用户交互设计经典10个原则

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10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design

by JAKOB NIELSEN on January 1, 1995

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Summary: Jakob Nielsen’s 10 general principles for interaction design. They are called “heuristics” because they are broad rules of thumb and not specific usability guidelines.

概述:Jakob Nielsen 的10个普通的交互设计原则。这些原则之所以成为“启发式”,是因为它们是良好的宽泛的规则,而不是特别的实用指导方针。

1.系统状态可视化(及时反馈

Visibility of system status
The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.
系统应该通过在有意义的时刻做恰当的反馈,让用户总是能了解到将要发生什么。

2.使系统符合真实的世界(贴切环境

Match between system and the real world
The system should speak the users’ language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.
系统应该说用户的语言,比如用户熟悉的单词、段落还有概念,而不是面向系统的术语。遵从真实世界的约定,可以让信息自然地和有逻辑顺序地出现。

3.用户可操纵性和自由性(有撤回的操作)

User control and freedom
Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked “emergency exit” to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.
用户经常选择了错误的系统功能,此时需要一个明确的“紧急退出”标记,让用户离开不想要的结果,而不是需要通过一个延伸出来的对话来离开。系统应该设有撤消和重做。

4.一致性和标准

Consistency and standards
Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.
用户应该不必考虑是否不同的单词、情况或者动作代表的是同一种意思。系统应该组从平台的约定。

5.错误预防

Error prevention
Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.
在问题刚出现时就阻止它,这样的细心设计,比出现问题后给予良好的错误信息提示的设计更好。淘汰掉有出错导向的条件或是在提交前设置确认操作等,防止用户出错。

6.识别比回忆好(做提示)

Recognition rather than recall
Minimize the user’s memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.
尽可能减少用户在做一些事情、动作和选项时候的回忆负担。不应该让用户从一个对话跳转到另一个对话的时候记住任何信息。无论在什么时候,系统中,用户所用的指令应该是看得见的,或者是容易检索的。

7.灵活性和使用的高效性

Flexibility and efficiency of use
Accelerators – unseen by the novice user – may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.
快捷键 – 新手用户不了解 – 经常会加速熟练用户的操作,以致于系统可以迎合有经验和无经验的用户。允许用户定制频繁的操作。

8.美观且简洁的设计

Aesthetic and minimalist design
Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.
对话不应该包含不相关的或者不常用的信息。任何一个对话中的额外信息会严重影响对话中相关的信息并降低这些相关信息的可见性。

9.帮助用户辨认、诊断和纠正错误

Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.
表达错误信息的方式应该是使用平实的语言而不是代码、精确地指出问题所在以及建设性地给出解决方法。

10.帮助和说明(依次递减:无需提示、一次性提示、常驻提示、帮助文档)

Help and documentation
Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user’s task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.
虽然系统最好是可以让用户不需要任何说明就能使用,但是提供一个帮助和说明的功能还是有必要的。任何这样的信息都要很容易地就可以被用户找到,注重用户的任务,列出明确的步骤去实现这些操作,而且篇幅不要太长。

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