由Integer的-128127引发的思考

由Integer的-128~127引发的思考

java的基本类型

  • 整数型:byte,short,int,long
  • 浮点型:float,double
  • 字符型:char
  • 布尔型:boolean

与之对应的包装类

  • Byte,Short,Integer,Long
  • Float,Double
  • Character
  • Boolean

从jdk1.5以及以后版本就出现了自动装箱与拆箱

自动装箱:基本类型->包装类型

自动拆箱:包装类型->基本类型

在这里插入图片描述

(这个图是摘自https://www.cnblogs.com/wang-yaz/p/8516151.html)

可以看出,以Integer为例自动装箱是调用的.valueOf()方法

自动拆箱调用的是.intValue()方法

先看一个例子

@Test
    public void testEquals(){
        Integer m=127;
        Integer n=127;
        System.out.println(m==n);
        Integer m1=200;
        Integer n1=200;
        System.out.println(m1==n1);
    }

//结果
16:59:12.791 [main] INFO  com.ruoyi.MyTest - [logStarted,59] - Started MyTest in 20.485 seconds (JVM running for 23.561)
true
false

这是为什么呢?

上源码

/**
     * Returns an {@code Integer} instance representing the specified
     * {@code int} value.  If a new {@code Integer} instance is not
     * required, this method should generally be used in preference to
     * the constructor {@link #Integer(int)}, as this method is likely
     * to yield significantly better space and time performance by
     * caching frequently requested values.
     *
     * This method will always cache values in the range -128 to 127,
     * inclusive, and may cache other values outside of this range.
     *
     * @param  i an {@code int} value.
     * @return an {@code Integer} instance representing {@code i}.
     * @since  1.5
     */
    public static Integer valueOf(int i) {
        if (i >= IntegerCache.low && i <= IntegerCache.high)
            return IntegerCache.cache[i + (-IntegerCache.low)];
        return new Integer(i);
    }

我们再看看IntegerCache是个什么东东

/**
     * Cache to support the object identity semantics of autoboxing for values between
     * -128 and 127 (inclusive) as required by JLS.
     *
     * The cache is initialized on first usage.  The size of the cache
     * may be controlled by the {@code -XX:AutoBoxCacheMax=<size>} option.
     * During VM initialization, java.lang.Integer.IntegerCache.high property
     * may be set and saved in the private system properties in the
     * sun.misc.VM class.
     */

    private static class IntegerCache {
        static final int low = -128;
        static final int high;
        static final Integer cache[];

        static {
            // high value may be configured by property
            int h = 127;
            String integerCacheHighPropValue =
                sun.misc.VM.getSavedProperty("java.lang.Integer.IntegerCache.high");
            if (integerCacheHighPropValue != null) {
                try {
                    int i = parseInt(integerCacheHighPropValue);
                    i = Math.max(i, 127);
                    // Maximum array size is Integer.MAX_VALUE
                    h = Math.min(i, Integer.MAX_VALUE - (-low) -1);
                } catch( NumberFormatException nfe) {
                    // If the property cannot be parsed into an int, ignore it.
                }
            }
            high = h;

            cache = new Integer[(high - low) + 1];
            int j = low;
            for(int k = 0; k < cache.length; k++)
                cache[k] = new Integer(j++);

            // range [-128, 127] must be interned (JLS7 5.1.7)
            assert IntegerCache.high >= 127;
        }

        private IntegerCache() {}
    }

可以看出IntegerCache.cache[]是一个长度为256,范围为[-128~127]的数组

当数字在-128~127之内时,valueOf不会创建一个新的Integer对象,而是返回一个对其值对应的存在于IntegerCache.cache数组中的Integer,所以地址是相同的

而超出范围,则会return new Integer(i),地址不同,这也就解释了上述现象

(简单理解==与equals(),==是比较的地址,而equals()(重写过后)比较的则是value)

让我们看看其他包装类

@Test
    public void testDouble(){
        Double m=100.0;
        Double n=100.0;
        System.out.println(m==n);

        Double m1=200.0;
        Double n1=200.0;
        System.out.println(m1==n1);
    }
    
18:54:35.204 [main] INFO  com.ruoyi.MyTest - [logStarted,59] - Started MyTest in 19.672 seconds (JVM running for 23.068)
false
false

让我们看看Double的valueOf源码

/**
     * Returns a {@code Double} instance representing the specified
     * {@code double} value.
     * If a new {@code Double} instance is not required, this method
     * should generally be used in preference to the constructor
     * {@link #Double(double)}, as this method is likely to yield
     * significantly better space and time performance by caching
     * frequently requested values.
     *
     * @param  d a double value.
     * @return a {@code Double} instance representing {@code d}.
     * @since  1.5
     */
    public static Double valueOf(double d) {
        return new Double(d);
    }

总结:Byte,Short,Integer,Long都是有对应Cache(-128-127),而Float,Double是没有的,Character也有对应的Cache(char(0~127)),Boolean只存在true/false两个值
(固定范围内整数型的数字的个数是确定的,而浮点数则不确定)

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