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RTFSC: Read The Fucking Source Code

Linux trace 2.1、trace ring buffer

1、简介

ringbuffer是trace框架的一个基础,所有的trace原始数据都是通过ringbuffer记录的。ringbuffer的作用主要有几个:

  • 1、存储在内存中,速度非常快,对系统性能的影响降到了最低;
  • 2、ring结构,循环写。可以很安全的使用又不浪费内存,能够get到最新的trace信息;

但是,难点并不在这。真正的难点是系统会在常规上下文、中断(NMI、IRQ、SOFTIRQ)等各种场景下都会发生trace,怎么样能既不影响系统的逻辑,又能处理好相互之间的互斥把trace的架构组织好。如果对这部分非常感兴趣可以直接跳转到 第5章 ringbuffer的设计思想 进行学习。

2、ringbuffer初始化

这里写图片描述

上图是ringbuffer的组织结构顶级视图,可以看到以下信息:

  • 1、struct ring_buffer在每个cpu上有独立的struct ring_buffer_per_cpu数据结构;
  • 2、struct ring_buffer_per_cpu根据定义size的大小,分配page空间,并把page链成环形结构,这就是“ring”的概念;
  • 3、struct buffer_page是一个控制结构;struct buffer_data_page才是一个实际的page,除了开头的两个控制字段time_stamp、commit,其他空间都是用来存储数据的;数据使用struct ring_buffer_event来存储,其在包头中还存储了时间戳、长度/类型信息;
  • 4、struct ring_buffer_per_cpu中使用head_page(读)、commit_page(写确认)、tail_page(写)三种指针来管理page ring;同理buffer_page->read(读)、buffer_page->write(写)、buffer_data_page->commit(写确认)用来描述page内的偏移指针;
  • 5、ring_buffer_per_cpu->reader_page中还包含了一个独立的page,用来支持reader方式的读操作;

初始化的主要工作就是分配page空间,并且初始化各个控制字段。

start_kernel() -> trace_init() -> tracer_alloc_buffers() -> allocate_trace_buffers() -> allocate_trace_buffer() -> ring_buffer_alloc() -> __ring_buffer_alloc():

struct ring_buffer *__ring_buffer_alloc(unsigned long size, unsigned flags,
                    struct lock_class_key *key)
{
    struct ring_buffer *buffer;
    long nr_pages;
    int bsize;
    int cpu;

    /* (1) 分配ring_buffer数据结构 */
    /* keep it in its own cache line */
    buffer = kzalloc(ALIGN(sizeof(*buffer), cache_line_size()),
             GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!buffer)
        return NULL;

    if (!alloc_cpumask_var(&buffer->cpumask, GFP_KERNEL))
        goto fail_free_buffer;

    nr_pages = DIV_ROUND_UP(size, BUF_PAGE_SIZE);

    /* (1.1) 初始化ring_buffer的控制成员:
     ->flags = flags
     ->clock = 时间戳的时钟源
    */
    buffer->flags = flags;
    buffer->clock = trace_clock_local;
    buffer->reader_lock_key = key;

    init_irq_work(&buffer->irq_work.work, rb_wake_up_waiters);
    init_waitqueue_head(&buffer->irq_work.waiters);

    /* need at least two pages */
    if (nr_pages < 2)
        nr_pages = 2;

    /*
     * In case of non-hotplug cpu, if the ring-buffer is allocated
     * in early initcall, it will not be notified of secondary cpus.
     * In that off case, we need to allocate for all possible cpus.
     */
    /* (1.2) 初始化ring_buffer的控制成员:
     ->cpumask = online cpu的map
     ->cpus = cpu个数
    */
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
    cpu_notifier_register_begin();
    cpumask_copy(buffer->cpumask, cpu_online_mask);
#else
    cpumask_copy(buffer->cpumask, cpu_possible_mask);
#endif
    buffer->cpus = nr_cpu_ids;

    bsize = sizeof(void *) * nr_cpu_ids;
    buffer->buffers = kzalloc(ALIGN(bsize, cache_line_size()),
                  GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!buffer->buffers)
        goto fail_free_cpumask;


    /* (2) 分配每cpu的ring_buffer_per_cpu结构 */
    for_each_buffer_cpu(buffer, cpu) {
        buffer->buffers[cpu] =
            rb_allocate_cpu_buffer(buffer, nr_pages, cpu);
        if (!buffer->buffers[cpu])
            goto fail_free_buffers;
    }

    /* (3) 注册cpu的hotplug回调函数:
        主要作用是在cpu up时,如果没有分配ring_buffer_per_cpu,则重新分配
        在cpu down时并不会释放ring_buffer_per_cpu空间
     */
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
    buffer->cpu_notify.notifier_call = rb_cpu_notify;
    buffer->cpu_notify.priority = 0;
    __register_cpu_notifier(&buffer->cpu_notify);
    cpu_notifier_register_done();
#endif

    mutex_init(&buffer->mutex);

    return buffer;

 fail_free_buffers:
    for_each_buffer_cpu(buffer, cpu) {
        if (buffer->buffers[cpu])
            rb_free_cpu_buffer(buffer->buffers[cpu]);
    }
    kfree(buffer->buffers);

 fail_free_cpumask:
    free_cpumask_var(buffer->cpumask);
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
    cpu_notifier_register_done();
#endif

 fail_free_buffer:
    kfree(buffer);
    return NULL;
}

|→

static struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *
rb_allocate_cpu_buffer(struct ring_buffer *buffer, long nr_pages, int cpu)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct buffer_page *bpage;
    struct page *page;
    int ret;

    /* (2.1) 分配ring_buffer_per_cpu的结构空间 */
    cpu_buffer = kzalloc_node(ALIGN(sizeof(*cpu_buffer), cache_line_size()),
                  GFP_KERNEL, cpu_to_node(cpu));
    if (!cpu_buffer)
        return NULL;

    cpu_buffer->cpu = cpu;
    cpu_buffer->buffer = buffer;
    raw_spin_lock_init(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock);
    lockdep_set_class(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock, buffer->reader_lock_key);
    cpu_buffer->lock = (arch_spinlock_t)__ARCH_SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED;
    INIT_WORK(&cpu_buffer->update_pages_work, update_pages_handler);
    init_completion(&cpu_buffer->update_done);
    init_irq_work(&cpu_buffer->irq_work.work, rb_wake_up_waiters);
    init_waitqueue_head(&cpu_buffer->irq_work.waiters);
    init_waitqueue_head(&cpu_buffer->irq_work.full_waiters);

    bpage = kzalloc_node(ALIGN(sizeof(*bpage), cache_line_size()),
                GFP_KERNEL, cpu_to_node(cpu));
    if (!bpage)
        goto fail_free_buffer;

    rb_check_bpage(cpu_buffer, bpage);

    /* (2.2) 分配reader_page对应的buffer_page和buffer_data_page */
    cpu_buffer->reader_page = bpage;
    page = alloc_pages_node(cpu_to_node(cpu), GFP_KERNEL, 0);
    if (!page)
        goto fail_free_reader;
    bpage->page = page_address(page);
    rb_init_page(bpage->page);

    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cpu_buffer->reader_page->list);
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cpu_buffer->new_pages);

    /* (2.3) 分配核心的ring buffer对应的page空间 */
    ret = rb_allocate_pages(cpu_buffer, nr_pages);
    if (ret < 0)
        goto fail_free_reader;

    /* (2.4) 初始化ring page的三大指针:head_page、commit_page、tail_page 
        都指向起始page
     */
    cpu_buffer->head_page
        = list_entry(cpu_buffer->pages, struct buffer_page, list);
    cpu_buffer->tail_page = cpu_buffer->commit_page = cpu_buffer->head_page;

    /* (2.5) 初始化ring page中指向head page的上一个page,指向head page的指针
        将指针设置RB_PAGE_HEAD标志,标明head page的位置
     */
    rb_head_page_activate(cpu_buffer);

    return cpu_buffer;

 fail_free_reader:
    free_buffer_page(cpu_buffer->reader_page);

 fail_free_buffer:
    kfree(cpu_buffer);
    return NULL;
}

3、ringbuffer的写操作

从ring buffer的设计思想上看,为了支持“nested-write”嵌套写的免锁操作,引入了commit的概念。原理见commit page 一节的描述。

所以ringbuffer的写操作分成以下几步:

  • 1、writer使用ring_buffer_lock_reserve()函数移动tail指针,得到需要的空间;
  • 2、writer操作得到的ring buffer空间,写数据;
  • 3、writer使用ring_buffer_unlock_commit()函数确认数据的写入完成,如果是高优先级抢占其他人的writer会成为pending_commit,只有优先级最低的writer完成full commit并且移动comit指针;
  • 4、writer使用ring_buffer_discard_commit()函数丢弃数据。丢弃的方法有两种:1、首先尝试回滚tail指针回收空间;2、如果无法回滚则把数据类型设置为padding再正常的commit,这种空间相当于浪费掉。

这些操作当中,有两件事需要注意:一是ring_buffer_event的存储格式,二是ring_buffer_event时间戳的计算;

3.1、ring_buffer_event的存储格式

writer在ring buffer的page中分配空间,在用户数据之前加了一个ring_buffer_event来进行管理:

struct ring_buffer_event {
    kmemcheck_bitfield_begin(bitfield);
    u32     type_len:5, time_delta:27;
    kmemcheck_bitfield_end(bitfield);

    u32     array[];
};

“type_len:5, time_delta:27”为控制结构,在最小情况下占用32bit的空间,表示type、len、time_delta三种信息。

其中前5bit type_len,在不同情况下表示type或者len:

enum ring_buffer_type {
    RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA_TYPE_LEN_MAX = 28,
    RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING,
    RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND,
    /* FIXME: RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP not implemented */
    RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP,
};

综合不同情况的列表如下:

type_len解析
type_len(5bit) time_delta(27bit) array[0](32bit) type len time_delta 说明
0 存放len Data record len = sizeof(array[]),存放在array[0]中 因为type_len只有5bit,其中分配给表示数据长度的数值只有(0-28),数据默认是4byte对齐的,所以type_len能表示的最大数据长度为28*4=112bytes。
即:#define RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA (RB_ALIGNMENT * RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA_TYPE_LEN_MAX)

在len > RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA的情况下,使用array[0]来存放长度,这种情况下type_len=0。
1 − 28 Data record len = sizeof(array[]),存放在type_len中,len = type_len « 2 在len <= RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA的情况下,使用type_len来存放长度。
29(RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING) 0 Padding len variable Padding类型指的是ringbuffer数据空间分配以后,没有使用被废弃了。

If time_delta is 0:
array is ignored,size is variable depending on how much padding is needed
29(RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING) >0 存放len Padding len = sizeof(array[]),存放在array[0]中 Padding类型指的是ringbuffer数据空间分配以后,没有使用被废弃了。

If time_delta is non zero:
array[0] holds the actual length
30(RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND) 存放time_delta的0-27bit 存放time_delta的28-59bit Time Extened len = sizeof(array[])。只有一个array[0],array[]长度固定为4。 delta = (array[0] « 28) + time_delta 因为time_delta只有27bit,所以普通“Data record”类型event能表达的最大时间差为2^27ns。

如果时间差超过2^27ns,需要定义一个专门的“Time Extened”event来记录时间差,其利用array[0]来记录time_delta的28-59bit,总共60bit能满足用户时间差的需求。
该event固定长度为8.

3.2、ring_buffer_event时间戳

ring buffer不但记录了event数据,默认他还给每个event记录加上了时间戳信息。同时为了节约空间,没有记录绝对时间戳,而只是记录相对上一个event的时间差。在每个struct buffer_data_page的开头,都记录了该page第一个commit的绝对时间戳。

那么计算page中event(n)的绝对时间戳 = page->time_stamp + event0->time_delta + event1->time_delta + … + event(n-1)->time_delta:

这里写图片描述

在计算event时间差时,是以一次full commit为单位的。如果发生了“nested-write”,那么这次full commit中多次write分配的event的时间差,最后都为0:

这里写图片描述

3.3、ring_buffer_event写入流程

3.3.1、ring_buffer_lock_reserve()

struct ring_buffer_event *
ring_buffer_lock_reserve(struct ring_buffer *buffer, unsigned long length)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    int cpu;

    /* (1) 关闭抢占,那么接下来的操作只有中断才能打断了 */
    /* If we are tracing schedule, we don't want to recurse */
    preempt_disable_notrace();

    /* (2) 如果ring_buffer被disable,出错返回 */
    if (unlikely(atomic_read(&buffer->record_disabled)))
        goto out;

    cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();

    if (unlikely(!cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, buffer->cpumask)))
        goto out;

    /* (3) 得到本cpu对应的ring_buffer_per_cpu结构 */
    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];

    /* (4) 如果ring_buffer_per_cpu被disable,出错返回 */
    if (unlikely(atomic_read(&cpu_buffer->record_disabled)))
        goto out;

    /* (5) 如果申请的空间长度大于一个ringbuffer底层的一个page,出错返回 */
    if (unlikely(length > BUF_MAX_DATA_SIZE))
        goto out;

    /* (6) 禁止同优先级运行环境的递归重入 */
    if (unlikely(trace_recursive_lock(cpu_buffer)))
        goto out;

    /* (7) 从per_cpubuffer中申请数据 */
    event = rb_reserve_next_event(buffer, cpu_buffer, length);
    if (!event)
        goto out_unlock;

    return event;

 out_unlock:
    trace_recursive_unlock(cpu_buffer);
 out:
    preempt_enable_notrace();
    return NULL;
}

|→

static struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_reserve_next_event(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
              struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
              unsigned long length)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct rb_event_info info;
    int nr_loops = 0;
    u64 diff;

    /* (7.1) 增加cpu_buffer->commits、cpu_buffer->committing的计数 
        在commit的时候用committing计数来判断:
        ==1,当前是最外层的writer,做full commit移动commit指针到tail
        >1,当前是抢占writer,只能pending commit,同时把committing计数减一
     */
    rb_start_commit(cpu_buffer);

#ifdef CONFIG_RING_BUFFER_ALLOW_SWAP
    /*
     * Due to the ability to swap a cpu buffer from a buffer
     * it is possible it was swapped before we committed.
     * (committing stops a swap). We check for it here and
     * if it happened, we have to fail the write.
     */
    barrier();
    if (unlikely(ACCESS_ONCE(cpu_buffer->buffer) != buffer)) {
        local_dec(&cpu_buffer->committing);
        local_dec(&cpu_buffer->commits);
        return NULL;
    }
#endif

    /* (7.2) 计算加上ring_buffer_event控制结构以后,数据的总长度 */
    info.length = rb_calculate_event_length(length);
 again:
    info.add_timestamp = 0;
    info.delta = 0;

    /*
     * We allow for interrupts to reenter here and do a trace.
     * If one does, it will cause this original code to loop
     * back here. Even with heavy interrupts happening, this
     * should only happen a few times in a row. If this happens
     * 1000 times in a row, there must be either an interrupt
     * storm or we have something buggy.
     * Bail!
     */
    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 1000))
        goto out_fail;

    /* (7.3) 获取当前event的时间戳,并计算和write_stamp之间的时间差值,
        write_stamp是上一个full commit的时间戳。
        系统是以full commit作为一个时间戳的,如果一次nested-write分配了多个event,
        那么这些event共享同一个时间戳,除了第一个event,后面event的time_delta都为0。
     */
    info.ts = rb_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer);
    diff = info.ts - cpu_buffer->write_stamp;

