1. Abandon oneself to something
— allow onself to be completely controlled by something, especially passions or impulses.
Example: Tom tried and tried but failed again and again. Finally, he abandoned himself to despair.
2. Abase oneself
— make oneself humble.
Example: In ancient times, people of low social status often abased themselves in the presence of an influential or powerful person.
3. Abide by something
— observe or follow something.
Example: When you play a game, you must abide by the rules and regulations concerned.
4. Back a/the wrong horse
— put one's faith in someone who later loses or something which fails.
Example: The manager backed a wrong horse by giving the much-coveted job to Jack, who turned out to have a criminal record.
5. Back away (from doing something)
— move away (from doing something) because of dislike or fear.
Examples: 1. The cat backed away as the stranger raised his hand to hit it. 2. In the face of strong opposition, the government has backed away from increasing taxes.
6. Call forth/out something
— cause something to be seen or used.
Examples: 1. Lily's outward appearance was so attractive that it called forth admiration from every man in the office. 2. Difficulties in life may call out a person's good qualities not easily seen in good life.
7. Call in someone/something
— ask someone to come.
Example: Please call in my family doctor.
— request the return of something.
Examples: 1. The banks have called in all the old one-dollar notes. 2. A Japanese car maker has called in some cars with engine faults.
8. Dab hand at (doing) something, a
— clever at (doing) something.
Example: As Susan is a dab hand at interior design, let her decorate the new apartment for you.
9. Dabble in something
— play with water by moving one's hands and feet about.
Example: The children enjoyed dabbling in the river water after the rain.
— do things in a half-serious manner.
Example: Sean does not like stamp-collection but only dabbles in it at his leisure.
10. Had better
— it would be wise to.
Example: You had better go home before rain comes.
11. Haggle over/about something
— argue in an attempt to fix a price on something.
Examples: 1.Mrs Li haggled with the storekeeper over the goods she was buying. 2. I seldom haggled about the food price when I found it reasonable.
1. I beg to differ
— I don't agree with you.
Example: You may think that John should be offered the job, but I beg to differ. John has no practical experience and is not highly motivated.
2. I/You bet
— I am/ you are sure.
Examples: 1.The weather is fine. I bet it won't rain.
2. You bet I'll arrive at the airport before everyone else.
3. Jack-in-the-box, a
— a person who fidgets or does not sit still.
Example: “Boy! Sit properly! Don't jump up and down like a jack-in-the-box.”
4. Jack of all trades is master of none, a
— person who can do many different kinds of work may not be good at any of them.
Example: This chap repaired the television and installed the air-conditioner all in one day, but none of the work he did seemed reliable. Isn't he a jack of all trades master of none?
5. Oblivious of/to something
— unaware of something; not noticing something.
Example: What is wrong with James? He seems completely oblivious of what has happened here.
6. Odd man/one out, an
— a person or thing different from a group or left out of it.
Examples: 1. You had better learn to use a computer if you don't want to be an odd man out. 2. Look at the watch on the dining table! It is an odd one out.
7. Pack of lies, a
— something that is completely untrue.
Example: Don't listen to him! His story is a pack of lies.
8. Pack someone off (to some place)
— send someone away, usually quickly and without wasting time.
Example: The mother could not allow the children to sleep late, so she packed them off to bed at about 10p.m.
9. Qualify as someone/for something
— show that one is suitable for a profession, reaches a a standard, etc.
Examples: 1. After years of hard work, Judie has qualified as a dentist.
2. Our school is sure to qualify for the regional English debating competition.
10. Quarrel with one's bread and butter
— dislike the work by which one earns one's living.
Example: If you are against the authorities, you are quarrelling with your bread and butter and your family will be in trouble.
11. Race against time/a race against time
— hurry to do something before a certain time.
Examples: 1. Being late, you have to race against time to finish the work by 5 p.m.
2. I try to get this assignment done by Monday, but it will be a race against time.
① Abide by the consequences
— endure the result
Example: If you insist on going to such a dangerous place, no other person but you have to abide by the consequences.
② Able to/can take something
— (often in the negative) able to face something sad, etc. without being weakened; able to endure something
Examples: ① Don't mind about rugged life there. I am able to take it. ② Please stop speaking so loudly! I am not able to take it any more. ③ Go ahead hitting him. He can take it. ④ I don't think Nancy can take any more bad news.
