ubuntu下Python虚拟环境配置

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Python虚拟环境配置

VirtualEnv用于在一台机器上创建多个独立的python运行环境,VirtualEnvWrapper为前者提供了一些便利的命令行上的封装。

1.安装virtualenv

pip install virtualenv   #py2安装

1.1 virtualenv创建虚拟环境并进入使用

说明文档

You must provide a DEST_DIR
Usage: virtualenv [OPTIONS] DEST_DIR

Options:
  --version             show program's version number and exit
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --verbose         Increase verbosity.
  -q, --quiet           Decrease verbosity.
  -p PYTHON_EXE, --python=PYTHON_EXE
                        The Python interpreter to use, e.g.,
                        --python=python2.5 will use the python2.5 interpreter
                        to create the new environment.  The default is the
                        interpreter that virtualenv was installed with
                        (/usr/bin/python)
  --clear               Clear out the non-root install and start from scratch.
  --no-site-packages    DEPRECATED. Retained only for backward compatibility.
                        Not having access to global site-packages is now the
                        default behavior.
  --system-site-packages
                        Give the virtual environment access to the global
                        site-packages.
  --always-copy         Always copy files rather than symlinking.
  --unzip-setuptools    Unzip Setuptools when installing it.
  --relocatable         Make an EXISTING virtualenv environment relocatable.
                        This fixes up scripts and makes all .pth files
                        relative.
  --no-setuptools       Do not install setuptools in the new virtualenv.
  --no-pip              Do not install pip in the new virtualenv.
  --no-wheel            Do not install wheel in the new virtualenv.
  --extra-search-dir=DIR
                        Directory to look for setuptools/pip distributions in.
                        This option can be used multiple times.
  --download            Download preinstalled packages from PyPI.
  --no-download, --never-download
                        Do not download preinstalled packages from PyPI.
  --prompt=PROMPT       Provides an alternative prompt prefix for this
                        environment.
  --setuptools          DEPRECATED. Retained only for backward compatibility.
                        This option has no effect.
  --distribute          DEPRECATED. Retained only for backward compatibility.
                        This option has no effect.
  • 安装需要版本的python
  • 指定virtualenv中的python版本

    virtualenv --no-site-packages --python=2.7 env
    

Note:

  1. 创建virtualenv虚拟环境之前,系统中必须要安装有对应版本的python,并且卸载之后当前虚拟环境就无效了。系统中可以同时存在python2和python3,通过环境变量中的系统变量path(不是用户变量)控制cmd或者系统中使用哪个版本的python,哪个版本的路径在前面就优先使用哪个版本。

  2. –no-site-packages表示不包括系统全局的Python安装包,这样会更令环境更干净

  3. –python=python2.7指定Python的版本未系统已经安装了的Python2.7

  4. env是建立的虚拟环境名称

  5. 没有安装python2.7或者使用命令virtualenv –no-site-packages –python=python2.7 env会出现The executable python does notexist 错误

1.2进入虚拟环境并激活

$ . env/bin/activate

1.3退出虚拟环境

$ deactivate

1.4删除虚拟环境

$ rm -r venv

2.virtualenvwrapper

2.1 pip安装virtualenvwrapper

$ pip install virtualenvwrapper

2.2 初始化

将初始化文件写入用户环境变量

$ vi .bashrc

# 加入下面两行配置
source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh
# 虚拟环境指定路径,不指定默认使用~/.virtualenvs
export WORKON_HOME="虚拟环境绝对路径"
  • 创建:mkvirtualenv [虚拟环境名称]
  • 删除:rmvirtualenv [虚拟环境名称]
  • 进入:workon [虚拟环境名称]
  • 退出:deactivate

所有的虚拟环境,都位于/home/.virtualenvs目录下

创建指定版的虚拟环境:

yangqian@ubuntu:~$ mkvirtualenv -p python3.5 test-3.5
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