    /* make sure this diff is calculated here */
    barrier();

    /* Did the write stamp get updated already? */
    if (likely(info.ts >= cpu_buffer->write_stamp)) {
        info.delta = diff;
        /* (7.4) 如果时间差大于2^27ns,需要增加一个time extend类型的event来存储时间差 
            设置info.add_timestamp = 1
         */
        if (unlikely(test_time_stamp(info.delta)))
            rb_handle_timestamp(cpu_buffer, &info);
    }

    /* (7.5) 继续尝试分配event空间 */
    event = __rb_reserve_next(cpu_buffer, &info);

    if (unlikely(PTR_ERR(event) == -EAGAIN)) {
        if (info.add_timestamp)
            info.length -= RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND;
        goto again;
    }

    if (!event)
        goto out_fail;

    return event;

 out_fail:
    rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
    return NULL;
}

||→

static unsigned rb_calculate_event_length(unsigned length)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event event; /* Used only for sizeof array */

    /* zero length can cause confusions */
    if (!length)
        length++;

    /* (7.2.1) 如果len大于(28<<2),需要使用array[0]来存储长度 */
    if (length > RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA || RB_FORCE_8BYTE_ALIGNMENT)
        length += sizeof(event.array[0]);

    /* (7.2.2) 增加event常规header的长度 */
    length += RB_EVNT_HDR_SIZE;
    /* (7.2.3) 默认4字节长度对齐 */
    length = ALIGN(length, RB_ARCH_ALIGNMENT);

    /*
     * In case the time delta is larger than the 27 bits for it
     * in the header, we need to add a timestamp. If another
     * event comes in when trying to discard this one to increase
     * the length, then the timestamp will be added in the allocated
     * space of this event. If length is bigger than the size needed
     * for the TIME_EXTEND, then padding has to be used. The events
     * length must be either RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND, or greater than or equal
     * to RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND + 8, as 8 is the minimum size for padding.
     * As length is a multiple of 4, we only need to worry if it
     * is 12 (RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND + 4).
     */
    if (length == RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND + RB_ALIGNMENT)
        length += RB_ALIGNMENT;

    return length;
}

||→

static struct ring_buffer_event *
__rb_reserve_next(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
          struct rb_event_info *info)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct buffer_page *tail_page;
    unsigned long tail, write;

    /*
     * If the time delta since the last event is too big to
     * hold in the time field of the event, then we append a
     * TIME EXTEND event ahead of the data event.
     */
    /* (7.5.1) 如果需要增加time extend event,增加8字节长度 */
    if (unlikely(info->add_timestamp))
        info->length += RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND;

    /* (7.5.2) 使用原子操作,快速从tail指针中保留出需要的长度 
        这里有个异常需要处理,如果本page空间不够,需要向后找新的page,这里>BUF_PAGE_SIZE的tail指针需要回滚
     */
    tail_page = info->tail_page = cpu_buffer->tail_page;
    write = local_add_return(info->length, &tail_page->write);

    /* set write to only the index of the write */
    write &= RB_WRITE_MASK;
    tail = write - info->length;

    /*
     * If this is the first commit on the page, then it has the same
     * timestamp as the page itself.
     */
    /* (7.5.3) page中第一个event的time_delta赋值为0,
        直接使用page->time_stamp
     */
    if (!tail)
        info->delta = 0;

    /* See if we shot pass the end of this buffer page */
    /* (7.5.4) 不允许分配的空间跨越两个page, 
        如果本page的空间不足,向后寻找新的page
     */
    if (unlikely(write > BUF_PAGE_SIZE))
        return rb_move_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);

    /* We reserved something on the buffer */

    /* (7.5.5) 成功获取到event空间 */
    event = __rb_page_index(tail_page, tail);
    kmemcheck_annotate_bitfield(event, bitfield);

    /* (7.5.6) 更新ring_buffer_event中的type_len、time_delta字段 */
    rb_update_event(cpu_buffer, event, info);

    /* (7.5.7) 增加page中的event技术 */
    local_inc(&tail_page->entries);

    /*
     * If this is the first commit on the page, then update
     * its timestamp.
     */
    /* (7.5.8) 如果是page中第一个event, 
        使用event->time_stamp更新page->time_stamp
     */
    if (!tail)
        tail_page->page->time_stamp = info->ts;

    /* account for these added bytes */
    /* (7.5.9) 更新ring_buffer_per_cpu中的有效event数据计数 */
    local_add(info->length, &cpu_buffer->entries_bytes);

    return event;
}

|||→

rb_move_tail()是理解复杂无锁指针操作的核心函数,但是已经没有兴趣和心情继续仔细分析了。大的原理上已无问题,后面有需要再仔细分析吧:

static noinline struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_move_tail(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
         unsigned long tail, struct rb_event_info *info)
{
    struct buffer_page *tail_page = info->tail_page;
    struct buffer_page *commit_page = cpu_buffer->commit_page;
    struct ring_buffer *buffer = cpu_buffer->buffer;
    struct buffer_page *next_page;
    int ret;
    u64 ts;

    next_page = tail_page;

    rb_inc_page(cpu_buffer, &next_page);

    /*
     * If for some reason, we had an interrupt storm that made
     * it all the way around the buffer, bail, and warn
     * about it.
     */
    if (unlikely(next_page == commit_page)) {
        local_inc(&cpu_buffer->commit_overrun);
        goto out_reset;
    }

    /*
     * This is where the fun begins!
     *
     * We are fighting against races between a reader that
     * could be on another CPU trying to swap its reader
     * page with the buffer head.
     *
     * We are also fighting against interrupts coming in and
     * moving the head or tail on us as well.
     *
     * If the next page is the head page then we have filled
     * the buffer, unless the commit page is still on the
     * reader page.
     */
    if (rb_is_head_page(cpu_buffer, next_page, &tail_page->list)) {

        /*
         * If the commit is not on the reader page, then
         * move the header page.
         */
        if (!rb_is_reader_page(cpu_buffer->commit_page)) {
            /*
             * If we are not in overwrite mode,
             * this is easy, just stop here.
             */
            if (!(buffer->flags & RB_FL_OVERWRITE)) {
                local_inc(&cpu_buffer->dropped_events);
                goto out_reset;
            }

            ret = rb_handle_head_page(cpu_buffer,
                          tail_page,
                          next_page);
            if (ret < 0)
                goto out_reset;
            if (ret)
                goto out_again;
        } else {
            /*
             * We need to be careful here too. The
             * commit page could still be on the reader
             * page. We could have a small buffer, and
             * have filled up the buffer with events
             * from interrupts and such, and wrapped.
             *
             * Note, if the tail page is also the on the
             * reader_page, we let it move out.
             */
            if (unlikely((cpu_buffer->commit_page !=
                      cpu_buffer->tail_page) &&
                     (cpu_buffer->commit_page ==
                      cpu_buffer->reader_page))) {
                local_inc(&cpu_buffer->commit_overrun);
                goto out_reset;
            }
        }
    }

    ret = rb_tail_page_update(cpu_buffer, tail_page, next_page);
    if (ret) {
        /*
         * Nested commits always have zero deltas, so
         * just reread the time stamp
         */
        ts = rb_time_stamp(buffer);
        next_page->page->time_stamp = ts;
    }

 out_again:

    rb_reset_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);

    /* fail and let the caller try again */
    return ERR_PTR(-EAGAIN);

 out_reset:
    /* reset write */
    rb_reset_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);

    return NULL;
}

3.3.2、ring_buffer_unlock_commit()

int ring_buffer_unlock_commit(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
                  struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    int cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();

    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];

    rb_commit(cpu_buffer, event);

    rb_wakeups(buffer, cpu_buffer);

    trace_recursive_unlock(cpu_buffer);

    preempt_enable_notrace();

    return 0;
}

|→

static void rb_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
              struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    local_inc(&cpu_buffer->entries);
    /* (1) 只有full commit,才会更新write_stamp时间戳  */
    rb_update_write_stamp(cpu_buffer, event);
    /* (2) 只有full commit,才会更新commit指针  */
    rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
}

||→

static void
rb_update_write_stamp(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
              struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    u64 delta;

    /*
     * The event first in the commit queue updates the
     * time stamp.
     */
    /* (1.1) 只有full commit才会更新write_stamp时间戳,
        中间抢占的write提交的pending commit,不会更新
     */
    if (rb_event_is_commit(cpu_buffer, event)) {
        /*
         * A commit event that is first on a page
         * updates the write timestamp with the page stamp
         */
        if (!rb_event_index(event))
            cpu_buffer->write_stamp =
                cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->time_stamp;
        else if (event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND) {
            delta = event->array[0];
            delta <<= TS_SHIFT;
            delta += event->time_delta;
            cpu_buffer->write_stamp += delta;
        } else
            cpu_buffer->write_stamp += event->time_delta;
    }
}

||→

static inline void rb_end_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer)
{
    unsigned long commits;

    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer,
               !local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing)))
        return;

 again:
    commits = local_read(&cpu_buffer->commits);
    /* synchronize with interrupts */
    barrier();
    /* (2.1) 如果(committing==1),说明当前是full commit
        只有full commit才会更新commit指针,
        中间抢占的write提交的pending commit,不会更新
     */
    if (local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing) == 1)
        rb_set_commit_to_write(cpu_buffer);

    /* (2.2) 任何一次commit都会给committing减1 */
    local_dec(&cpu_buffer->committing);

    /* synchronize with interrupts */
    barrier();

    /*
     * Need to account for interrupts coming in between the
     * updating of the commit page and the clearing of the
     * committing counter.
     */
    if (unlikely(local_read(&cpu_buffer->commits) != commits) &&
        !local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing)) {
        local_inc(&cpu_buffer->committing);
        goto again;
    }
}

|||→

static void
rb_set_commit_to_write(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer)
{
    unsigned long max_count;

    /*
     * We only race with interrupts and NMIs on this CPU.
     * If we own the commit event, then we can commit
     * all others that interrupted us, since the interruptions
     * are in stack format (they finish before they come
     * back to us). This allows us to do a simple loop to
     * assign the commit to the tail.
     */
 again:
    max_count = cpu_buffer->nr_pages * 100;

    /* (2.1.1) 逐个移动commit_page直到等于tail_page 
        把每个commit_page中的commit指针设置为和write指针一致
     */
    while (cpu_buffer->commit_page != cpu_buffer->tail_page) {
        if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, !(--max_count)))
            return;
        if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer,
                   rb_is_reader_page(cpu_buffer->tail_page)))
            return;
        local_set(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit,
              rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page));
        rb_inc_page(cpu_buffer, &cpu_buffer->commit_page);
        cpu_buffer->write_stamp =
            cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->time_stamp;
        /* add barrier to keep gcc from optimizing too much */
        barrier();
    }

    /* (2.1.2) 把最后一个commit_page中的commit指针设置为和write指针一致 */
    while (rb_commit_index(cpu_buffer) !=
           rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page)) {

        local_set(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit,
              rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page));
        RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer,
               local_read(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit) &
               ~RB_WRITE_MASK);
        barrier();
    }

    /* again, keep gcc from optimizing */
    barrier();

    /*
     * If an interrupt came in just after the first while loop
     * and pushed the tail page forward, we will be left with
     * a dangling commit that will never go forward.
     */
    if (unlikely(cpu_buffer->commit_page != cpu_buffer->tail_page))
        goto again;
}

3.3.3、ring_buffer_discard_commit()

如果不需要分配的空间了,需要明确做丢弃操作。

void ring_buffer_discard_commit(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
                struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    int cpu;

    /* The event is discarded regardless */
    /* (1) 将event中的数据type设置为padding */
    rb_event_discard(event);

    cpu = smp_processor_id();
    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];

    /*
     * This must only be called if the event has not been
     * committed yet. Thus we can assume that preemption
     * is still disabled.
     */
    RB_WARN_ON(buffer, !local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing));

    /* (2) 如果tail指针还没有被新用户使用,尝试回滚tail指针来进行丢弃, 
        这种方法可以节约空间
     */
    rb_decrement_entry(cpu_buffer, event);
    if (rb_try_to_discard(cpu_buffer, event))
        goto out;

    /*
     * The commit is still visible by the reader, so we
     * must still update the timestamp.
     */
    /* (3) 只有full commit,才会更新write_stamp时间戳  */
    rb_update_write_stamp(cpu_buffer, event);
 out:
    /* (4) 只有full commit,才会更新commit指针  */
    rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);

    trace_recursive_unlock(cpu_buffer);

    preempt_enable_notrace();

}

4、ringbuffer的读操作

ringbuffer支持两种形式的读操作:

  • iterator读。这个时候会把写入操作关闭,且iterator读不会破坏ringbuffer中原有的内容,重复多次读取内容还在。这个典型的例子就是”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace”文件,我们多次“cat trace”文件来读取trace,内容保持不变。这种方式的缺点也是显而易见的,会disable写入操作,只适合trace完成后,一次性读出所有trace信息;
  • reader_page swap读。在ring buffer的设计原理中,多次看到reader_page的swap操作。这个读方式本质上是为了让ring buffer的读写能够同步进行,互不阻塞,但是缺点就是读完会破坏原有buffer中的内容。这个典型的例子就是”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe”,监控程序可以在抓取trace时并行的来读取ringbuffer中的数据;

关于这部分的原理也可以参考ring buffer 读 这一节。

4.1、iterator读

参考”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace”文件的读操作:

    trace_create_file("trace", 0644, d_tracer,
              tr, &tracing_fops);

static const struct file_operations tracing_fops = {
    .open       = tracing_open,
    .read       = seq_read,
    .write      = tracing_write_stub,
    .llseek     = tracing_lseek,
    .release    = tracing_release,
};

/* (1) 初始化iterator控制结构 */
static int tracing_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{

    /* (1.1) 分配iter */
    iter = __seq_open_private(file, &tracer_seq_ops, sizeof(*iter));
    if (!iter)
        return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

    /* (1.2) 给每个cpu的ring_buffer_per_cpu分配对应的ring_buffer_iter */
    iter->buffer_iter = kcalloc(nr_cpu_ids, sizeof(*iter->buffer_iter),
                    GFP_KERNEL);

    /* (1.3) 初始化ring_buffer_iter */
    if (iter->cpu_file == RING_BUFFER_ALL_CPUS) {
        for_each_tracing_cpu(cpu) {
            iter->buffer_iter[cpu] =
                ring_buffer_read_prepare(iter->trace_buffer->buffer, cpu);
        }
        ring_buffer_read_prepare_sync();
        for_each_tracing_cpu(cpu) {
            ring_buffer_read_start(iter->buffer_iter[cpu]);
            tracing_iter_reset(iter, cpu);
        }
    } else {
        cpu = iter->cpu_file;
        iter->buffer_iter[cpu] =
            ring_buffer_read_prepare(iter->trace_buffer->buffer, cpu);
        ring_buffer_read_prepare_sync();
        ring_buffer_read_start(iter->buffer_iter[cpu]);
        tracing_iter_reset(iter, cpu);
    }


}

/* (2) 从ringbuffer中读取数据,解析到trace文件中 */
ssize_t seq_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf, size_t size, loff_t *ppos)
{

    Fill:
    /* they want more? let's try to get some more */
    while (m->count < size) {
        size_t offs = m->count;
        loff_t next = pos;

