android 动画的Interpolator插值器

 

Interpolator 时间插值类,定义动画变换的速度。能够实现alpha/scale/translate/rotate动画的加速、减速和重复等。Interpolator类其实是一个空接口,继承自TimeInterpolator,TimeInterpolator时间插值器允许动画进行非线性运动变换,如加速和限速等,该接口中只有接口中有一个方法 float getInterpolation(float input)这个方法。传入的值是一个0.0~1.0的值,返回值可以小于0.0也可以大于1.0。






常用继承类


  1. AccelerateDecelerateInterpolator============动画开始与结束的地方速率改变比较慢,在中间的时候加速。
  2. AccelerateInterpolator===================动画开始的地方速率改变比较慢,然后开始加速。 
  3. AnticipateInterpolator ==================开始的时候向后然后向前甩。
  4. AnticipateOvershootInterpolator=============开始的时候向后然后向前甩一定值后返回最后的值。
  5. BounceInterpolator=====================动画结束的时候弹起。
  6. CycleInterpolator======================动画循环播放特定的次数,速率改变沿着正弦曲线。
  7. DecelerateInterpolator===================在动画开始的地方快然后慢。
  8. LinearInterpolator======================以常量速率改变。
  9. OvershootInterpolator====================向前甩一定值后再回到原来位置。
  10. PathInterpolator========================新增的,就是可以定义路径坐标,然后可以按照路径坐标来跑动;注意其坐标并不是 XY,而是单方向,也就是我可以从0~1,然后弹回0.5 然后又弹到0.7 有到0.3,直到最后时间结束。

几个常用插值器源码:

LinearInterpolator线性插值器,直接返回输入值。

/**
 * An interpolator where the rate of change is constant
 *
 */
@HasNativeInterpolator
public class LinearInterpolator implements Interpolator, NativeInterpolatorFactory {

    public LinearInterpolator() {
    }
    
    public LinearInterpolator(Context context, AttributeSet attrs) {
    }
    
    public float getInterpolation(float input) {
        return input;
    }

    /** @hide */
    @Override
    public long createNativeInterpolator() {
        return NativeInterpolatorFactoryHelper.createLinearInterpolator();
    }
}




DecelerateInterpolator

可以通过 XML 进行动画属性设置,通过 XML 可以设置其中的 mFactor 变量,其值默认是1.0;值越大其变化越快;得到的结果就是,开始的时候更加的快,其结果就是更加的慢。getInterpolation(float)描述的是一个初中学的抛物方程。



/**
 * An interpolator where the rate of change starts out quickly and
 * and then decelerates.
 *
 */
@HasNativeInterpolator
public class DecelerateInterpolator implements Interpolator, NativeInterpolatorFactory {
    public DecelerateInterpolator() {
    }

    /**
     * Constructor
     *
     * @param factor Degree to which the animation should be eased. Setting factor to 1.0f produces
     *        an upside-down y=x^2 parabola. Increasing factor above 1.0f makes exaggerates the
     *        ease-out effect (i.e., it starts even faster and ends evens slower)
     */
    public DecelerateInterpolator(float factor) {
        mFactor = factor;
    }

    public DecelerateInterpolator(Context context, AttributeSet attrs) {
        this(context.getResources(), context.getTheme(), attrs);
    }

    /** @hide */
    public DecelerateInterpolator(Resources res, Theme theme, AttributeSet attrs) {
        TypedArray a;
        if (theme != null) {
            a = theme.obtainStyledAttributes(attrs, R.styleable.DecelerateInterpolator, 0, 0);
        } else {
            a = res.obtainAttributes(attrs, R.styleable.DecelerateInterpolator);
        }

        mFactor = a.getFloat(R.styleable.DecelerateInterpolator_factor, 1.0f);

        a.recycle();
    }

    public float getInterpolation(float input) {
        float result;
        if (mFactor == 1.0f) {
            result = (float)(1.0f - (1.0f - input) * (1.0f - input));
        } else {
            result = (float)(1.0f - Math.pow((1.0f - input), 2 * mFactor));
        }
        return result;
    }

    private float mFactor = 1.0f;

    /** @hide */
    @Override
    public long createNativeInterpolator() {
        return NativeInterpolatorFactoryHelper.createDecelerateInterpolator(mFactor);
    }
}






