PTA 双端队列 数据结构

双端队列(deque,即double-ended queue的缩写)是一种具有队列和栈性质的数据结构,即可以(也只能)在线性表的两端进行插入和删除。若以顺序存储方式实现双端队列,请编写例程实现下列操作:

Push(X,D):将元素X插入到双端队列D的头;
Pop(D):删除双端队列D的头元素,并返回;
Inject(X,D):将元素X插入到双端队列D的尾部;
Eject(D):删除双端队列D的尾部元素,并返回。

函数接口定义:

bool Push( ElementType X, Deque D );
ElementType Pop( Deque D );
bool Inject( ElementType X, Deque D );
ElementType Eject( Deque D );

其中Deque结构定义如下:

typedef int Position;
typedef struct QNode *PtrToQNode;
struct QNode {
    ElementType *Data;      /* 存储元素的数组   */
    Position Front, Rear;   /* 队列的头、尾指针 */
    int MaxSize;            /* 队列最大容量     */
};
typedef PtrToQNode Deque; 

注意:Push和Inject应该在正常执行完操作后返回true,或者在出现非正常情况时返回false。当Front和Rear相等时队列为空,Pop和Eject必须返回由裁判程序定义的ERROR。
裁判程序

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define ERROR -1
typedef int ElementType;
typedef enum { push, pop, inject, eject, end } Operation;
typedef enum { false, true } bool;
typedef int Position;
typedef struct QNode *PtrToQNode;
struct QNode {
    ElementType *Data;      /* 存储元素的数组   */
    Position Front, Rear;   /* 队列的头、尾指针 */
    int MaxSize;            /* 队列最大容量     */
};
typedef PtrToQNode Deque; 

Deque CreateDeque( int MaxSize )
{   /* 注意:为区分空队列和满队列,需要多开辟一个空间 */
    Deque D = (Deque)malloc(sizeof(struct QNode));
    MaxSize++;
    D->Data = (ElementType *)malloc(MaxSize * sizeof(ElementType));
    D->Front = D->Rear = 0;
    D->MaxSize = MaxSize;
    return D;
}

bool Push( ElementType X, Deque D );
ElementType Pop( Deque D );
bool Inject( ElementType X, Deque D );
ElementType Eject( Deque D );

Operation GetOp();          /* 裁判实现,细节不表 */
void PrintDeque( Deque D ); /* 裁判实现,细节不表 */

int main()
{
    ElementType X;
    Deque D;
    int N, done = 0;

    scanf("%d", &N);
    D = CreateDeque(N);
    while (!done) {
        switch(GetOp()) {
        case push: 
            scanf("%d", &X);
            if (!Push(X, D)) printf("Deque is Full!\n");
            break;
        case pop:
            X = Pop(D);
            if ( X==ERROR ) printf("Deque is Empty!\n");
            else printf("%d is out\n", X);
            break;
        case inject: 
            scanf("%d", &X);
            if (!Inject(X, D)) printf("Deque is Full!\n");
            break;
        case eject:
            X = Eject(D);
            if ( X==ERROR ) printf("Deque is Empty!\n");
            else printf("%d is out\n", X);
            break;
        case end:
            PrintDeque(D);
            done = 1;
            break;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

/* 你的代码将被嵌在这里 */

解题思路:
push和pop属于在头部进行操作
inject和eject属于在尾部进行操作
push和inject需要考虑队列是否满了
(D->Front - D->Rear + D->MaxSize) % D->MaxSize == 1
然后注意因为相当于循环队列所以head和rear插元素时要注意移动方式
pop和eject需要考虑是否为空,这比较简单直接判断收尾指针是否相等即可
另一方面注意读题:为区分空队列和满队列,需要多开辟一个空间
个人认为难点在于位置的移动与情况的判断
附上程序:

bool Push(ElementType X, Deque D)
{
    if ((D->Front - D->Rear + D->MaxSize) % D->MaxSize == 1)
    {
        return false;
    }
    D->Front = (D->Front - 1 + D->MaxSize) % D->MaxSize;
    D->Data[D->Front] = X;
    return true;
}
ElementType Pop(Deque D)
{
    int num;
    if (D->Front == D->Rear)
    {
        return ERROR;
    }
    num = D->Data[D->Front];
    D->Front = (D->Front + 1) % D->MaxSize;
    return num;
}
bool Inject(ElementType X, Deque D)
{
    if ((D->Front - D->Rear + D->MaxSize) % D->MaxSize == 1)
    {
        return false;
    }
    D->Data[D->Rear] = X;
    D->Rear = (D->Rear + 1) % D->MaxSize;
    return true;
}
ElementType Eject(Deque D)
{
    int num;
    if (D->Front == D->Rear)
    {
        return ERROR;
    }
    num = D->Data[(D->Rear - 1 + D->MaxSize) % D->MaxSize];
    D->Rear = (D->Rear - 1 + D->MaxSize) % D->MaxSize;
    return num;
}

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