        /* (2.1) seq的next 操作 */
        p = m->op->next(m, p, &next);
        if (!p || IS_ERR(p)) {
            err = PTR_ERR(p);
            break;
        }

        /* (2.2) seq的show 操作 */
        err = m->op->show(m, p);
        if (seq_has_overflowed(m) || err) {
            m->count = offs;
            if (likely(err <= 0))
                break;
        }
        pos = next;
    }
}

next()函数最后调用到:

static const struct seq_operations tracer_seq_ops = {
    .start      = s_start,
    .next       = s_next,
    .stop       = s_stop,
    .show       = s_show,
};

static void *s_next(struct seq_file *m, void *v, loff_t *pos)
{
    struct trace_iterator *iter = m->private;
    int i = (int)*pos;
    void *ent;

    WARN_ON_ONCE(iter->leftover);

    (*pos)++;

    /* can't go backwards */
    if (iter->idx > i)
        return NULL;

    if (iter->idx < 0)
        ent = trace_find_next_entry_inc(iter);
    else
        ent = iter;

    while (ent && iter->idx < i)
        ent = trace_find_next_entry_inc(iter);

    iter->pos = *pos;

    return ent;
}

|→

void *trace_find_next_entry_inc(struct trace_iterator *iter)
{
    /* 读出下一个时间戳的event */
    iter->ent = __find_next_entry(iter, &iter->cpu,
                      &iter->lost_events, &iter->ts);

    /* 确认对event的使用:
        使用rb_advance_iter()向前移动ring_buffer_iter的读指针 
     */
    if (iter->ent)
        trace_iterator_increment(iter);

    return iter->ent ? iter : NULL;
}

||→

static struct trace_entry *
__find_next_entry(struct trace_iterator *iter, int *ent_cpu,
          unsigned long *missing_events, u64 *ent_ts)
{
    struct ring_buffer *buffer = iter->trace_buffer->buffer;
    struct trace_entry *ent, *next = NULL;
    unsigned long lost_events = 0, next_lost = 0;
    int cpu_file = iter->cpu_file;
    u64 next_ts = 0, ts;
    int next_cpu = -1;
    int next_size = 0;
    int cpu;

    /*
     * If we are in a per_cpu trace file, don't bother by iterating over
     * all cpu and peek directly.
     */
    if (cpu_file > RING_BUFFER_ALL_CPUS) {
        if (ring_buffer_empty_cpu(buffer, cpu_file))
            return NULL;
        ent = peek_next_entry(iter, cpu_file, ent_ts, missing_events);
        if (ent_cpu)
            *ent_cpu = cpu_file;

        return ent;
    }

    for_each_tracing_cpu(cpu) {

        if (ring_buffer_empty_cpu(buffer, cpu))
            continue;

        /* (1) 根据iter指示从ringbuffer中读出一条event, 
            如果iter使用了per cpu的ring_buffer_iter,则使用iterator读方式
            否则,使用全局的reader_page swap式的读方式
         */
        ent = peek_next_entry(iter, cpu, &ts, &lost_events);

        /*
         * Pick the entry with the smallest timestamp:
         */
        /* (2) 多cpu的ring_buffer_per_cpu,怎么做时间戳同步?
            每个cpu的buffer,读取一条event的,选取时间戳最小的那条event返回
         */
        if (ent && (!next || ts < next_ts)) {
            next = ent;
            next_cpu = cpu;
            next_ts = ts;
            next_lost = lost_events;
            next_size = iter->ent_size;
        }
    }

    iter->ent_size = next_size;

    if (ent_cpu)
        *ent_cpu = next_cpu;

    if (ent_ts)
        *ent_ts = next_ts;

    if (missing_events)
        *missing_events = next_lost;

    return next;
}

|||→

static struct trace_entry *
peek_next_entry(struct trace_iterator *iter, int cpu, u64 *ts,
        unsigned long *lost_events)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct ring_buffer_iter *buf_iter = trace_buffer_iter(iter, cpu);

    /* (2.1) 如果定义了ring_buffer_iter,则使用iterator读 */
    if (buf_iter)
        event = ring_buffer_iter_peek(buf_iter, ts);
    /* (2.2) 如果没有定义ring_buffer_iter,则使用reader_page swap读 */
    else
        event = ring_buffer_peek(iter->trace_buffer->buffer, cpu, ts,
                     lost_events);

    if (event) {
        iter->ent_size = ring_buffer_event_length(event);
        return ring_buffer_event_data(event);
    }
    iter->ent_size = 0;
    return NULL;
}

||||→

struct ring_buffer_event *
ring_buffer_iter_peek(struct ring_buffer_iter *iter, u64 *ts)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer = iter->cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    unsigned long flags;

 again:
    raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock, flags);
    event = rb_iter_peek(iter, ts);
    raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock, flags);

    if (event && event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING)
        goto again;

    return event;
}

static struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_iter_peek(struct ring_buffer_iter *iter, u64 *ts)
{
    struct ring_buffer *buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    int nr_loops = 0;

    cpu_buffer = iter->cpu_buffer;
    buffer = cpu_buffer->buffer;

    /*
     * Check if someone performed a consuming read to
     * the buffer. A consuming read invalidates the iterator
     * and we need to reset the iterator in this case.
     */
    if (unlikely(iter->cache_read != cpu_buffer->read ||
             iter->cache_reader_page != cpu_buffer->reader_page))
        rb_iter_reset(iter);

 again:
    if (ring_buffer_iter_empty(iter))
        return NULL;

    /*
     * We repeat when a time extend is encountered or we hit
     * the end of the page. Since the time extend is always attached
     * to a data event, we should never loop more than three times.
     * Once for going to next page, once on time extend, and
     * finally once to get the event.
     * (We never hit the following condition more than thrice).
     */
    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 3))
        return NULL;

    if (rb_per_cpu_empty(cpu_buffer))
        return NULL;

    /* (2.1.1) 如果ring_buffer_iter中的head指针已经大于commit指针,
        向后移动head_page指针
     */
    if (iter->head >= rb_page_size(iter->head_page)) {
        rb_inc_iter(iter);
        goto again;
    }

    /* (2.1.2) 根据ring_buffer_iter中的head和head_page指针, 
        读取event数据
     */
    event = rb_iter_head_event(iter);

    /* (2.1.3) 根据读出event的type,对不是data的event进行处理 */
    switch (event->type_len) {
    case RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING:
        if (rb_null_event(event)) {
            rb_inc_iter(iter);
            goto again;
        }
        rb_advance_iter(iter);
        return event;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND:
        /* Internal data, OK to advance */
        rb_advance_iter(iter);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP:
        /* FIXME: not implemented */
        rb_advance_iter(iter);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA:
        if (ts) {
            *ts = iter->read_stamp + event->time_delta;
            ring_buffer_normalize_time_stamp(buffer,
                             cpu_buffer->cpu, ts);
        }
        return event;

    default:
        BUG();
    }

    return NULL;
}

show()函数最后调用到:

static int s_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
{
    struct trace_iterator *iter = v;
    int ret;

    if (iter->ent == NULL) {
        if (iter->tr) {
            seq_printf(m, "# tracer: %s\n", iter->trace->name);
            seq_puts(m, "#\n");
            test_ftrace_alive(m);
        }
        if (iter->snapshot && trace_empty(iter))
            print_snapshot_help(m, iter);
        else if (iter->trace && iter->trace->print_header)
            iter->trace->print_header(m);
        else
            trace_default_header(m);

    } else if (iter->leftover) {
        /*
         * If we filled the seq_file buffer earlier, we
         * want to just show it now.
         */
        ret = trace_print_seq(m, &iter->seq);

        /* ret should this time be zero, but you never know */
        iter->leftover = ret;

    } else {
        /* (1) 根据ent中数据的type,找到对应的格式化函数
            把ringbuffer原始数据格式化成方便用户理解的字符串
            存储在临时变量iter->seq中
         */
        print_trace_line(iter);
        /* (2) 把iter->seq中的字符串,打印到实际的文件buffer中 */
        ret = trace_print_seq(m, &iter->seq);
        /*
         * If we overflow the seq_file buffer, then it will
         * ask us for this data again at start up.
         * Use that instead.
         *  ret is 0 if seq_file write succeeded.
         *        -1 otherwise.
         */
        iter->leftover = ret;
    }

    return 0;
}

|→

enum print_line_t print_trace_line(struct trace_iterator *iter)
{
    struct trace_array *tr = iter->tr;
    unsigned long trace_flags = tr->trace_flags;
    enum print_line_t ret;

    if (iter->lost_events) {
        trace_seq_printf(&iter->seq, "CPU:%d [LOST %lu EVENTS]\n",
                 iter->cpu, iter->lost_events);
        if (trace_seq_has_overflowed(&iter->seq))
            return TRACE_TYPE_PARTIAL_LINE;
    }

    if (iter->trace && iter->trace->print_line) {
        ret = iter->trace->print_line(iter);
        if (ret != TRACE_TYPE_UNHANDLED)
            return ret;
    }

    /* (1.1) 几种系统预制的ent->type,对应的格式化函数 */
    if (iter->ent->type == TRACE_BPUTS &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK_MSGONLY)
        return trace_print_bputs_msg_only(iter);

    if (iter->ent->type == TRACE_BPRINT &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK_MSGONLY)
        return trace_print_bprintk_msg_only(iter);

    if (iter->ent->type == TRACE_PRINT &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK_MSGONLY)
        return trace_print_printk_msg_only(iter);

    if (trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_BIN)
        return print_bin_fmt(iter);

    if (trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_HEX)
        return print_hex_fmt(iter);

    if (trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_RAW)
        return print_raw_fmt(iter);

    /* (1.2) 用户自定义的ent->type,对应的格式化函数 */
    return print_trace_fmt(iter);
}

||→

static enum print_line_t print_trace_fmt(struct trace_iterator *iter)
{
    struct trace_array *tr = iter->tr;
    struct trace_seq *s = &iter->seq;
    unsigned long sym_flags = (tr->trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_SYM_MASK);
    struct trace_entry *entry;
    struct trace_event *event;

    entry = iter->ent;

    test_cpu_buff_start(iter);

    /* (1.2.1) 根据ent->type,找到对应的trace_entry */
    event = ftrace_find_event(entry->type);

    if (tr->trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_CONTEXT_INFO) {
        if (iter->iter_flags & TRACE_FILE_LAT_FMT)
            trace_print_lat_context(iter);
        else
            trace_print_context(iter);
    }

    if (trace_seq_has_overflowed(s))
        return TRACE_TYPE_PARTIAL_LINE;

    /* (1.2.2) 调用trace_entry->funcs->trace函数进行数据格式化 */
    if (event)
        return event->funcs->trace(iter, sym_flags, event);

    trace_seq_printf(s, "Unknown type %d\n", entry->type);

    return trace_handle_return(s);
}

4.2、reader_page swap读

参考”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe”文件的读操作:

    trace_create_file("trace_pipe", 0444, d_tracer,
              tr, &tracing_pipe_fops);

static const struct file_operations tracing_pipe_fops = {
    .open       = tracing_open_pipe,
    .poll       = tracing_poll_pipe,
    .read       = tracing_read_pipe,
    .splice_read    = tracing_splice_read_pipe,
    .release    = tracing_release_pipe,
    .llseek     = no_llseek,
};

/* (1) 和tracing_open最大的区别就是在open中没有定义percpu的ring_buffer_iter,
    所以它在后续的读操作中,不会使用iterator读,而是使用reader_page swap读
 */
static int tracing_open_pipe(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
{

    /* create a buffer to store the information to pass to userspace */
    iter = kzalloc(sizeof(*iter), GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!iter) {
        ret = -ENOMEM;
        __trace_array_put(tr);
        goto out;
    }

}

/* (2) trace_pipe文件的读操作 */
static ssize_t
tracing_read_pipe(struct file *filp, char __user *ubuf,
          size_t cnt, loff_t *ppos)
{
    struct trace_iterator *iter = filp->private_data;
    ssize_t sret;

    /* return any leftover data */
    sret = trace_seq_to_user(&iter->seq, ubuf, cnt);
    if (sret != -EBUSY)
        return sret;

    trace_seq_init(&iter->seq);

    /*
     * Avoid more than one consumer on a single file descriptor
     * This is just a matter of traces coherency, the ring buffer itself
     * is protected.
     */
    mutex_lock(&iter->mutex);
    if (iter->trace->read) {
        sret = iter->trace->read(iter, filp, ubuf, cnt, ppos);
        if (sret)
            goto out;
    }

waitagain:
    sret = tracing_wait_pipe(filp);
    if (sret <= 0)
        goto out;

    /* stop when tracing is finished */
    if (trace_empty(iter)) {
        sret = 0;
        goto out;
    }

    if (cnt >= PAGE_SIZE)
        cnt = PAGE_SIZE - 1;

    /* reset all but tr, trace, and overruns */
    memset(&iter->seq, 0,
           sizeof(struct trace_iterator) -
           offsetof(struct trace_iterator, seq));
    cpumask_clear(iter->started);
    iter->pos = -1;

    trace_event_read_lock();
    trace_access_lock(iter->cpu_file);
    /* (2.1) 使用reader_page swap读,读出下一个event */
    while (trace_find_next_entry_inc(iter) != NULL) {
        enum print_line_t ret;
        int save_len = iter->seq.seq.len;

        /* (2.2) 根据ent中数据的type,找到对应的格式化函数
            把ringbuffer原始数据格式化成方便用户理解的字符串
            存储在临时变量iter->seq中
         */ 
        ret = print_trace_line(iter);
        if (ret == TRACE_TYPE_PARTIAL_LINE) {
            /* don't print partial lines */
            iter->seq.seq.len = save_len;
            break;
        }

        /* (2.3) 对event数据读取进行确认,
            增加对应reader_page->read、reader_page指针
         */
        if (ret != TRACE_TYPE_NO_CONSUME)
            trace_consume(iter);

        /* (2.4) 如果iter->seq中的数据长度已经满足,退出循环 */
        if (trace_seq_used(&iter->seq) >= cnt)
            break;

        /*
         * Setting the full flag means we reached the trace_seq buffer
         * size and we should leave by partial output condition above.
         * One of the trace_seq_* functions is not used properly.
         */
        WARN_ONCE(iter->seq.full, "full flag set for trace type %d",
              iter->ent->type);
    }
    trace_access_unlock(iter->cpu_file);
    trace_event_read_unlock();

    /* Now copy what we have to the user */
    /* (2.5) 拷贝iter->seq中的字符串数据到文件buffer中 */
    sret = trace_seq_to_user(&iter->seq, ubuf, cnt);
    if (iter->seq.seq.readpos >= trace_seq_used(&iter->seq))
        trace_seq_init(&iter->seq);

    /*
     * If there was nothing to send to user, in spite of consuming trace
     * entries, go back to wait for more entries.
     */
    if (sret == -EBUSY)
        goto waitagain;

out:
    mutex_unlock(&iter->mutex);

    return sret;
}

|→

trace_find_next_entry_inc() -> __find_next_entry() -> peek_next_entry() -> ring_buffer_peek() -> rb_buffer_peek():

static struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_buffer_peek(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer, u64 *ts,
           unsigned long *lost_events)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct buffer_page *reader;
    int nr_loops = 0;

 again:
    /*
     * We repeat when a time extend is encountered.
     * Since the time extend is always attached to a data event,
     * we should never loop more than once.
     * (We never hit the following condition more than twice).
     */
    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 2))
        return NULL;