C++ 的版本实现 :

float Elastic::easeIn (float t, float b , float c, float d) {
 <span style="white-space:pre">	</span>if (t==0) return b;  if ((t/=d)==1) return b+c;  
 <span style="white-space:pre">	</span>float p=d*.3f;
 <span style="white-space:pre">	</span>float a=c; 
 <span style="white-space:pre">	</span>float s=p/4;
 <span style="white-space:pre">	</span>float postFix =a*pow(2,10*(t-=1)); // this is a fix, again, with post-increment operators
 <span style="white-space:pre">	</span>return -(postFix * sin((t*d-s)*(2*PI)/p )) + b;
}
 
float Elastic::easeOut(float t,float b , float c, float d) {
 if (t==0) return b;  if ((t/=d)==1) return b+c;  
 float p=d*.3f;
 float a=c; 
 float s=p/4;
 return (a*pow(2,-10*t) * sin( (t*d-s)*(2*PI)/p ) + c + b); 
}
 
float Elastic::easeInOut(float t,float b , float c, float d) {
 if (t==0) return b;  if ((t/=d/2)==2) return b+c; 
 float p=d*(.3f*1.5f);
 float a=c; 
 float s=p/4;
 
 if (t < 1) {
 float postFix =a*pow(2,10*(t-=1)); // postIncrement is evil
 return -.5f*(postFix* sin( (t*d-s)*(2*PI)/p )) + b;
 } 
 float postFix =  a*pow(2,-10*(t-=1)); // postIncrement is evil
 return postFix * sin( (t*d-s)*(2*PI)/p )*.5f + c + b;
}
参数的意思:

  • t – 动画中当前的时间
  • b – 开始值
  • c – 结束值
  • d – 动画的总时间
看下Java的第一行前三个的:

public class Sine {
	
	public static float  easeIn(float t,float b , float c, float d) {
		return -c * (float)Math.cos(t/d * (Math.PI/2)) + c + b;
	}
	
	public static float  easeOut(float t,float b , float c, float d) {
		return c * (float)Math.sin(t/d * (Math.PI/2)) + b;	
	}
	
	public static float  easeInOut(float t,float b , float c, float d) {
		return -c/2 * ((float)Math.cos(Math.PI*t/d) - 1) + b;
	}
	
}
虽然 Java 的也有了,但是话说这个怎么用啊,跟上面的Interpolator如何联系起来啊?

一个简单的方法:首先把 d 总时间设置为固定值 1.0 ,把 b 开始值设置为 0.0 把结束值设置为1.0,然后把 t 当作上面 Interpolator 中的 float getInterpolation(float input);传入值,此时不就能用上了。

举个Case

/**
 * Created by Qiujuer on 2015/1/5.
 */
public class InSineInterpolator implements Interpolator{
    public static float  easeIn(float t,float b , float c, float d) {
        return -c * (float)Math.cos(t/d * (Math.PI/2)) + c + b;
    }

    @Override
    public float getInterpolation(float input) {
        return easeIn(input, 0, 1, 1);
    }
}

使用

        //AnimatorSet
        mAnimatorSet = new AnimatorSet();
        mAnimatorSet.playTogether(aPaintX, aPaintY, aRadius, aBackground);
        mAnimatorSet.setInterpolator(new InSineInterpolator());
        mAnimatorSet.start();
可以看出使用与上面 Android 自带的完全一样,当然这个只是个 Case ,具体使用中你可以随意封装,前提是别改动了主要部分。

/**
 * An interpolator where the rate of change starts out quickly and
 * and then decelerates.
 *
 */
@HasNativeInterpolator
public class DecelerateInterpolator implements Interpolator, NativeInterpolatorFactory {
    public DecelerateInterpolator() {
    }

    /**
     * Constructor
     *
     * @param factor Degree to which the animation should be eased. Setting factor to 1.0f produces
     *        an upside-down y=x^2 parabola. Increasing factor above 1.0f makes exaggerates the
     *        ease-out effect (i.e., it starts even faster and ends evens slower)
     */
    public DecelerateInterpolator(float factor) {
        mFactor = factor;
    }

    public DecelerateInterpolator(Context context, AttributeSet attrs) {
        this(context.getResources(), context.getTheme(), attrs);
    }

    /** @hide */
    public DecelerateInterpolator(Resources res, Theme theme, AttributeSet attrs) {
        TypedArray a;
        if (theme != null) {
            a = theme.obtainStyledAttributes(attrs, R.styleable.DecelerateInterpolator, 0, 0);
        } else {
            a = res.obtainAttributes(attrs, R.styleable.DecelerateInterpolator);
        }

        mFactor = a.getFloat(R.styleable.DecelerateInterpolator_factor, 1.0f);

        a.recycle();
    }

    public float getInterpolation(float input) {
        float result;
        if (mFactor == 1.0f) {
            result = (float)(1.0f - (1.0f - input) * (1.0f - input));
        } else {
            result = (float)(1.0f - Math.pow((1.0f - input), 2 * mFactor));
        }
        return result;
    }

    private float mFactor = 1.0f;

    /** @hide */
    @Override
    public long createNativeInterpolator() {
        return NativeInterpolatorFactoryHelper.createDecelerateInterpolator(mFactor);
    }
}

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