-type=uniform /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua cleanup

例如我的选项就是:

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --db-driver=mysql --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=1qaz@WSX --mysql-db=foo --range_size=100 --table_size=10000 --tables=2 --threads=1 --events=0 --time=60 --rand-type=uniform /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua prepare
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Creating table 'sbtest1'...
Inserting 10000 records into 'sbtest1'
Creating a secondary index on 'sbtest1'...
Creating table 'sbtest2'...
Inserting 10000 records into 'sbtest2'
Creating a secondary index on 'sbtest2'...

[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --db-driver=mysql --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=1qaz@WSX --mysql-db=foo --range_size=100 --table_size=10000 --tables=2 --threads=1 --events=0 --time=60 --rand-type=uniform /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 1
Initializing random number generator from current time


Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!

SQL statistics:
    queries performed:
        read:                            645708
        write:                           0
        other:                           92244
        total:                           737952
    transactions:                        46122  (768.67 per sec.)
    queries:                             737952 (12298.73 per sec.)
    ignored errors:                      0      (0.00 per sec.)
    reconnects:                          0      (0.00 per sec.)

General statistics:
    total time:                          60.0003s
    total number of events:              46122

Latency (ms):
         min:                                  1.06
         avg:                                  1.30
         max:                                 34.08
         95th percentile:                      1.50
         sum:                              59896.08

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           46122.0000/0
[root@VM_157_18_centos ~]# sysbench --db-driver=mysql --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=1qaz@WSX --mysql-db=foo --range_size=100 --table_size=10000 --tables=2 --threads=1 --events=0 --time=60 --rand-type=uniform /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua cleanup
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)

Dropping table 'sbtest1'...
Dropping table 'sbtest2'...
阅读更多
版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/kikajack/article/details/79977108
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