    /* (2.2.1) swap出最新的reader_page */
    reader = rb_get_reader_page(cpu_buffer);
    if (!reader)
        return NULL;

    /* (2.2.2) 根据reader_page和reader_page->read指针,得到最新的event */
    event = rb_reader_event(cpu_buffer);

    /* (2.2.3) 对不是data的event进行处理 */
    switch (event->type_len) {
    case RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING:
        if (rb_null_event(event))
            RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, 1);
        /*
         * Because the writer could be discarding every
         * event it creates (which would probably be bad)
         * if we were to go back to "again" then we may never
         * catch up, and will trigger the warn on, or lock
         * the box. Return the padding, and we will release
         * the current locks, and try again.
         */
        return event;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND:
        /* Internal data, OK to advance */
        rb_advance_reader(cpu_buffer);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP:
        /* FIXME: not implemented */
        rb_advance_reader(cpu_buffer);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA:
        if (ts) {
            *ts = cpu_buffer->read_stamp + event->time_delta;
            ring_buffer_normalize_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer,
                             cpu_buffer->cpu, ts);
        }
        if (lost_events)
            *lost_events = rb_lost_events(cpu_buffer);
        return event;

    default:
        BUG();
    }

    return NULL;
}

|→

trace_consume() -> ring_buffer_consume():

struct ring_buffer_event *
ring_buffer_consume(struct ring_buffer *buffer, int cpu, u64 *ts,
            unsigned long *lost_events)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event = NULL;
    unsigned long flags;
    bool dolock;

 again:
    /* might be called in atomic */
    preempt_disable();

    if (!cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, buffer->cpumask))
        goto out;

    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];
    local_irq_save(flags);
    dolock = rb_reader_lock(cpu_buffer);

    event = rb_buffer_peek(cpu_buffer, ts, lost_events);
    if (event) {
        cpu_buffer->lost_events = 0;
        /* (2.3.1) 增加reader->read指针 */
        rb_advance_reader(cpu_buffer);
    }

    rb_reader_unlock(cpu_buffer, dolock);
    local_irq_restore(flags);

 out:
    preempt_enable();

    if (event && event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING)
        goto again;

    return event;
}

5、ringbuffer的设计思想

面临的最大问题:

  • ring buffer可能在不同上下文中执行(Normal、NMI、IRQ、SOFTIRQ),对ring buffer的访问是随时可能被打断的,所以对ring buffer的访问需要互斥保护
  • ring buffer不能使用常规的lock操作,这样会使不同的上下文之间出现大量的阻塞操作,新增了相互之间的耦合、影响了程序原来的逻辑、影响了性能

最终这个设计使用了一系列的技巧解决了这个问题:原子操作、commit page、RB_PAGE_HEAD、reader_page、重试。这些才是整个ring buffer思想的精华所在

5.1、术语

术语
术语 Description 解释
tail where new writes happen in the ring buffer. ring buffer中下一个写操作的位置
head where new reads happen in the ring buffer. ring buffer中下一个读操作的位置
producer the task that writes into the ring buffer (same as writer) 生产者:写入数据到ring buffer的任务
writer same as producer 写入者,同生产者
consumer the task that reads from the buffer (same as reader) 消费者:读出ring buffer中数据的任务
reader same as consumer. 读取者,同消费者
reader_page A page outside the ring buffer used solely (for the most part) by the reader. 在ring buffer外部的一个单独的page,专门给reader使用的
head_page a pointer to the page that the reader will use next 指针,指向reader下一个将要使用的page
tail_page a pointer to the page that will be written to next 指针,指向下一个将要被写入的page
commit_page a pointer to the page with the last finished non-nested write. 指针,指向最后一个完成的非嵌套写的位置
cmpxchg hardware-assisted atomic transaction that performs the following:

A = B iff previous A == C
R = cmpxchg(A, C, B) is saying that we replace A with B if and only if current A is equal to C, and we put the old (current) A into R
R gets the previous A regardless if A is updated with B or not.
To see if the update was successful a compare of R == C may be used.
硬件辅助的原子组合操作:

R = cmpxchg(A, C, B)。如果A=C,则A=B;同时R获得A上一次的值,无关前面A=C条件是否成功。所以判断操作是否成功,需要判断(R == C)?

5.2 ring buffer的基本概念

1、工作模式

ring buffer可以工作在overwrite模式或者producer/consumer模式:

  • Producer/consumer模式。在producer已经把ring buffer空间写满的情况下,如果没有consumer来读数据free空间,producer会停止写入丢弃新的数据;
  • Overwrite模式。在producer已经把ring buffer空间写满的情况下,如果没有consumer来读数据free空间,producer会覆盖写入,最老的数据会被覆盖;

2、写操作

在同一个per-cpu buffer上,不能同时有两个写入者在进行写操作。但是允许高优先级的写入者中断低优先级的写入者,在返回低优先级之前高优先级写入者必须finish自己的写操作。类似下面例子的“stack写”、“嵌套写操作”。
在实际的环境中就是:普通写操作被IRQ写中断、IRQ写被NMI写中断。

  writer1 start
     <preempted> writer2 start
         <preempted> writer3 start
                     writer3 finishes
                 writer2 finishes
  writer1 finishes

3、读操作

  • 读操作随时可以发生,但是同一时刻只有一个reader在工作,这其中使用了互斥操作。
  • 读操作和写操作会同时发生:本cpu写入对应的per-cpu buffer,其他cpu可以同时读取这个cpu的bbbuffer;
  • 读操作不会中断写操作,但是写操作会中断读操作;
  • 支持两种模式的读操作:简易读,也叫iterator读,在读取时会关闭写入,且读完不会破坏数据可以重复读取,实例见”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace”;并行读,也叫custom读,常用于监控程序实时的进行并行读,其利用了一个reader page交换出ring buffer中的head page,避免了读写的相互阻塞,实例见”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe”;

3.1、reader page的swap:

为了支持并行读,需要使用reader_page交换出head_page。交换过程非常简单易懂,如下图:

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |
  +------+
                  +---+   +---+   +---+
                  |   |-->|   |-->|   |
                  |   |<--|   |<--|   |
                  +---+   +---+   +---+
                   ^ |             ^ |
                   | +-------------+ |
                   +-----------------+


  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------------------+
  +------+                   v
    |             +---+   +---+   +---+
    |             |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |             |   |<--|   |<--|   |<-+
    |             +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |              ^ |             ^ |   |
    |              | +-------------+ |   |
    |              +-----------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------------------+
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |  |          |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  |          +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |             |             ^ |   |
    |  |             +-------------+ |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

  +------+
  |buffer|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------------------+
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |   |   |-->|   |
    |  |  New     |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  | Reader   +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |  page ----^                 |   |
    |  |                             |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

reader_page swap的一种极端情况:把commit_page和tail_page交换到了reader_page,这种情况不会出现异常,因为reader_page的next指针任然指向ring buffer中的下一个page。如下图:

          reader page    commit page   tail page
              |              |             |
              v              |             |
             +---+           |             |
             |   |<----------+             |
             |   |<------------------------+
             |   |------+
             +---+      |
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

4、ring buffer的主要指针

  • reader page - The page used solely by the reader and is not part of the ring buffer (may be swapped in)
  • head page - the next page in the ring buffer that will be swapped with the reader page.
  • tail page - the page where the next write will take place.
  • commit page - the page that last finished a write.

4.1、commit page

commit page指针只能被“stack写”/“嵌套写”最外层的写入者更新,抢占其他人的写入者不能移动commit page指针。

这个机制也是ringbuffer的核心机制,实现了写入的免锁:

  • 在writer需要分配空间的时候,迅速的用原子操作移动tail指针,迅速的保留出空间。这样就算被高优先级的writer抢占,在操作这块空间的时候也不需要持锁,因为writer的空间都是独立的;
  • 使用最外层的writer来commit空间,如果最外层的writer都已经得到操作权限,说明所有高优先级的writer都已经操作完成。commit完成后,这部分空间就可以给reader读取了;
  • 如果需要丢弃空间,可以设置相应的标志,还是同样的commit,在读取过程中判断有丢弃标志则进行丢弃;

普通的写操作:

   Write reserve:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--- given back to writer (current commit)
      |reserved |
      +---------+ <--- tail pointer
      | empty   |
      +---------+

   Write commit:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--- next position for write (current commit)
      | empty   |
      +---------+

被抢占的读操作:

抢占者的commit会成为pending commit,只有所有writer数据都写完的commit才是last full commit。

 If a write happens after the first reserve:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <-- current commit
      |reserved |
      +---------+  <--- given back to second writer
      |reserved |
      +---------+ <--- tail pointer

  After second writer commits:


       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--(last full commit)
      |reserved |
      +---------+
      |pending  |
      |commit   |
      +---------+ <--- tail pointer

  When the first writer commits:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--(last full commit and tail pointer)

4.2、指针的顺序

通常情况下,几种指针的顺序如下:head page、commit page、tail page。如下图:

                             tail page
  head page         commit page  |
      |                 |        |
      v                 v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

tail page一直前于等于commit page,如果tail page环绕快赶上了commit page,ring buffer不能再写入任何数据了,因为没有commit的数据在任何模式下都不能overwrite,这样会引起write的逻辑混乱。

有一种特殊的情况会打断这种顺序,head page会跑到commit page、tail page之后。如下图:

          reader page    commit page   tail page
              |              |             |
              v              |             |
             +---+           |             |
             |   |<----------+             |
             |   |<------------------------+
             |   |------+
             +---+      |
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                        ^
                        |
                    head page

这是并行读时,使用reader page交换出了commit page、tail page。在这种情况下,head page指针不能移动,直到commit page、tail page指针移动回到ring buffer的page当中。同样如果commit指针在reader page中,不能swap出当前reader_page到ring buffer中。

4.3、overwrite时的指针操作

  • tail指针不能overwrite commit指针,因为commit处在写入的中间状态,强行overwrite会发生不可预料的结果;
  • 但是tail指针可以overwrite head指针,因为是已经写入完成的数据,只是丢弃掉一些不被读取;
  • tail指针会push head指针指向下一个page,然后再移动tail指针;

overwrite的过程如下:

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                        ^
                        |
                    head page


            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                                 ^
                                 |
                             head page


                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                                 ^
                                 |
                             head page

5.3 ring buffer无锁机制的实现

任何读操作都会get一系列的锁,确保操作串行;写操作都是无锁操作,写入ring buffer。所有我们在设计机制的时候,只需要考虑“单个读取者”+“多个嵌套写入者”的场景。

在这种设定下,无锁互斥机制包含几部分:

  • “嵌套write”时的无锁机制。这个在上节中已经介绍,使用commit指针来解决;(writer)
  • reader_page swap时的无锁机制。基本概念在上一节介绍,本节再详细介绍一下过程;(reader)
  • overwrite操作时的无锁机制。上节已经介绍,如果tail指针要赶上head指针了将要进行overwrite,写入者push head指针向前操作;(writer)

1、overwrite操作的无锁

为了支持这个机制,设计者特意制定了两个标志位:

  • HEADER - the page being pointed to is a head page
  • UPDATE - the page being pointed to is being updated by a writer and was or is about to be a head page.

这两个标志,使用指向head page的上一个page的->next指针的低两bit来存放。“H”和“U”标志是互斥的不会同时置位。

普通overwrite操作时,是这样来操作“H”和“U”标志的:

// step 1: writer判断tail指针已经接近head指针,首先使用原子操作将“H”标志变成“U”标志。
//          在这种情况下,reader也不能交换出ringbuffer的head page,直到writer完成移动操作

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 2: 移动head指针,将指向下一个page的指针“H”标志置位

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 3: 清除掉旧指针中的“U”标志

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 4: 移动tail指针

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

1.1 commit禁止overwrite

如果某个抢占式writer的优先级过高,一直写入,造成了tail指针赶上了commit指针。如下图:

          reader page    commit page
              |              |
              v              |
             +---+           |
             |   |<----------+
             |   |
             |   |------+
             +---+      |
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
               ^
               |
           tail page

这个时候唯一要做的就是:等待。不能overwrite,只能丢弃掉最新的write数据。

同理,如果reader_page中包含commit page,也不能swap出去,只能等待。

1.2、“overwrite” + “2 Nested write”

处理的过程如下:

// step 1: (first writer)改动标志“H”成“U”

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 2: (second writer)设置新的head page的“H”标志,移动tail指针

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 3: (backto first writer)清除旧指针中的“U”标志

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

1.3、“overwrite” + “3 Nested write”

处理的过程如下:

// step 1: (first writer)改动标志“H”成“U”

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 2: (second writer)

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 3: (third writer)

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-U->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-U->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+


                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 4: (backto second writer)

                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 5: (backto first writer)

                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+


               A        B    tail page
               |        |        |
               v        v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

               A        B    tail page
               |        |        |
               v        v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

               A        B    tail page
               |        |        |
               v        v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

2、reader_page swap时的无锁

综合“H”、“U”标志,来看看swap时的无锁是怎么实现的。如下图:

// step 1: 初始状态

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |
  +------+
                  +---+    +---+    +---+
                  |   |--->|   |--->|   |
                  |   |<---|   |<---|   |
                  +---+    +---+    +---+
                   ^ |               ^ |
                   | +---------------+ |
                   +-----H-------------+

// step 2: 将reader page的next指针指向head page的下一个page


  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+
  +------+                   v
    |             +---+    +---+    +---+
    |             |   |--->|   |--->|   |
    |             |   |<---|   |<---|   |<-+
    |             +---+    +---+    +---+  |
    |              ^ |               ^ |   |
    |              | +---------------+ |   |
    |              +-----H-------------+   |
    +--------------------------------------+

// step 3: 这一步是免锁的关键,将header page上一page的next指针原子操作换成指向reader page
//          这样reader page已经连接进ring buffer,和前head page swap

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+
  +------+                   v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |  |          |   |<--|   |<--|   |<-+
    |  |          +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |             |             ^ |   |
    |  |             +-------------+ |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

// step 4: 将新head page的pre指针指向reader page

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |  |          |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  |          +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |             |             ^ |   |
    |  |             +-------------+ |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

  +------+
  |buffer|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+  <--- New head page
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |   |   |-->|   |
    |  |  New     |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  | Reader   +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |  page ----^                 |   |
    |  |                             |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

2.1、判断page是否为reader page的方法

因为reader page被swap出来以后,本身的next、pre指针还指向原ring buffer中的page,但是这些page的指针已经不指向reader page了。

判断page->pre ->next是否还等于自己,如果不等于page为reader page。

             +--------+
             | reader |  next   +----+
             |  page  |-------->|    |<====== (buffer page)
             +--------+         +----+
                 |                | ^
                 |                v | next
            prev |              +----+
                 +------------->|    |
                                +----+

参考资料:

1、Linux内核跟踪之ring buffer的实现

2、Lockless Ring Buffer Design# 1、简介

ringbuffer是trace框架的一个基础,所有的trace原始数据都是通过ringbuffer记录的。ringbuffer的作用主要有几个:

  • 1、存储在内存中,速度非常快,对系统性能的影响降到了最低;
  • 2、ring结构,循环写。可以很安全的使用又不浪费内存,能够get到最新的trace信息;

但是,难点并不在这。真正的难点是系统会在常规上下文、中断(NMI、IRQ、SOFTIRQ)等各种场景下都会发生trace,怎么样能既不影响系统的逻辑,又能处理好相互之间的互斥把trace的架构组织好。如果对这部分非常感兴趣可以直接跳转到 第5章 ringbuffer的设计思想 进行学习。

