python爬虫爬取拉勾网职业信息

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/qq_33850908/article/details/79120203

先放成果

目标

抓取拉钩关于java工程师的招聘信息并制作成词云图。

研究目标网站

打开拉钩网可以发现目标url为:https://www.lagou.com/zhaopin/Java/2/?filterOption=2 ,这通过翻页发现filterOption=2对应的是页码,这可以通过总页数遍历的方式爬取所有信息。
这里写图片描述
我们可以抓取得数据有:
公司名、发布日期、工资、最低需求、工作标签、公司名、公司类型、公司地址、公司关键词

开始scrapy项目:

具体参考我的上一遍文章:http://blog.csdn.net/qq_33850908/article/details/79063271

编写代码:

items.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define here the models for your scraped items
#
# See documentation in:
# https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html

import scrapy


class LagouItem(scrapy.Item):
    # define the fields for your item here like:
    name = scrapy.Field()
    day = scrapy.Field()
    salary = scrapy.Field()
    require = scrapy.Field()
    tag = scrapy.Field()
    keyWord = scrapy.Field()
    companyName = scrapy.Field()
    companyType = scrapy.Field()
    location = scrapy.Field()

这里没什么好说的,就是吧要抓取的数据列出来。
middlewares.py

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define here the models for your spider middleware
#
# See documentation in:
# https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
import random
from scrapy import signals
import unit.userAgents as userAgents
from unit.proxyMysql import sqlHelper


class LagouSpiderMiddleware(object):
    # Not all methods need to be defined. If a method is not defined,
    # scrapy acts as if the spider middleware does not modify the
    # passed objects.

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        # This method is used by Scrapy to create your spiders.
        s = cls()
        crawler.signals.connect(s.spider_opened, signal=signals.spider_opened)
        return s

    def process_spider_input(self, response, spider):
        # Called for each response that goes through the spider
        # middleware and into the spider.

        # Should return None or raise an exception.
        return None

    def process_spider_output(self, response, result, spider):
        # Called with the results returned from the Spider, after
        # it has processed the response.

        # Must return an iterable of Request, dict or Item objects.
        for i in result:
            yield i

    def process_spider_exception(self, response, exception, spider):
        # Called when a spider or process_spider_input() method
        # (from other spider middleware) raises an exception.

        # Should return either None or an iterable of Response, dict
        # or Item objects.
        pass

    def process_start_requests(self, start_requests, spider):
        # Called with the start requests of the spider, and works
        # similarly to the process_spider_output() method, except
        # that it doesn’t have a response associated.

        # Must return only requests (not items).
        for r in start_requests:
            yield r

    def spider_opened(self, spider):
        spider.logger.info('Spider opened: %s' % spider.name)


class LagouDownloaderMiddleware(object):
    # Not all methods need to be defined. If a method is not defined,
    # scrapy acts as if the downloader middleware does not modify the
    # passed objects.

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        # This method is used by Scrapy to create your spiders.
        s = cls()
        crawler.signals.connect(s.spider_opened, signal=signals.spider_opened)
        return s

    def process_request(self, request, spider):
        # 设置随机header
        PIUA = random.choice(userAgents.pcUserAgent)
        request.headers.setdefault('User-Agent', PIUA)
        # mysql = sqlHelper("localhost", "root", "admin", "proxy")
        # server = mysql.getByRandom()
        # request.meta['proxy'] = server
        request.meta['proxy'] = 'https://116.11.254.37:80'
        return None

    def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
        # Called with the response returned from the downloader.

        # Must either;
        # - return a Response object
        # - return a Request object
        # - or raise IgnoreRequest
        return response

    def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
        # Called when a download handler or a process_request()
        # (from other downloader middleware) raises an exception.

        # Must either:
        # - return None: continue processing this exception
        # - return a Response object: stops process_exception() chain
        # - return a Request object: stops process_exception() chain
        pass

    def spider_opened(self, spider):
        spider.logger.info('Spider opened: %s' % spider.name)

