《薄冰实用英语语法详解》连载之六:被动语态

 

现在范畴 一般现在时 am/is/are made
现在进行时 am / is /are being made
现在完成时 has/have been made
过去范畴 一般过去时 was/were made
过去进行时 was/were being made
过去完成时 had been made
将来范畴 一般将来时 shall/will be made
将来完成时 shall/will have been made
过去将来时 should/would be made
过去将来完成时 should/would have been made

1. 被动语态的各种时态

  被动语态(The Passive Voice)是动词的一种形式,表示主语是谓语动词的承受者。被动语态便于论述客观事实,故常用于科技文章、新闻报道、书刊介绍以及景物描写。被动语态没有将来进行时、过去将来进行时和完成进行时形式。

(1) 一般现在时的被动语态
I am not so easily deceived. 我不会轻易上当受骗的。
Computers are widely used in the world.
计算机在世界范围内得到广泛应用。

(2) 一般过去时的被动语态
The car was seriously damaged. 汽车受到严重损坏。
Printing was introduced into Europe from China.
印刷术是由中国传入欧洲的。

(3) 现在进行时的被动语态
The question is being discussed at the meeting.
这个问题现在正在会上讨论。
The children are being taken care of by their aunt.
孩子们现在正由其姑妈照看。

(4) 过去进行时的被动语态
When I called, tea was being served.
当我来访时,正值上茶之际。
When they arrived, the experiments were being made.
他们到达时,实验正在进行。

(5) 现在完成时的被动语态
The meeting has been put off. 会议已被推迟了。
The party has been planned since the new year.
这次聚会自新年起就已筹划了。

(6) 过去完成时的被动语态
By the end of last month,he had been robbed at least three times.
到上月底,他已被抢了至少三次。

(7) 将来完成时的被动语态
It is said that the building will have been completed before September.
据说大楼将于九月前竣工。
This class will have been taught by Mr Brown for two years by next summer.
到明年夏天,布朗先生在这两个班执教已有两年了。

2. 含有情态动词的被动语态

Water mustn't be wasted. 绝不能浪费水。
Electric energy can be changed into light enery.
电能可以转变成光能。
Cross the road very carefully. Look both ways, or you might be knocked down.
过马路时要特别小心,要往两边看,不然会被撞倒。

3. Get+过去分词构成的被动语态

  Get+过去分词也可以构成被动语态,用这种结构的句子侧重于动作的结果而不是动作本身。如:
the man got hurt on his way home. 那个男人在回家的路上受伤了。
Mary is going to get married. 玛丽准备结婚了。
How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎么破了?

4. 短语动词的被动语态

(1) 动词+介词
This matter has been talked about recently.
这件事近来一直被谈论着。
Such a thing has never been heard of before.
这样的事从未被听说过。
The old man was looked after carefully. 那位老人被精心照顾着。
He has never been listened to. 人家从不听他的话。

(2) 动词+副词
The sports meeting was put off. 运动会被推迟了。
A short play will be put on by them at the party.
一个短剧将要由他们在晚会上演出。
What he said must be thought over. 他说的话必须仔细思考。

(3) 其他短语动词
Privileges must be done away with. 特权必须被取消。
The light has just been turned off. 灯刚被关上。
Their plans are being carried out. 他们的计划正在执行中。

5. “主+动+宾+宾补”句型变为被动结构

  这种句型有两个宾语,一般地说一为间接宾语,一为直接宾语。变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的一个宾语变为被动结构中的主语,另一宾语不变。
We call him Xiao Wang. 我们叫他小王。(主动句)
He was called Xiao Wang. 他被叫做小王。(被动句)
He painted the table green. 他把桌子漆成了绿色。(主动句)
The table was painted green. 桌子被漆成了绿色。(被动句)

6. “主+动+that从句”句型的被动句

  有些以that从句作宾语的主动句可以转换成两种形式的被动句。如:
People say that he is the richest man in the city.
人们说他是全市头号富翁。
→It is said that he is the richest man in the city.
据说他是全市头号富翁。
→He is said to be the richest man in the city.
据说他是全市头号富翁。
  当说话人认为主动句的主语无关紧要,或者不清楚谁是谓语动作的发出者时,便常常使用上述形式的被动句。如:
It was reported that the boy had been found.
据报道,男孩已被找到。
The boy was reported to have been found.
据报道,男孩已被找到。
  常用于上述被动句型的动词有:acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, declare, estimate, expect, find, know, presume, report, say, think等。

7. 含有被动意义的主动语态

  英语中有一些表示被动意义的主动句,其谓语所表示的不是主语的动作,而是其内在的性能。这种句子的特点是:主语为无生命名词,谓语动词为一般现在时;肯定句必须带方式状语;否定句的谓语可以带情态动词。如:
She is to blame. 她应该受到责备。
The house is to rent. 这个房子要出租。
Food can keep fresh in a fridge. 食物放在冰箱里能保鲜。
The pen writes smoothly. 这支钢笔很好写。
The cloth feels soft. 这布摸上去很柔软。
The cake tastes good. 这蛋糕很好吃。

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