2、ringbuffer初始化

image

上图是ringbuffer的组织结构顶级视图,可以看到以下信息:

  • 1、struct ring_buffer在每个cpu上有独立的struct ring_buffer_per_cpu数据结构;
  • 2、struct ring_buffer_per_cpu根据定义size的大小,分配page空间,并把page链成环形结构,这就是“ring”的概念;
  • 3、struct buffer_page是一个控制结构;struct buffer_data_page才是一个实际的page,除了开头的两个控制字段time_stamp、commit,其他空间都是用来存储数据的;数据使用struct ring_buffer_event来存储,其在包头中还存储了时间戳、长度/类型信息;
  • 4、struct ring_buffer_per_cpu中使用head_page(读)、commit_page(写确认)、tail_page(写)三种指针来管理page ring;同理buffer_page->read(读)、buffer_page->write(写)、buffer_data_page->commit(写确认)用来描述page内的偏移指针;
  • 5、ring_buffer_per_cpu->reader_page中还包含了一个独立的page,用来支持reader方式的读操作;

初始化的主要工作就是分配page空间,并且初始化各个控制字段。

start_kernel() -> trace_init() -> tracer_alloc_buffers() -> allocate_trace_buffers() -> allocate_trace_buffer() -> ring_buffer_alloc() -> __ring_buffer_alloc():

struct ring_buffer *__ring_buffer_alloc(unsigned long size, unsigned flags,
                    struct lock_class_key *key)
{
    struct ring_buffer *buffer;
    long nr_pages;
    int bsize;
    int cpu;

    /* (1) 分配ring_buffer数据结构 */
    /* keep it in its own cache line */
    buffer = kzalloc(ALIGN(sizeof(*buffer), cache_line_size()),
             GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!buffer)
        return NULL;

    if (!alloc_cpumask_var(&buffer->cpumask, GFP_KERNEL))
        goto fail_free_buffer;

    nr_pages = DIV_ROUND_UP(size, BUF_PAGE_SIZE);

    /* (1.1) 初始化ring_buffer的控制成员:
     ->flags = flags
     ->clock = 时间戳的时钟源
    */
    buffer->flags = flags;
    buffer->clock = trace_clock_local;
    buffer->reader_lock_key = key;

    init_irq_work(&buffer->irq_work.work, rb_wake_up_waiters);
    init_waitqueue_head(&buffer->irq_work.waiters);

    /* need at least two pages */
    if (nr_pages < 2)
        nr_pages = 2;

    /*
     * In case of non-hotplug cpu, if the ring-buffer is allocated
     * in early initcall, it will not be notified of secondary cpus.
     * In that off case, we need to allocate for all possible cpus.
     */
    /* (1.2) 初始化ring_buffer的控制成员:
     ->cpumask = online cpu的map
     ->cpus = cpu个数
    */
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
    cpu_notifier_register_begin();
    cpumask_copy(buffer->cpumask, cpu_online_mask);
#else
    cpumask_copy(buffer->cpumask, cpu_possible_mask);
#endif
    buffer->cpus = nr_cpu_ids;

    bsize = sizeof(void *) * nr_cpu_ids;
    buffer->buffers = kzalloc(ALIGN(bsize, cache_line_size()),
                  GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!buffer->buffers)
        goto fail_free_cpumask;


    /* (2) 分配每cpu的ring_buffer_per_cpu结构 */
    for_each_buffer_cpu(buffer, cpu) {
        buffer->buffers[cpu] =
            rb_allocate_cpu_buffer(buffer, nr_pages, cpu);
        if (!buffer->buffers[cpu])
            goto fail_free_buffers;
    }

    /* (3) 注册cpu的hotplug回调函数:
        主要作用是在cpu up时,如果没有分配ring_buffer_per_cpu,则重新分配
        在cpu down时并不会释放ring_buffer_per_cpu空间
     */
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
    buffer->cpu_notify.notifier_call = rb_cpu_notify;
    buffer->cpu_notify.priority = 0;
    __register_cpu_notifier(&buffer->cpu_notify);
    cpu_notifier_register_done();
#endif

    mutex_init(&buffer->mutex);

    return buffer;

 fail_free_buffers:
    for_each_buffer_cpu(buffer, cpu) {
        if (buffer->buffers[cpu])
            rb_free_cpu_buffer(buffer->buffers[cpu]);
    }
    kfree(buffer->buffers);

 fail_free_cpumask:
    free_cpumask_var(buffer->cpumask);
#ifdef CONFIG_HOTPLUG_CPU
    cpu_notifier_register_done();
#endif

 fail_free_buffer:
    kfree(buffer);
    return NULL;
}

|→

static struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *
rb_allocate_cpu_buffer(struct ring_buffer *buffer, long nr_pages, int cpu)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct buffer_page *bpage;
    struct page *page;
    int ret;

    /* (2.1) 分配ring_buffer_per_cpu的结构空间 */
    cpu_buffer = kzalloc_node(ALIGN(sizeof(*cpu_buffer), cache_line_size()),
                  GFP_KERNEL, cpu_to_node(cpu));
    if (!cpu_buffer)
        return NULL;

    cpu_buffer->cpu = cpu;
    cpu_buffer->buffer = buffer;
    raw_spin_lock_init(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock);
    lockdep_set_class(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock, buffer->reader_lock_key);
    cpu_buffer->lock = (arch_spinlock_t)__ARCH_SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED;
    INIT_WORK(&cpu_buffer->update_pages_work, update_pages_handler);
    init_completion(&cpu_buffer->update_done);
    init_irq_work(&cpu_buffer->irq_work.work, rb_wake_up_waiters);
    init_waitqueue_head(&cpu_buffer->irq_work.waiters);
    init_waitqueue_head(&cpu_buffer->irq_work.full_waiters);

    bpage = kzalloc_node(ALIGN(sizeof(*bpage), cache_line_size()),
                GFP_KERNEL, cpu_to_node(cpu));
    if (!bpage)
        goto fail_free_buffer;

    rb_check_bpage(cpu_buffer, bpage);

    /* (2.2) 分配reader_page对应的buffer_page和buffer_data_page */
    cpu_buffer->reader_page = bpage;
    page = alloc_pages_node(cpu_to_node(cpu), GFP_KERNEL, 0);
    if (!page)
        goto fail_free_reader;
    bpage->page = page_address(page);
    rb_init_page(bpage->page);

    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cpu_buffer->reader_page->list);
    INIT_LIST_HEAD(&cpu_buffer->new_pages);

    /* (2.3) 分配核心的ring buffer对应的page空间 */
    ret = rb_allocate_pages(cpu_buffer, nr_pages);
    if (ret < 0)
        goto fail_free_reader;

    /* (2.4) 初始化ring page的三大指针:head_page、commit_page、tail_page 
        都指向起始page
     */
    cpu_buffer->head_page
        = list_entry(cpu_buffer->pages, struct buffer_page, list);
    cpu_buffer->tail_page = cpu_buffer->commit_page = cpu_buffer->head_page;

    /* (2.5) 初始化ring page中指向head page的上一个page,指向head page的指针
        将指针设置RB_PAGE_HEAD标志,标明head page的位置
     */
    rb_head_page_activate(cpu_buffer);

    return cpu_buffer;

 fail_free_reader:
    free_buffer_page(cpu_buffer->reader_page);

 fail_free_buffer:
    kfree(cpu_buffer);
    return NULL;
}

3、ringbuffer的写操作

从ring buffer的设计思想上看,为了支持“nested-write”嵌套写的免锁操作,引入了commit的概念。原理见commit page 一节的描述。

所以ringbuffer的写操作分成以下几步:

  • 1、writer使用ring_buffer_lock_reserve()函数移动tail指针,得到需要的空间;
  • 2、writer操作得到的ring buffer空间,写数据;
  • 3、writer使用ring_buffer_unlock_commit()函数确认数据的写入完成,如果是高优先级抢占其他人的writer会成为pending_commit,只有优先级最低的writer完成full commit并且移动comit指针;
  • 4、writer使用ring_buffer_discard_commit()函数丢弃数据。丢弃的方法有两种:1、首先尝试回滚tail指针回收空间;2、如果无法回滚则把数据类型设置为padding再正常的commit,这种空间相当于浪费掉。

这些操作当中,有两件事需要注意:一是ring_buffer_event的存储格式,二是ring_buffer_event时间戳的计算;

3.1、ring_buffer_event的存储格式

writer在ring buffer的page中分配空间,在用户数据之前加了一个ring_buffer_event来进行管理:

struct ring_buffer_event {
    kmemcheck_bitfield_begin(bitfield);
    u32     type_len:5, time_delta:27;
    kmemcheck_bitfield_end(bitfield);

    u32     array[];
};

“type_len:5, time_delta:27”为控制结构,在最小情况下占用32bit的空间,表示type、len、time_delta三种信息。

其中前5bit type_len,在不同情况下表示type或者len:

enum ring_buffer_type {
    RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA_TYPE_LEN_MAX = 28,
    RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING,
    RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND,
    /* FIXME: RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP not implemented */
    RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP,
};

综合不同情况的列表如下:

type_len解析
type_len(5bit) time_delta(27bit) array[0](32bit) type len time_delta 说明
0 - 存放len Data record len = sizeof(array[]),存放在array[0]中
- 因为type_len只有5bit,其中分配给表示数据长度的数值只有(0-28),数据默认是4byte对齐的,所以type_len能表示的最大数据长度为28*4=112bytes。
即:#define RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA (RB_ALIGNMENT * RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA_TYPE_LEN_MAX)

在len > RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA的情况下,使用array[0]来存放长度,这种情况下type_len=0。 1 - 28 - - Data record len = sizeof(array[]),存放在type_len中,len = type_len - 在len - Padding类型指的是ringbuffer数据空间分配以后,没有使用被废弃了。

If time_delta is 0:
array is ignored,size is variable depending on how much padding is needed 29(RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING) >0 存放len Padding len = sizeof(array[]),存放在array[0]中 - Padding类型指的是ringbuffer数据空间分配以后,没有使用被废弃了。

If time_delta is non zero:
array[0] holds the actual length 30(RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND) 存放time_delta的0-27bit 存放time_delta的28-59bit Time Extened len = sizeof(array[])。只有一个array[0],array[]长度固定为4。 delta = (array[0]

3.2、ring_buffer_event时间戳

ring buffer不但记录了event数据,默认他还给每个event记录加上了时间戳信息。同时为了节约空间,没有记录绝对时间戳,而只是记录相对上一个event的时间差。在每个struct buffer_data_page的开头,都记录了该page第一个commit的绝对时间戳。

那么计算page中event(n)的绝对时间戳 = page->time_stamp + event0->time_delta + event1->time_delta + … + event(n-1)->time_delta:

image

在计算event时间差时,是以一次full commit为单位的。如果发生了“nested-write”,那么这次full commit中多次write分配的event的时间差,最后都为0:

image

3.3、ring_buffer_event写入流程

3.3.1、ring_buffer_lock_reserve()

struct ring_buffer_event *
ring_buffer_lock_reserve(struct ring_buffer *buffer, unsigned long length)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    int cpu;

    /* (1) 关闭抢占,那么接下来的操作只有中断才能打断了 */
    /* If we are tracing schedule, we don't want to recurse */
    preempt_disable_notrace();

    /* (2) 如果ring_buffer被disable,出错返回 */
    if (unlikely(atomic_read(&buffer->record_disabled)))
        goto out;

    cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();

    if (unlikely(!cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, buffer->cpumask)))
        goto out;

    /* (3) 得到本cpu对应的ring_buffer_per_cpu结构 */
    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];

    /* (4) 如果ring_buffer_per_cpu被disable,出错返回 */
    if (unlikely(atomic_read(&cpu_buffer->record_disabled)))
        goto out;

    /* (5) 如果申请的空间长度大于一个ringbuffer底层的一个page,出错返回 */
    if (unlikely(length > BUF_MAX_DATA_SIZE))
        goto out;

    /* (6) 禁止同优先级运行环境的递归重入 */
    if (unlikely(trace_recursive_lock(cpu_buffer)))
        goto out;

    /* (7) 从per_cpubuffer中申请数据 */
    event = rb_reserve_next_event(buffer, cpu_buffer, length);
    if (!event)
        goto out_unlock;

    return event;

 out_unlock:
    trace_recursive_unlock(cpu_buffer);
 out:
    preempt_enable_notrace();
    return NULL;
}

|→

static struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_reserve_next_event(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
              struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
              unsigned long length)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct rb_event_info info;
    int nr_loops = 0;
    u64 diff;

    /* (7.1) 增加cpu_buffer->commits、cpu_buffer->committing的计数 
        在commit的时候用committing计数来判断:
        ==1,当前是最外层的writer,做full commit移动commit指针到tail
        >1,当前是抢占writer,只能pending commit,同时把committing计数减一
     */
    rb_start_commit(cpu_buffer);

#ifdef CONFIG_RING_BUFFER_ALLOW_SWAP
    /*
     * Due to the ability to swap a cpu buffer from a buffer
     * it is possible it was swapped before we committed.
     * (committing stops a swap). We check for it here and
     * if it happened, we have to fail the write.
     */
    barrier();
    if (unlikely(ACCESS_ONCE(cpu_buffer->buffer) != buffer)) {
        local_dec(&cpu_buffer->committing);
        local_dec(&cpu_buffer->commits);
        return NULL;
    }
#endif

    /* (7.2) 计算加上ring_buffer_event控制结构以后,数据的总长度 */
    info.length = rb_calculate_event_length(length);
 again:
    info.add_timestamp = 0;
    info.delta = 0;

    /*
     * We allow for interrupts to reenter here and do a trace.
     * If one does, it will cause this original code to loop
     * back here. Even with heavy interrupts happening, this
     * should only happen a few times in a row. If this happens
     * 1000 times in a row, there must be either an interrupt
     * storm or we have something buggy.
     * Bail!
     */
    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 1000))
        goto out_fail;

    /* (7.3) 获取当前event的时间戳,并计算和write_stamp之间的时间差值,
        write_stamp是上一个full commit的时间戳。
        系统是以full commit作为一个时间戳的,如果一次nested-write分配了多个event,
        那么这些event共享同一个时间戳,除了第一个event,后面event的time_delta都为0。
     */
    info.ts = rb_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer);
    diff = info.ts - cpu_buffer->write_stamp;

    /* make sure this diff is calculated here */
    barrier();

    /* Did the write stamp get updated already? */
    if (likely(info.ts >= cpu_buffer->write_stamp)) {
        info.delta = diff;
        /* (7.4) 如果时间差大于2^27ns,需要增加一个time extend类型的event来存储时间差 
            设置info.add_timestamp = 1
         */
        if (unlikely(test_time_stamp(info.delta)))
            rb_handle_timestamp(cpu_buffer, &info);
    }

    /* (7.5) 继续尝试分配event空间 */
    event = __rb_reserve_next(cpu_buffer, &info);

    if (unlikely(PTR_ERR(event) == -EAGAIN)) {
        if (info.add_timestamp)
            info.length -= RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND;
        goto again;
    }

    if (!event)
        goto out_fail;

    return event;

 out_fail:
    rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
    return NULL;
}

||→

static unsigned rb_calculate_event_length(unsigned length)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event event; /* Used only for sizeof array */

    /* zero length can cause confusions */
    if (!length)
        length++;