这里修改75行代码,作用是随机选择一个header头进行请求,防止拉钩检测到我们是一个爬虫。并且使用代理ip。https://116.11.254.37:80。这里需要将userAgents类放入python的lib中,他是一个header字典。

lagouSpider.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from lagou.items import LagouItem


class LagouspiderSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = 'lagouSpider'
    allowed_domains = ['www.lagou.com']
    start_urls = []

    for i in range(1, 30):
        start_urls.append('https://www.lagou.com/zhaopin/Java/2/?filterOption=' + str(i))

    def parse(self, response):
        items = []
        datas = response.xpath("//ul[@class='item_con_list']/li")
        for data in datas:
            item = LagouItem()
            item['name'] = data.xpath(".//a[@class='position_link']/h3/text()").extract()[0]
            item['location'] = data.xpath(".//a[@class='position_link']/span/em/text()").extract()[0]
            item['day'] = data.xpath(".//span[@class='format-time']/text()").extract()[0]
            item['companyName'] = data.xpath(".//div[@class='company_name']/a/text()").extract()[0]
            item['companyType'] = data.xpath(".//div[@class='industry']/text()").extract()[0].strip()
            item['salary'] = data.xpath(".//div[@class='li_b_l']/span[@class='money']/text()").extract()[0]
            item['require'] = data.xpath(".//div[@class='p_bot']/div[@class='li_b_l']/text()").extract()[2].strip()
            item['tag'] = str(data.xpath(".//div[@class='list_item_bot']/div[@class='li_b_l']/span/text()").extract())
            item['keyWord'] = data.xpath(".//div[@class='list_item_bot']/div[@class='li_b_r']/text()").extract()[0]
            items.append(item)
        return items

lagouSpider负责解析抓取到的页面,打开拉钩网后打开F12 通过点击需要爬取的内容可以发现他在对应的那个标签下,在通过xpath进行解析获取。例如:这里写图片描述
通过截图页面发现,工作名称在class名为’item_con_list’的li下的a下的h3标签内,而其他内容也在这个ul的li下:
故我们可以先获取这个ul的每个lidatas = response.xpath("//ul[@class='item_con_list']/li"),然后再通过嵌套的方法用for循环依次获取内容,例如获取职位名称:item['name'] = data.xpath(".//a[@class='position_link']/h3/text()").extract()[0]

这里最后通过scrapy shell ‘目标url’的方法先是测试一下再开始写。

pipelines.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define your item pipelines here
#
# Don't forget to add your pipeline to the ITEM_PIPELINES setting
# See: https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
import time
import pymysql


class sqlHelper(object):
    def __init__(self, host, user, password, database):
        # 打开数据库连接
        self.db = pymysql.connect(host, user, password, database, use_unicode=True, charset="utf8")
        # 使用 cursor() 方法创建一个游标对象 cursor
        self.cursor = self.db.cursor()

    # 析构函数关闭连接
    def __del__(self):
        self.cursor.close()
        # 关闭数据库连接
        self.db.close()

    # 插入数据库
    def insert(self, name, salary, require, tag, companyName, companyType, location, keyWord, day):
        sql = "insert into lagou values(null,\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\")" % (
            name, salary, require, tag, companyName, companyType, location, keyWord, day)
        print(sql)
        try:
            # 执行sql语句
            self.cursor.execute(sql)
            # 提交到数据库执行
            self.db.commit()
        except:
            # 如果发生错误则回滚
            self.db.rollback()


class LagouPipeline(object):
    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        sql = sqlHelper("localhost", "root", "admin", "lagou")
        sql.insert(item['name'], item['salary'], item['require'], item['tag'], item['companyName'], item['companyType'],
                   item['location'], item['keyWord'], item['day'])
        return item

这里是对爬取并解析后的item进行处理,我们的处理方法是保存进数据库等待wordCloud来生成词云。

setting.py:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Scrapy settings for lagou project
#
# For simplicity, this file contains only settings considered important or
# commonly used. You can find more settings consulting the documentation:
#
#     https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html
#     https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
#     https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

BOT_NAME = 'lagou'

SPIDER_MODULES = ['lagou.spiders']
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = 'lagou.spiders'


# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
#USER_AGENT = 'lagou (+http://www.yourdomain.com)'

# Obey robots.txt rules
ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

# Configure maximum concurrent requests performed by Scrapy (default: 16)
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS = 32

# Configure a delay for requests for the same website (default: 0)
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html#download-delay
# See also autothrottle settings and docs
DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 10
# The download delay setting will honor only one of:
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN = 16
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_IP = 16

# Disable cookies (enabled by default)
# COOKIES_ENABLED = False

# Disable Telnet Console (enabled by default)
#TELNETCONSOLE_ENABLED = False

# Override the default request headers:
#DEFAULT_REQUEST_HEADERS = {
#   'Accept': 'text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8',
#   'Accept-Language': 'en',
#}

# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
#SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'lagou.middlewares.LagouSpiderMiddleware': 543,
#}

# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
   'lagou.middlewares.LagouDownloaderMiddleware': 30,
}

# Enable or disable extensions
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/extensions.html
#EXTENSIONS = {
#    'scrapy.extensions.telnet.TelnetConsole': None,
#}

# Configure item pipelines
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
ITEM_PIPELINES = {
   'lagou.pipelines.LagouPipeline': 300,
}

# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html
#AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
#AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
#AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 60
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to
# each remote server
#AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0
# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
#AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = False

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See https://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings
#HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True
#HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0
#HTTPCACHE_DIR = 'httpcache'
#HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []
#HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = 'scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage'

这里需要编写的有
第22行ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False,即不遵守目标网址的rebots.txt文本
第30行DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 10,即每次请求间隔10秒再发起下一次请求。
第55-70行,将刚刚编写的中间件middleware和解析后续处理pipe添加到setting中。

运行

在该项目的文件目录下打开命令行,输入:scrapy crawl lagouSpider,等待5分钟左右即可获得数据。
这里写图片描述

生成词云

demo.py:

#!/usr/bin/env python

from os import path
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pymysql
from wordcloud import WordCloud, STOPWORDS, ImageColorGenerator
import numpy as np
from PIL import Image
import jieba


class sqlHelper(object):
    def __init__(self, host, user, password, database):
        # 打开数据库连接
        self.db = pymysql.connect(host, user, password, database, use_unicode=True, charset="utf8")
        # 使用 cursor() 方法创建一个游标对象 cursor
        self.cursor = self.db.cursor()

    # 析构函数关闭连接
    def __del__(self):
        self.cursor.close()
        # 关闭数据库连接
        self.db.close()

    # 插入数据库
    def insert(self, name, salary, require, tag, companyName, companyType, location, keyWord, day):
        sql = "insert into lagou values(null,\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\",\"%s\")" % (
            name, salary, require, tag, companyName, companyType, location, keyWord, day)
        print(sql)
        try:
            # 执行sql语句
            self.cursor.execute(sql)
            # 提交到数据库执行
            self.db.commit()
        except:
            # 如果发生错误则回滚
            self.db.rollback()

    # 随机获取一条
    def getAll(self):
        sql = "SELECT * FROM lagou"
        try:
            # 执行SQL语句
            self.cursor.execute(sql)
            # 获取所有记录列表
            results = self.cursor.fetchall()
            return results
        except:
            print("Error: unable to fetch data")


if __name__ == '__main__':
    sql = sqlHelper("localhost", "root", "admin", "lagou")
    datas = sql.getAll()
    print('开始加载文本')
    text = ''
    for data in datas:
        # 2对应拉钩网每个职位的工资范围 (可以通过修改代码计算出平均范围)
        # 3对应拉钩网每个职位的最低要求
        # 4对应拉钩网每个职位的关键要求tag
        # 6对应拉钩网每个招聘公司类型
        # 8对应拉钩网招聘公司的关键词
        text += data[4]
    text = text.replace("'", "")
    text = " ".join(jieba.cut(text))
    d = path.dirname(__file__)
    font = path.join(path.dirname(__file__), "xingshu.ttf")
    background = np.array(Image.open(path.join(d, "demo.webp")))
    print('加载图片成功!')
    wordcloud = WordCloud(background_color="white", max_words=200, font_path=font, width=300, height=150,
                          mask=background, max_font_size=500,
                          margin=2).generate(text)
    image_colors = ImageColorGenerator(background)
    plt.imshow(wordcloud.recolor(color_func=image_colors), interpolation="bilinear")
    plt.axis("off")
    plt.figure()
    plt.imshow(background, cmap=plt.cm.gray, interpolation="bilinear")
    plt.axis("off")
    plt.show()
    print('生成词云成功!')

解析:我们先是编写sqlHelper类对数据库里的内容进行获取,然后再将需要生成词云的内容拼接成文本,运用wordCloud库来进行生成。其中WordCloud的具体内容参考百度。

得到结果:
- 招聘关键字词云
招聘关键字
- 公司关键字词云
公司关键字词云

通过词云发现目前java招聘关键要求有:中高级、金融、银行、linux、mysql、redis、soa…
通过词云发现目前公司关键有:弹性、全球、双休、五险…

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