STL算法实现

写了一点STL算法,模板编程确实有点复杂,编译起来一个error接一个error。有一点体会,STL中的迭代器全都是pass by value,也就是值传递,这一点在《Effective C++》也有说明:内置类型、迭代器、仿函数作为参数应该传值,其它类型尽量传址。

using namespace std;

// 求给定区域内的和
template <class InputIterator, class T>
T accumulate(InputIterator begin, InputIterator end, T init)
{
	while (begin != end)
	{
		init += *begin;
		begin++;
	}
	return init;
}

// 给定区域用BinOp仿函数计算结果
template <class InputIterator, class T, class BinOp>
T accumulate(InputIterator begin, InputIterator end, T init, BinOp op)
{
	while (begin != end)
	{
		init = op(init, *begin);
		begin++;
	}
	return init;
}

// 容器中后一个数减前一个数
template <class InputIterator, class OutputIterator>
OutputIterator adjacent_difference(InputIterator begin, InputIterator end, OutputIterator output)
{
	if (begin == end)
		return output;

	// 萃取InputIterator迭代器所指元素的类型
	iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type last = *begin;
	*output++ = *begin++;
	while (begin != end)
	{
		iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type current = *begin++;
		*output++ = current - last;
		last = current;
	}
	return output;	// 返回迭代器指向输出区间之后
}

// 容器中后一个数和前一个数做BinOp运算
template <class InputIterator, class OutputIterator, class BinOP>
OutputIterator adjacent_difference(InputIterator begin, InputIterator end,
	OutputIterator output, BinOP op)
{
	if (begin == end)
		return output;

	// 萃取InputIterator迭代器所指元素的类型
	iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type last = *begin;
	*output++ = *begin++;
	while (begin != end)
	{
		iterator_traits<InputIterator>::value_type current = *begin++;
		*output++ = op(current, last);
		last = current;
	}
	return output;	// 返回迭代器指向输出区间之后
}

// 求两个序列的内积
template <class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class T>
T inner_product(InputIterator1 begin1, InputIterator1 end1, InputIterator2 begin2, T init)
{
	while (begin1 != end1)
	{
		init += *begin1 * *begin2;
		++begin1;
		++begin2;
	}
	return init;
}

// 两个序列进行BinOp操作
template <class InputIterator1, class InputIterator2, class T, class BinOp>
T inner_product(InputIterator1 begin1, InputIterator1 end1, InputIterator2 begin2, T init)
{
	while (begin1 != end1)
	{
		init += *begin1 * *begin2;
		++begin1;
		++begin2;
	}
	return init;
}

// 交换两个迭代器的元素
template <class ForwardIterator1, class ForwardIterator2>
void Iter_swap(ForwardIterator1 iter1, ForwardIterator2 iter2)
{
	iterator_traits<ForwardIterator1>::value_type value = *iter1;
	*iter1 = *iter2;
	*iter2 = value;
}


// 针对前向迭代器
template <class ForwardIterator, class T>
ForwardIterator __Lower_bound(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, const T &value, forward_iterator_tag)
{
	int len = 0;
	distance(first, last, len);	// 计算区间长度,前向迭代器无法直接相减
	int half;
	ForwardIterator middle;

	while (len > 0)
	{
		half = len >> 1;
		middle = first;
		advance(middle, half);	// 一步步向前走

		if (*middle < value)	// value在右边
		{
			first = middle;
			++first;
			len = len - half - 1;
		}
		else	// value在左边
			len = half;
	}
	return first;
}

// 针对随机迭代器
template <class RandomIterator, class T>
RandomIterator __Lower_bound(RandomIterator first, RandomIterator last, const T &value, random_access_iterator_tag)
{
	int len = 0;
	len = last - first;		// 计算区间长度,随即迭代器可直接相减
	int half;
	RandomIterator middle;

	while (len > 0)
	{
		half = len >> 1;
		middle = first + half;	// 迭代器直接跳到中间

		if (*middle < value)	// value在右边
		{
			first = middle + 1;
			len = len - half - 1;
		}
		else	// value在左边
			len = half;
	}
	return first;
}

// 应用于有序区间[first,last),返回第一个等于value的迭代器
template <class ForwardIterator, class T>
ForwardIterator Lower_bound(ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, const T &value)
{
	// 萃取迭代器类型,前向迭代器或随机迭代器,最后一个参数是一个临时对象
	return __Lower_bound(first, last, value, iterator_traits<ForwardIterator>::iterator_category());
}


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