    /* (7.2.1) 如果len大于(28<<2),需要使用array[0]来存储长度 */
    if (length > RB_MAX_SMALL_DATA || RB_FORCE_8BYTE_ALIGNMENT)
        length += sizeof(event.array[0]);

    /* (7.2.2) 增加event常规header的长度 */
    length += RB_EVNT_HDR_SIZE;
    /* (7.2.3) 默认4字节长度对齐 */
    length = ALIGN(length, RB_ARCH_ALIGNMENT);

    /*
     * In case the time delta is larger than the 27 bits for it
     * in the header, we need to add a timestamp. If another
     * event comes in when trying to discard this one to increase
     * the length, then the timestamp will be added in the allocated
     * space of this event. If length is bigger than the size needed
     * for the TIME_EXTEND, then padding has to be used. The events
     * length must be either RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND, or greater than or equal
     * to RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND + 8, as 8 is the minimum size for padding.
     * As length is a multiple of 4, we only need to worry if it
     * is 12 (RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND + 4).
     */
    if (length == RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND + RB_ALIGNMENT)
        length += RB_ALIGNMENT;

    return length;
}

||→

static struct ring_buffer_event *
__rb_reserve_next(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
          struct rb_event_info *info)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct buffer_page *tail_page;
    unsigned long tail, write;

    /*
     * If the time delta since the last event is too big to
     * hold in the time field of the event, then we append a
     * TIME EXTEND event ahead of the data event.
     */
    /* (7.5.1) 如果需要增加time extend event,增加8字节长度 */
    if (unlikely(info->add_timestamp))
        info->length += RB_LEN_TIME_EXTEND;

    /* (7.5.2) 使用原子操作,快速从tail指针中保留出需要的长度 
        这里有个异常需要处理,如果本page空间不够,需要向后找新的page,这里>BUF_PAGE_SIZE的tail指针需要回滚
     */
    tail_page = info->tail_page = cpu_buffer->tail_page;
    write = local_add_return(info->length, &tail_page->write);

    /* set write to only the index of the write */
    write &= RB_WRITE_MASK;
    tail = write - info->length;

    /*
     * If this is the first commit on the page, then it has the same
     * timestamp as the page itself.
     */
    /* (7.5.3) page中第一个event的time_delta赋值为0,
        直接使用page->time_stamp
     */
    if (!tail)
        info->delta = 0;

    /* See if we shot pass the end of this buffer page */
    /* (7.5.4) 不允许分配的空间跨越两个page, 
        如果本page的空间不足,向后寻找新的page
     */
    if (unlikely(write > BUF_PAGE_SIZE))
        return rb_move_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);

    /* We reserved something on the buffer */

    /* (7.5.5) 成功获取到event空间 */
    event = __rb_page_index(tail_page, tail);
    kmemcheck_annotate_bitfield(event, bitfield);

    /* (7.5.6) 更新ring_buffer_event中的type_len、time_delta字段 */
    rb_update_event(cpu_buffer, event, info);

    /* (7.5.7) 增加page中的event技术 */
    local_inc(&tail_page->entries);

    /*
     * If this is the first commit on the page, then update
     * its timestamp.
     */
    /* (7.5.8) 如果是page中第一个event, 
        使用event->time_stamp更新page->time_stamp
     */
    if (!tail)
        tail_page->page->time_stamp = info->ts;

    /* account for these added bytes */
    /* (7.5.9) 更新ring_buffer_per_cpu中的有效event数据计数 */
    local_add(info->length, &cpu_buffer->entries_bytes);

    return event;
}

|||→

rb_move_tail()是理解复杂无锁指针操作的核心函数,但是已经没有兴趣和心情继续仔细分析了。大的原理上已无问题,后面有需要再仔细分析吧:

static noinline struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_move_tail(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
         unsigned long tail, struct rb_event_info *info)
{
    struct buffer_page *tail_page = info->tail_page;
    struct buffer_page *commit_page = cpu_buffer->commit_page;
    struct ring_buffer *buffer = cpu_buffer->buffer;
    struct buffer_page *next_page;
    int ret;
    u64 ts;

    next_page = tail_page;

    rb_inc_page(cpu_buffer, &next_page);

    /*
     * If for some reason, we had an interrupt storm that made
     * it all the way around the buffer, bail, and warn
     * about it.
     */
    if (unlikely(next_page == commit_page)) {
        local_inc(&cpu_buffer->commit_overrun);
        goto out_reset;
    }

    /*
     * This is where the fun begins!
     *
     * We are fighting against races between a reader that
     * could be on another CPU trying to swap its reader
     * page with the buffer head.
     *
     * We are also fighting against interrupts coming in and
     * moving the head or tail on us as well.
     *
     * If the next page is the head page then we have filled
     * the buffer, unless the commit page is still on the
     * reader page.
     */
    if (rb_is_head_page(cpu_buffer, next_page, &tail_page->list)) {

        /*
         * If the commit is not on the reader page, then
         * move the header page.
         */
        if (!rb_is_reader_page(cpu_buffer->commit_page)) {
            /*
             * If we are not in overwrite mode,
             * this is easy, just stop here.
             */
            if (!(buffer->flags & RB_FL_OVERWRITE)) {
                local_inc(&cpu_buffer->dropped_events);
                goto out_reset;
            }

            ret = rb_handle_head_page(cpu_buffer,
                          tail_page,
                          next_page);
            if (ret < 0)
                goto out_reset;
            if (ret)
                goto out_again;
        } else {
            /*
             * We need to be careful here too. The
             * commit page could still be on the reader
             * page. We could have a small buffer, and
             * have filled up the buffer with events
             * from interrupts and such, and wrapped.
             *
             * Note, if the tail page is also the on the
             * reader_page, we let it move out.
             */
            if (unlikely((cpu_buffer->commit_page !=
                      cpu_buffer->tail_page) &&
                     (cpu_buffer->commit_page ==
                      cpu_buffer->reader_page))) {
                local_inc(&cpu_buffer->commit_overrun);
                goto out_reset;
            }
        }
    }

    ret = rb_tail_page_update(cpu_buffer, tail_page, next_page);
    if (ret) {
        /*
         * Nested commits always have zero deltas, so
         * just reread the time stamp
         */
        ts = rb_time_stamp(buffer);
        next_page->page->time_stamp = ts;
    }

 out_again:

    rb_reset_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);

    /* fail and let the caller try again */
    return ERR_PTR(-EAGAIN);

 out_reset:
    /* reset write */
    rb_reset_tail(cpu_buffer, tail, info);

    return NULL;
}

3.3.2、ring_buffer_unlock_commit()

int ring_buffer_unlock_commit(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
                  struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    int cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();

    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];

    rb_commit(cpu_buffer, event);

    rb_wakeups(buffer, cpu_buffer);

    trace_recursive_unlock(cpu_buffer);

    preempt_enable_notrace();

    return 0;
}

|→

static void rb_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
              struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    local_inc(&cpu_buffer->entries);
    /* (1) 只有full commit,才会更新write_stamp时间戳  */
    rb_update_write_stamp(cpu_buffer, event);
    /* (2) 只有full commit,才会更新commit指针  */
    rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);
}

||→

static void
rb_update_write_stamp(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer,
              struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    u64 delta;

    /*
     * The event first in the commit queue updates the
     * time stamp.
     */
    /* (1.1) 只有full commit才会更新write_stamp时间戳,
        中间抢占的write提交的pending commit,不会更新
     */
    if (rb_event_is_commit(cpu_buffer, event)) {
        /*
         * A commit event that is first on a page
         * updates the write timestamp with the page stamp
         */
        if (!rb_event_index(event))
            cpu_buffer->write_stamp =
                cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->time_stamp;
        else if (event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND) {
            delta = event->array[0];
            delta <<= TS_SHIFT;
            delta += event->time_delta;
            cpu_buffer->write_stamp += delta;
        } else
            cpu_buffer->write_stamp += event->time_delta;
    }
}

||→

static inline void rb_end_commit(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer)
{
    unsigned long commits;

    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer,
               !local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing)))
        return;

 again:
    commits = local_read(&cpu_buffer->commits);
    /* synchronize with interrupts */
    barrier();
    /* (2.1) 如果(committing==1),说明当前是full commit
        只有full commit才会更新commit指针,
        中间抢占的write提交的pending commit,不会更新
     */
    if (local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing) == 1)
        rb_set_commit_to_write(cpu_buffer);

    /* (2.2) 任何一次commit都会给committing减1 */
    local_dec(&cpu_buffer->committing);

    /* synchronize with interrupts */
    barrier();

    /*
     * Need to account for interrupts coming in between the
     * updating of the commit page and the clearing of the
     * committing counter.
     */
    if (unlikely(local_read(&cpu_buffer->commits) != commits) &&
        !local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing)) {
        local_inc(&cpu_buffer->committing);
        goto again;
    }
}

|||→

static void
rb_set_commit_to_write(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer)
{
    unsigned long max_count;

    /*
     * We only race with interrupts and NMIs on this CPU.
     * If we own the commit event, then we can commit
     * all others that interrupted us, since the interruptions
     * are in stack format (they finish before they come
     * back to us). This allows us to do a simple loop to
     * assign the commit to the tail.
     */
 again:
    max_count = cpu_buffer->nr_pages * 100;

    /* (2.1.1) 逐个移动commit_page直到等于tail_page 
        把每个commit_page中的commit指针设置为和write指针一致
     */
    while (cpu_buffer->commit_page != cpu_buffer->tail_page) {
        if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, !(--max_count)))
            return;
        if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer,
                   rb_is_reader_page(cpu_buffer->tail_page)))
            return;
        local_set(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit,
              rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page));
        rb_inc_page(cpu_buffer, &cpu_buffer->commit_page);
        cpu_buffer->write_stamp =
            cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->time_stamp;
        /* add barrier to keep gcc from optimizing too much */
        barrier();
    }

    /* (2.1.2) 把最后一个commit_page中的commit指针设置为和write指针一致 */
    while (rb_commit_index(cpu_buffer) !=
           rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page)) {

        local_set(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit,
              rb_page_write(cpu_buffer->commit_page));
        RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer,
               local_read(&cpu_buffer->commit_page->page->commit) &
               ~RB_WRITE_MASK);
        barrier();
    }

    /* again, keep gcc from optimizing */
    barrier();

    /*
     * If an interrupt came in just after the first while loop
     * and pushed the tail page forward, we will be left with
     * a dangling commit that will never go forward.
     */
    if (unlikely(cpu_buffer->commit_page != cpu_buffer->tail_page))
        goto again;
}

3.3.3、ring_buffer_discard_commit()

如果不需要分配的空间了,需要明确做丢弃操作。

void ring_buffer_discard_commit(struct ring_buffer *buffer,
                struct ring_buffer_event *event)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    int cpu;

    /* The event is discarded regardless */
    /* (1) 将event中的数据type设置为padding */
    rb_event_discard(event);

    cpu = smp_processor_id();
    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];

    /*
     * This must only be called if the event has not been
     * committed yet. Thus we can assume that preemption
     * is still disabled.
     */
    RB_WARN_ON(buffer, !local_read(&cpu_buffer->committing));

    /* (2) 如果tail指针还没有被新用户使用,尝试回滚tail指针来进行丢弃, 
        这种方法可以节约空间
     */
    rb_decrement_entry(cpu_buffer, event);
    if (rb_try_to_discard(cpu_buffer, event))
        goto out;

    /*
     * The commit is still visible by the reader, so we
     * must still update the timestamp.
     */
    /* (3) 只有full commit,才会更新write_stamp时间戳  */
    rb_update_write_stamp(cpu_buffer, event);
 out:
    /* (4) 只有full commit,才会更新commit指针  */
    rb_end_commit(cpu_buffer);

    trace_recursive_unlock(cpu_buffer);

    preempt_enable_notrace();

}

4、ringbuffer的读操作

ringbuffer支持两种形式的读操作:

  • iterator读。这个时候会把写入操作关闭,且iterator读不会破坏ringbuffer中原有的内容,重复多次读取内容还在。这个典型的例子就是”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace”文件,我们多次“cat trace”文件来读取trace,内容保持不变。这种方式的缺点也是显而易见的,会disable写入操作,只适合trace完成后,一次性读出所有trace信息;
  • reader_page swap读。在ring buffer的设计原理中,多次看到reader_page的swap操作。这个读方式本质上是为了让ring buffer的读写能够同步进行,互不阻塞,但是缺点就是读完会破坏原有buffer中的内容。这个典型的例子就是”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe”,监控程序可以在抓取trace时并行的来读取ringbuffer中的数据;

关于这部分的原理也可以参考ring buffer 读 这一节。

4.1、iterator读

参考”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace”文件的读操作:

    trace_create_file("trace", 0644, d_tracer,
              tr, &tracing_fops);

static const struct file_operations tracing_fops = {
    .open       = tracing_open,
    .read       = seq_read,
    .write      = tracing_write_stub,
    .llseek     = tracing_lseek,
    .release    = tracing_release,
};

/* (1) 初始化iterator控制结构 */
static int tracing_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{

    /* (1.1) 分配iter */
    iter = __seq_open_private(file, &tracer_seq_ops, sizeof(*iter));
    if (!iter)
        return ERR_PTR(-ENOMEM);

    /* (1.2) 给每个cpu的ring_buffer_per_cpu分配对应的ring_buffer_iter */
    iter->buffer_iter = kcalloc(nr_cpu_ids, sizeof(*iter->buffer_iter),
                    GFP_KERNEL);

    /* (1.3) 初始化ring_buffer_iter */
    if (iter->cpu_file == RING_BUFFER_ALL_CPUS) {
        for_each_tracing_cpu(cpu) {
            iter->buffer_iter[cpu] =
                ring_buffer_read_prepare(iter->trace_buffer->buffer, cpu);
        }
        ring_buffer_read_prepare_sync();
        for_each_tracing_cpu(cpu) {
            ring_buffer_read_start(iter->buffer_iter[cpu]);
            tracing_iter_reset(iter, cpu);
        }
    } else {
        cpu = iter->cpu_file;
        iter->buffer_iter[cpu] =
            ring_buffer_read_prepare(iter->trace_buffer->buffer, cpu);
        ring_buffer_read_prepare_sync();
        ring_buffer_read_start(iter->buffer_iter[cpu]);
        tracing_iter_reset(iter, cpu);
    }


}

/* (2) 从ringbuffer中读取数据,解析到trace文件中 */
ssize_t seq_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf, size_t size, loff_t *ppos)
{

    Fill:
    /* they want more? let's try to get some more */
    while (m->count < size) {
        size_t offs = m->count;
        loff_t next = pos;

        /* (2.1) seq的next 操作 */
        p = m->op->next(m, p, &next);
        if (!p || IS_ERR(p)) {
            err = PTR_ERR(p);
            break;
        }

        /* (2.2) seq的show 操作 */
        err = m->op->show(m, p);
        if (seq_has_overflowed(m) || err) {
            m->count = offs;
            if (likely(err <= 0))
                break;
        }
        pos = next;
    }
}

next()函数最后调用到:

static const struct seq_operations tracer_seq_ops = {
    .start      = s_start,
    .next       = s_next,
    .stop       = s_stop,
    .show       = s_show,
};

static void *s_next(struct seq_file *m, void *v, loff_t *pos)
{
    struct trace_iterator *iter = m->private;
    int i = (int)*pos;
    void *ent;

    WARN_ON_ONCE(iter->leftover);

    (*pos)++;

    /* can't go backwards */
    if (iter->idx > i)
        return NULL;

    if (iter->idx < 0)
        ent = trace_find_next_entry_inc(iter);
    else
        ent = iter;

    while (ent && iter->idx < i)
        ent = trace_find_next_entry_inc(iter);

    iter->pos = *pos;

    return ent;
}

|→

void *trace_find_next_entry_inc(struct trace_iterator *iter)
{
    /* 读出下一个时间戳的event */
    iter->ent = __find_next_entry(iter, &iter->cpu,
                      &iter->lost_events, &iter->ts);

    /* 确认对event的使用:
        使用rb_advance_iter()向前移动ring_buffer_iter的读指针 
     */
    if (iter->ent)
        trace_iterator_increment(iter);

    return iter->ent ? iter : NULL;
}

||→

static struct trace_entry *
__find_next_entry(struct trace_iterator *iter, int *ent_cpu,
          unsigned long *missing_events, u64 *ent_ts)
{
    struct ring_buffer *buffer = iter->trace_buffer->buffer;
    struct trace_entry *ent, *next = NULL;
    unsigned long lost_events = 0, next_lost = 0;
    int cpu_file = iter->cpu_file;
    u64 next_ts = 0, ts;
    int next_cpu = -1;
    int next_size = 0;
    int cpu;

    /*
     * If we are in a per_cpu trace file, don't bother by iterating over
     * all cpu and peek directly.
     */
    if (cpu_file > RING_BUFFER_ALL_CPUS) {
        if (ring_buffer_empty_cpu(buffer, cpu_file))
            return NULL;
        ent = peek_next_entry(iter, cpu_file, ent_ts, missing_events);
        if (ent_cpu)
            *ent_cpu = cpu_file;

        return ent;
    }

    for_each_tracing_cpu(cpu) {

        if (ring_buffer_empty_cpu(buffer, cpu))
            continue;

        /* (1) 根据iter指示从ringbuffer中读出一条event, 
            如果iter使用了per cpu的ring_buffer_iter,则使用iterator读方式
            否则,使用全局的reader_page swap式的读方式
         */
        ent = peek_next_entry(iter, cpu, &ts, &lost_events);

        /*
         * Pick the entry with the smallest timestamp:
         */
        /* (2) 多cpu的ring_buffer_per_cpu,怎么做时间戳同步?
            每个cpu的buffer,读取一条event的,选取时间戳最小的那条event返回
         */
        if (ent && (!next || ts < next_ts)) {
            next = ent;
            next_cpu = cpu;
            next_ts = ts;
            next_lost = lost_events;
            next_size = iter->ent_size;
        }
    }

    iter->ent_size = next_size;

    if (ent_cpu)
        *ent_cpu = next_cpu;

    if (ent_ts)
        *ent_ts = next_ts;

    if (missing_events)
        *missing_events = next_lost;

    return next;
}

|||→

static struct trace_entry *
peek_next_entry(struct trace_iterator *iter, int cpu, u64 *ts,
        unsigned long *lost_events)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct ring_buffer_iter *buf_iter = trace_buffer_iter(iter, cpu);

    /* (2.1) 如果定义了ring_buffer_iter,则使用iterator读 */
    if (buf_iter)
        event = ring_buffer_iter_peek(buf_iter, ts);
    /* (2.2) 如果没有定义ring_buffer_iter,则使用reader_page swap读 */
    else
        event = ring_buffer_peek(iter->trace_buffer->buffer, cpu, ts,
                     lost_events);

    if (event) {
        iter->ent_size = ring_buffer_event_length(event);
        return ring_buffer_event_data(event);
    }
    iter->ent_size = 0;
    return NULL;
}

||||→

struct ring_buffer_event *
ring_buffer_iter_peek(struct ring_buffer_iter *iter, u64 *ts)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer = iter->cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    unsigned long flags;

 again:
    raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock, flags);
    event = rb_iter_peek(iter, ts);
    raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&cpu_buffer->reader_lock, flags);

    if (event && event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING)
        goto again;

    return event;
}

static struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_iter_peek(struct ring_buffer_iter *iter, u64 *ts)
{
    struct ring_buffer *buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    int nr_loops = 0;

    cpu_buffer = iter->cpu_buffer;
    buffer = cpu_buffer->buffer;

    /*
     * Check if someone performed a consuming read to
     * the buffer. A consuming read invalidates the iterator
     * and we need to reset the iterator in this case.
     */
    if (unlikely(iter->cache_read != cpu_buffer->read ||
             iter->cache_reader_page != cpu_buffer->reader_page))
        rb_iter_reset(iter);

 again:
    if (ring_buffer_iter_empty(iter))
        return NULL;

    /*
     * We repeat when a time extend is encountered or we hit
     * the end of the page. Since the time extend is always attached
     * to a data event, we should never loop more than three times.
     * Once for going to next page, once on time extend, and
     * finally once to get the event.
     * (We never hit the following condition more than thrice).
     */
    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 3))
        return NULL;

    if (rb_per_cpu_empty(cpu_buffer))
        return NULL;

    /* (2.1.1) 如果ring_buffer_iter中的head指针已经大于commit指针,
        向后移动head_page指针
     */
    if (iter->head >= rb_page_size(iter->head_page)) {
        rb_inc_iter(iter);
        goto again;
    }

    /* (2.1.2) 根据ring_buffer_iter中的head和head_page指针, 
        读取event数据
     */
    event = rb_iter_head_event(iter);

    /* (2.1.3) 根据读出event的type,对不是data的event进行处理 */
    switch (event->type_len) {
    case RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING:
        if (rb_null_event(event)) {
            rb_inc_iter(iter);
            goto again;
        }
        rb_advance_iter(iter);
        return event;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND:
        /* Internal data, OK to advance */
        rb_advance_iter(iter);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP:
        /* FIXME: not implemented */
        rb_advance_iter(iter);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA:
        if (ts) {
            *ts = iter->read_stamp + event->time_delta;
            ring_buffer_normalize_time_stamp(buffer,
                             cpu_buffer->cpu, ts);
        }
        return event;

    default:
        BUG();
    }

    return NULL;
}

show()函数最后调用到:

static int s_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
{
    struct trace_iterator *iter = v;
    int ret;

    if (iter->ent == NULL) {
        if (iter->tr) {
            seq_printf(m, "# tracer: %s\n", iter->trace->name);
            seq_puts(m, "#\n");
            test_ftrace_alive(m);
        }
        if (iter->snapshot && trace_empty(iter))
            print_snapshot_help(m, iter);
        else if (iter->trace && iter->trace->print_header)
            iter->trace->print_header(m);
        else
            trace_default_header(m);

    } else if (iter->leftover) {
        /*
         * If we filled the seq_file buffer earlier, we
         * want to just show it now.
         */
        ret = trace_print_seq(m, &iter->seq);

        /* ret should this time be zero, but you never know */
        iter->leftover = ret;

    } else {
        /* (1) 根据ent中数据的type,找到对应的格式化函数
            把ringbuffer原始数据格式化成方便用户理解的字符串
            存储在临时变量iter->seq中
         */
        print_trace_line(iter);
        /* (2) 把iter->seq中的字符串,打印到实际的文件buffer中 */
        ret = trace_print_seq(m, &iter->seq);
        /*
         * If we overflow the seq_file buffer, then it will
         * ask us for this data again at start up.
         * Use that instead.
         *  ret is 0 if seq_file write succeeded.
         *        -1 otherwise.
         */
        iter->leftover = ret;
    }

    return 0;
}

|→

enum print_line_t print_trace_line(struct trace_iterator *iter)
{
    struct trace_array *tr = iter->tr;
    unsigned long trace_flags = tr->trace_flags;
    enum print_line_t ret;

    if (iter->lost_events) {
        trace_seq_printf(&iter->seq, "CPU:%d [LOST %lu EVENTS]\n",
                 iter->cpu, iter->lost_events);
        if (trace_seq_has_overflowed(&iter->seq))
            return TRACE_TYPE_PARTIAL_LINE;
    }

    if (iter->trace && iter->trace->print_line) {
        ret = iter->trace->print_line(iter);
        if (ret != TRACE_TYPE_UNHANDLED)
            return ret;
    }

    /* (1.1) 几种系统预制的ent->type,对应的格式化函数 */
    if (iter->ent->type == TRACE_BPUTS &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK_MSGONLY)
        return trace_print_bputs_msg_only(iter);

    if (iter->ent->type == TRACE_BPRINT &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK_MSGONLY)
        return trace_print_bprintk_msg_only(iter);

    if (iter->ent->type == TRACE_PRINT &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK &&
            trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_PRINTK_MSGONLY)
        return trace_print_printk_msg_only(iter);

    if (trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_BIN)
        return print_bin_fmt(iter);

    if (trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_HEX)
        return print_hex_fmt(iter);

    if (trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_RAW)
        return print_raw_fmt(iter);

    /* (1.2) 用户自定义的ent->type,对应的格式化函数 */
    return print_trace_fmt(iter);
}

||→

static enum print_line_t print_trace_fmt(struct trace_iterator *iter)
{
    struct trace_array *tr = iter->tr;
    struct trace_seq *s = &iter->seq;
    unsigned long sym_flags = (tr->trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_SYM_MASK);
    struct trace_entry *entry;
    struct trace_event *event;

    entry = iter->ent;

    test_cpu_buff_start(iter);

    /* (1.2.1) 根据ent->type,找到对应的trace_entry */
    event = ftrace_find_event(entry->type);

    if (tr->trace_flags & TRACE_ITER_CONTEXT_INFO) {
        if (iter->iter_flags & TRACE_FILE_LAT_FMT)
            trace_print_lat_context(iter);
        else
            trace_print_context(iter);
    }

    if (trace_seq_has_overflowed(s))
        return TRACE_TYPE_PARTIAL_LINE;

    /* (1.2.2) 调用trace_entry->funcs->trace函数进行数据格式化 */
    if (event)
        return event->funcs->trace(iter, sym_flags, event);

    trace_seq_printf(s, "Unknown type %d\n", entry->type);

    return trace_handle_return(s);
}

4.2、reader_page swap读

参考”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe”文件的读操作:

    trace_create_file("trace_pipe", 0444, d_tracer,
              tr, &tracing_pipe_fops);

static const struct file_operations tracing_pipe_fops = {
    .open       = tracing_open_pipe,
    .poll       = tracing_poll_pipe,
    .read       = tracing_read_pipe,
    .splice_read    = tracing_splice_read_pipe,
    .release    = tracing_release_pipe,
    .llseek     = no_llseek,
};

/* (1) 和tracing_open最大的区别就是在open中没有定义percpu的ring_buffer_iter,
    所以它在后续的读操作中,不会使用iterator读,而是使用reader_page swap读
 */
static int tracing_open_pipe(struct inode *inode, struct file *filp)
{

    /* create a buffer to store the information to pass to userspace */
    iter = kzalloc(sizeof(*iter), GFP_KERNEL);
    if (!iter) {
        ret = -ENOMEM;
        __trace_array_put(tr);
        goto out;
    }

}

/* (2) trace_pipe文件的读操作 */
static ssize_t
tracing_read_pipe(struct file *filp, char __user *ubuf,
          size_t cnt, loff_t *ppos)
{
    struct trace_iterator *iter = filp->private_data;
    ssize_t sret;

    /* return any leftover data */
    sret = trace_seq_to_user(&iter->seq, ubuf, cnt);
    if (sret != -EBUSY)
        return sret;

    trace_seq_init(&iter->seq);

    /*
     * Avoid more than one consumer on a single file descriptor
     * This is just a matter of traces coherency, the ring buffer itself
     * is protected.
     */
    mutex_lock(&iter->mutex);
    if (iter->trace->read) {
        sret = iter->trace->read(iter, filp, ubuf, cnt, ppos);
        if (sret)
            goto out;
    }

waitagain:
    sret = tracing_wait_pipe(filp);
    if (sret <= 0)
        goto out;

    /* stop when tracing is finished */
    if (trace_empty(iter)) {
        sret = 0;
        goto out;
    }

    if (cnt >= PAGE_SIZE)
        cnt = PAGE_SIZE - 1;

    /* reset all but tr, trace, and overruns */
    memset(&iter->seq, 0,
           sizeof(struct trace_iterator) -
           offsetof(struct trace_iterator, seq));
    cpumask_clear(iter->started);
    iter->pos = -1;

    trace_event_read_lock();
    trace_access_lock(iter->cpu_file);
    /* (2.1) 使用reader_page swap读,读出下一个event */
    while (trace_find_next_entry_inc(iter) != NULL) {
        enum print_line_t ret;
        int save_len = iter->seq.seq.len;

        /* (2.2) 根据ent中数据的type,找到对应的格式化函数
            把ringbuffer原始数据格式化成方便用户理解的字符串
            存储在临时变量iter->seq中
         */ 
        ret = print_trace_line(iter);
        if (ret == TRACE_TYPE_PARTIAL_LINE) {
            /* don't print partial lines */
            iter->seq.seq.len = save_len;
            break;
        }

        /* (2.3) 对event数据读取进行确认,
            增加对应reader_page->read、reader_page指针
         */
        if (ret != TRACE_TYPE_NO_CONSUME)
            trace_consume(iter);

        /* (2.4) 如果iter->seq中的数据长度已经满足,退出循环 */
        if (trace_seq_used(&iter->seq) >= cnt)
            break;

        /*
         * Setting the full flag means we reached the trace_seq buffer
         * size and we should leave by partial output condition above.
         * One of the trace_seq_* functions is not used properly.
         */
        WARN_ONCE(iter->seq.full, "full flag set for trace type %d",
              iter->ent->type);
    }
    trace_access_unlock(iter->cpu_file);
    trace_event_read_unlock();

    /* Now copy what we have to the user */
    /* (2.5) 拷贝iter->seq中的字符串数据到文件buffer中 */
    sret = trace_seq_to_user(&iter->seq, ubuf, cnt);
    if (iter->seq.seq.readpos >= trace_seq_used(&iter->seq))
        trace_seq_init(&iter->seq);

    /*
     * If there was nothing to send to user, in spite of consuming trace
     * entries, go back to wait for more entries.
     */
    if (sret == -EBUSY)
        goto waitagain;

out:
    mutex_unlock(&iter->mutex);

    return sret;
}

|→

trace_find_next_entry_inc() -> __find_next_entry() -> peek_next_entry() -> ring_buffer_peek() -> rb_buffer_peek():

static struct ring_buffer_event *
rb_buffer_peek(struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer, u64 *ts,
           unsigned long *lost_events)
{
    struct ring_buffer_event *event;
    struct buffer_page *reader;
    int nr_loops = 0;

 again:
    /*
     * We repeat when a time extend is encountered.
     * Since the time extend is always attached to a data event,
     * we should never loop more than once.
     * (We never hit the following condition more than twice).
     */
    if (RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, ++nr_loops > 2))
        return NULL;

    /* (2.2.1) swap出最新的reader_page */
    reader = rb_get_reader_page(cpu_buffer);
    if (!reader)
        return NULL;

    /* (2.2.2) 根据reader_page和reader_page->read指针,得到最新的event */
    event = rb_reader_event(cpu_buffer);

    /* (2.2.3) 对不是data的event进行处理 */
    switch (event->type_len) {
    case RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING:
        if (rb_null_event(event))
            RB_WARN_ON(cpu_buffer, 1);
        /*
         * Because the writer could be discarding every
         * event it creates (which would probably be bad)
         * if we were to go back to "again" then we may never
         * catch up, and will trigger the warn on, or lock
         * the box. Return the padding, and we will release
         * the current locks, and try again.
         */
        return event;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_EXTEND:
        /* Internal data, OK to advance */
        rb_advance_reader(cpu_buffer);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_TIME_STAMP:
        /* FIXME: not implemented */
        rb_advance_reader(cpu_buffer);
        goto again;

    case RINGBUF_TYPE_DATA:
        if (ts) {
            *ts = cpu_buffer->read_stamp + event->time_delta;
            ring_buffer_normalize_time_stamp(cpu_buffer->buffer,
                             cpu_buffer->cpu, ts);
        }
        if (lost_events)
            *lost_events = rb_lost_events(cpu_buffer);
        return event;

    default:
        BUG();
    }

    return NULL;
}

|→

trace_consume() -> ring_buffer_consume():

struct ring_buffer_event *
ring_buffer_consume(struct ring_buffer *buffer, int cpu, u64 *ts,
            unsigned long *lost_events)
{
    struct ring_buffer_per_cpu *cpu_buffer;
    struct ring_buffer_event *event = NULL;
    unsigned long flags;
    bool dolock;

 again:
    /* might be called in atomic */
    preempt_disable();

    if (!cpumask_test_cpu(cpu, buffer->cpumask))
        goto out;

    cpu_buffer = buffer->buffers[cpu];
    local_irq_save(flags);
    dolock = rb_reader_lock(cpu_buffer);

    event = rb_buffer_peek(cpu_buffer, ts, lost_events);
    if (event) {
        cpu_buffer->lost_events = 0;
        /* (2.3.1) 增加reader->read指针 */
        rb_advance_reader(cpu_buffer);
    }

    rb_reader_unlock(cpu_buffer, dolock);
    local_irq_restore(flags);

 out:
    preempt_enable();

    if (event && event->type_len == RINGBUF_TYPE_PADDING)
        goto again;

    return event;
}

5、ringbuffer的设计思想

面临的最大问题:

  • ring buffer可能在不同上下文中执行(Normal、NMI、IRQ、SOFTIRQ),对ring buffer的访问是随时可能被打断的,所以对ring buffer的访问需要互斥保护
  • ring buffer不能使用常规的lock操作,这样会使不同的上下文之间出现大量的阻塞操作,新增了相互之间的耦合、影响了程序原来的逻辑、影响了性能

最终这个设计使用了一系列的技巧解决了这个问题:原子操作、commit page、RB_PAGE_HEAD、reader_page、重试。这些才是整个ring buffer思想的精华所在

5.1、术语

术语
术语 Description 解释
tail where new writes happen in the ring buffer. ring buffer中下一个写操作的位置
head where new reads happen in the ring buffer. ring buffer中下一个读操作的位置
producer the task that writes into the ring buffer (same as writer) 生产者:写入数据到ring buffer的任务
writer same as producer 写入者,同生产者
consumer the task that reads from the buffer (same as reader) 消费者:读出ring buffer中数据的任务
reader same as consumer. 读取者,同消费者
reader_page A page outside the ring buffer used solely (for the most part) by the reader. 在ring buffer外部的一个单独的page,专门给reader使用的
head_page a pointer to the page that the reader will use next 指针,指向reader下一个将要使用的page
tail_page a pointer to the page that will be written to next 指针,指向下一个将要被写入的page
commit_page a pointer to the page with the last finished non-nested write. 指针,指向最后一个完成的非嵌套写的位置
cmpxchg hardware-assisted atomic transaction that performs the following:

A = B iff previous A == C
R = cmpxchg(A, C, B) is saying that we replace A with B if and only if current A is equal to C, and we put the old (current) A into R
R gets the previous A regardless if A is updated with B or not.
To see if the update was successful a compare of R == C may be used.
硬件辅助的原子组合操作:

R = cmpxchg(A, C, B)。如果A=C,则A=B;同时R获得A上一次的值,无关前面A=C条件是否成功。所以判断操作是否成功,需要判断(R == C)?

5.2 ring buffer的基本概念

1、工作模式

ring buffer可以工作在overwrite模式或者producer/consumer模式:

  • Producer/consumer模式。在producer已经把ring buffer空间写满的情况下,如果没有consumer来读数据free空间,producer会停止写入丢弃新的数据;
  • Overwrite模式。在producer已经把ring buffer空间写满的情况下,如果没有consumer来读数据free空间,producer会覆盖写入,最老的数据会被覆盖;

2、写操作

在同一个per-cpu buffer上,不能同时有两个写入者在进行写操作。但是允许高优先级的写入者中断低优先级的写入者,在返回低优先级之前高优先级写入者必须finish自己的写操作。类似下面例子的“stack写”、“嵌套写操作”。
在实际的环境中就是:普通写操作被IRQ写中断、IRQ写被NMI写中断。

  writer1 start
     <preempted> writer2 start
         <preempted> writer3 start
                     writer3 finishes
                 writer2 finishes
  writer1 finishes

3、读操作

  • 读操作随时可以发生,但是同一时刻只有一个reader在工作,这其中使用了互斥操作。
  • 读操作和写操作会同时发生:本cpu写入对应的per-cpu buffer,其他cpu可以同时读取这个cpu的bbbuffer;
  • 读操作不会中断写操作,但是写操作会中断读操作;
  • 支持两种模式的读操作:简易读,也叫iterator读,在读取时会关闭写入,且读完不会破坏数据可以重复读取,实例见”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace”;并行读,也叫custom读,常用于监控程序实时的进行并行读,其利用了一个reader page交换出ring buffer中的head page,避免了读写的相互阻塞,实例见”/sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe”;

3.1、reader page的swap:

为了支持并行读,需要使用reader_page交换出head_page。交换过程非常简单易懂,如下图:

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |
  +------+
                  +---+   +---+   +---+
                  |   |-->|   |-->|   |
                  |   |<--|   |<--|   |
                  +---+   +---+   +---+
                   ^ |             ^ |
                   | +-------------+ |
                   +-----------------+


  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------------------+
  +------+                   v
    |             +---+   +---+   +---+
    |             |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |             |   |<--|   |<--|   |<-+
    |             +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |              ^ |             ^ |   |
    |              | +-------------+ |   |
    |              +-----------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------------------+
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |  |          |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  |          +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |             |             ^ |   |
    |  |             +-------------+ |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

  +------+
  |buffer|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------------------+
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |   |   |-->|   |
    |  |  New     |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  | Reader   +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |  page ----^                 |   |
    |  |                             |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

reader_page swap的一种极端情况:把commit_page和tail_page交换到了reader_page,这种情况不会出现异常,因为reader_page的next指针任然指向ring buffer中的下一个page。如下图:

          reader page    commit page   tail page
              |              |             |
              v              |             |
             +---+           |             |
             |   |<----------+             |
             |   |<------------------------+
             |   |------+
             +---+      |
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

4、ring buffer的主要指针

  • reader page - The page used solely by the reader and is not part of the ring buffer (may be swapped in)
  • head page - the next page in the ring buffer that will be swapped with the reader page.
  • tail page - the page where the next write will take place.
  • commit page - the page that last finished a write.

4.1、commit page

commit page指针只能被“stack写”/“嵌套写”最外层的写入者更新,抢占其他人的写入者不能移动commit page指针。

这个机制也是ringbuffer的核心机制,实现了写入的免锁:

  • 在writer需要分配空间的时候,迅速的用原子操作移动tail指针,迅速的保留出空间。这样就算被高优先级的writer抢占,在操作这块空间的时候也不需要持锁,因为writer的空间都是独立的;
  • 使用最外层的writer来commit空间,如果最外层的writer都已经得到操作权限,说明所有高优先级的writer都已经操作完成。commit完成后,这部分空间就可以给reader读取了;
  • 如果需要丢弃空间,可以设置相应的标志,还是同样的commit,在读取过程中判断有丢弃标志则进行丢弃;

普通的写操作:

   Write reserve:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--- given back to writer (current commit)
      |reserved |
      +---------+ <--- tail pointer
      | empty   |
      +---------+

   Write commit:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--- next position for write (current commit)
      | empty   |
      +---------+

被抢占的读操作:

抢占者的commit会成为pending commit,只有所有writer数据都写完的commit才是last full commit。

 If a write happens after the first reserve:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <-- current commit
      |reserved |
      +---------+  <--- given back to second writer
      |reserved |
      +---------+ <--- tail pointer

  After second writer commits:


       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--(last full commit)
      |reserved |
      +---------+
      |pending  |
      |commit   |
      +---------+ <--- tail pointer

  When the first writer commits:

       Buffer page
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+
      |written  |
      +---------+  <--(last full commit and tail pointer)

4.2、指针的顺序

通常情况下,几种指针的顺序如下:head page、commit page、tail page。如下图:

                             tail page
  head page         commit page  |
      |                 |        |
      v                 v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

tail page一直前于等于commit page,如果tail page环绕快赶上了commit page,ring buffer不能再写入任何数据了,因为没有commit的数据在任何模式下都不能overwrite,这样会引起write的逻辑混乱。

有一种特殊的情况会打断这种顺序,head page会跑到commit page、tail page之后。如下图:

          reader page    commit page   tail page
              |              |             |
              v              |             |
             +---+           |             |
             |   |<----------+             |
             |   |<------------------------+
             |   |------+
             +---+      |
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                        ^
                        |
                    head page

这是并行读时,使用reader page交换出了commit page、tail page。在这种情况下,head page指针不能移动,直到commit page、tail page指针移动回到ring buffer的page当中。同样如果commit指针在reader page中,不能swap出当前reader_page到ring buffer中。

4.3、overwrite时的指针操作

  • tail指针不能overwrite commit指针,因为commit处在写入的中间状态,强行overwrite会发生不可预料的结果;
  • 但是tail指针可以overwrite head指针,因为是已经写入完成的数据,只是丢弃掉一些不被读取;
  • tail指针会push head指针指向下一个page,然后再移动tail指针;

overwrite的过程如下:

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                        ^
                        |
                    head page


            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                                 ^
                                 |
                             head page


                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
                                 ^
                                 |
                             head page

5.3 ring buffer无锁机制的实现

任何读操作都会get一系列的锁,确保操作串行;写操作都是无锁操作,写入ring buffer。所有我们在设计机制的时候,只需要考虑“单个读取者”+“多个嵌套写入者”的场景。

在这种设定下,无锁互斥机制包含几部分:

  • “嵌套write”时的无锁机制。这个在上节中已经介绍,使用commit指针来解决;(writer)
  • reader_page swap时的无锁机制。基本概念在上一节介绍,本节再详细介绍一下过程;(reader)
  • overwrite操作时的无锁机制。上节已经介绍,如果tail指针要赶上head指针了将要进行overwrite,写入者push head指针向前操作;(writer)

1、overwrite操作的无锁

为了支持这个机制,设计者特意制定了两个标志位:

  • HEADER - the page being pointed to is a head page
  • UPDATE - the page being pointed to is being updated by a writer and was or is about to be a head page.

这两个标志,使用指向head page的上一个page的->next指针的低两bit来存放。“H”和“U”标志是互斥的不会同时置位。

普通overwrite操作时,是这样来操作“H”和“U”标志的:

// step 1: writer判断tail指针已经接近head指针,首先使用原子操作将“H”标志变成“U”标志。
//          在这种情况下,reader也不能交换出ringbuffer的head page,直到writer完成移动操作

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 2: 移动head指针,将指向下一个page的指针“H”标志置位

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 3: 清除掉旧指针中的“U”标志

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 4: 移动tail指针

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

1.1 commit禁止overwrite

如果某个抢占式writer的优先级过高,一直写入,造成了tail指针赶上了commit指针。如下图:

          reader page    commit page
              |              |
              v              |
             +---+           |
             |   |<----------+
             |   |
             |   |------+
             +---+      |
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
               ^
               |
           tail page

这个时候唯一要做的就是:等待。不能overwrite,只能丢弃掉最新的write数据。

同理,如果reader_page中包含commit page,也不能swap出去,只能等待。

1.2、“overwrite” + “2 Nested write”

处理的过程如下:

// step 1: (first writer)改动标志“H”成“U”

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 2: (second writer)设置新的head page的“H”标志,移动tail指针

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 3: (backto first writer)清除旧指针中的“U”标志

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

1.3、“overwrite” + “3 Nested write”

处理的过程如下:

// step 1: (first writer)改动标志“H”成“U”

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-H->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

            tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 2: (second writer)

           tail page
               |
               v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 3: (third writer)

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-U->|   |--->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-U->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                    tail page
                        |
                        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+


                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 4: (backto second writer)

                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

// step 5: (backto first writer)

                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

                             tail page
                                 |
                                 v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+


               A        B    tail page
               |        |        |
               v        v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |-H->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

               A        B    tail page
               |        |        |
               v        v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |-U->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

               A        B    tail page
               |        |        |
               v        v        v
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
<---|   |--->|   |--->|   |--->|   |-H->
--->|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---|   |<---
    +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+

2、reader_page swap时的无锁

综合“H”、“U”标志,来看看swap时的无锁是怎么实现的。如下图:

// step 1: 初始状态

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |
  +------+
                  +---+    +---+    +---+
                  |   |--->|   |--->|   |
                  |   |<---|   |<---|   |
                  +---+    +---+    +---+
                   ^ |               ^ |
                   | +---------------+ |
                   +-----H-------------+

// step 2: 将reader page的next指针指向head page的下一个page


  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+
  +------+                   v
    |             +---+    +---+    +---+
    |             |   |--->|   |--->|   |
    |             |   |<---|   |<---|   |<-+
    |             +---+    +---+    +---+  |
    |              ^ |               ^ |   |
    |              | +---------------+ |   |
    |              +-----H-------------+   |
    +--------------------------------------+

// step 3: 这一步是免锁的关键,将header page上一page的next指针原子操作换成指向reader page
//          这样reader page已经连接进ring buffer,和前head page swap

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+
  +------+                   v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |  |          |   |<--|   |<--|   |<-+
    |  |          +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |             |             ^ |   |
    |  |             +-------------+ |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

// step 4: 将新head page的pre指针指向reader page

  +------+
  |reader|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |-->|   |-->|   |
    |  |          |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  |          +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |             |             ^ |   |
    |  |             +-------------+ |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

  +------+
  |buffer|          RING BUFFER
  |page  |-------H-----------+  <--- New head page
  +------+ <---------------+ v
    |  ^          +---+   +---+   +---+
    |  |          |   |   |   |-->|   |
    |  |  New     |   |   |   |<--|   |<-+
    |  | Reader   +---+   +---+   +---+  |
    |  |  page ----^                 |   |
    |  |                             |   |
    |  +-----------------------------+   |
    +------------------------------------+

2.1、判断page是否为reader page的方法

因为reader page被swap出来以后,本身的next、pre指针还指向原ring buffer中的page,但是这些page的指针已经不指向reader page了。

判断page->pre ->next是否还等于自己,如果不等于page为reader page。

             +--------+
             | reader |  next   +----+
             |  page  |-------->|    |<====== (buffer page)
             +--------+         +----+
                 |                | ^
                 |                v | next
            prev |              +----+
                 +------------->|    |
                                +----+

参考资料:

1、Linux内核跟踪之ring buffer的实现

2、Lockless Ring Buffer Design

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