③ Abound in/with something
— have plenty of something
Examples: ① Our neighbouring countries abound in natural resources. ② That dirty man's hair seems to have abounded with fleas.
④ Back down
— retract; withdraw charges, claims, etc.
Example: For the sake of national unity, even those who have good reasons to complain have decided to back down.
⑤ Back on to something
— have the back next to something, especially with reference to a house
Example: The rich man's bungalow backs on to a hill while facing a beautiful lake.
⑥ Call it a day
— stop work or cease activities
Example: It is quite late now. Let's call it a day and go home.
⑦ Call off something
— cancel something
Example: They called off the soccer match because of heavy rain.
— stop something
Example: As there was no hope of finding the escaped prisoner, the police decided to call off the search until some time later.
⑧ Dally about
— be slow and waste time
Example: Don't go on dallying about or we will be late for the film show.
⑨ Dally with something
— think about something in an idle manner
Example: The shy young man has been dallying with the idea of asking June to marry him.
⑩ Dam up something
— control something; hold back something
Example: Listening to the sad story, many girls were touched but they tried to dam up their tears.
(11) Hail-fellow-well-met with someone
— overfriendly with someone
Example: David is always hail-fellow-well-met with every person he knows. No wonder he has many nodding acquaintances.
① Hail someone or something as someone else/something else
— recognise or welcome someone/something as someone else/something else.
Examples: ① Because of having a good voice, Sharon has been hailed as singing queen in her school.
② The recent scientific discovery was hailed as breakthrough.
② I couldn't agree more
— I agreed completely.
Example: A: I think our country is well-developed.
B: I couldn't agree more.
③ I dare say
— I suppose.
Example: In your quarrel with Jason this time, I dare say you were in the wrong.
④ I hate to disturb/bother/trouble you, but...
— I am sorry for disturbing/bothering/troubling you, but...
Example: I hate to bother you when you are so busy, but there is something important I have to tell you before it is too late.
⑤ Jack up
— lift with a jack.
Example: You have to jack up your car before you can remove the tyre.
— (of prices) increase.
Example: During festive seasons, some shops have jacked up the prices of some goods.
⑥ Oddities and absurdities
— something odd and absurd.
Example: Sometimes, we have to accept the oddities and absurdities of certain aspects of a language which cannot be logically explained.
⑦ Odds and ends
— small objects of different kinds.
Example: Where there are children, there are odds and ends lying here and there.
⑧ Pack up
— stop doing something.
Example: It is late now. Let's pack up and go to bed.
⑨ Packed like sardines
— pressed very tightly together.
Example: The bus was full of passengers who were packed like sardines.
⑩ Queue up (for something)
— stand in a queue.
Examples: ① People queue up one after another outside the theatre.
② All have to queue up for tickets for the musical concert.
(11) Quibble about/at something or a quibble over something
— argue about small unimportant points.
Examples: ① Don't quibble with her about the money.
② She quibbled at the small price.
③ There was a quibble cver a few dollars.
(1) About average
— no better or no worse than others.
Example: Some staff's performance is about average. They have never proved better.
(2) About time
— the appropriate time.
Example: You have been working for quite a while. It's about time you had a new car.
(3) About to
— ready to
Example: We were about to go out when it suddenly rained.
(4) Back to back
— with the back facing the other.
Example: Stand back to back, boys! Let me see who is the tallest.
(5) Back to front
— with the back placed where the front should be.
Example: You got your pullover on back to front.
Example: All the people here know the government's major policies back to front.
(6) Back up someone/something
— support someone/something.
Example: ① No matter how, we should back up our most respected representative.
② Some new evidence backed up the prosecutor's argument.
(7) Call on/upon someone
— visit someone
Example: When are we going to call on our new neighbours?
(8) Call on/upon someone to do something
— invite someone to speak, etc.
Example: Without further ado, let me call upon our distinguished guest to speak to us.
— appeal to someone to act.
Example: In times of difficulties, we will have to call on the public to make donations.
(9) Call out someone
— order officially.
Example: During the riot, the chief of police had to call out the riot police to restore law and order.
(10) Damp(en) something down
— make a fire burn less strongly.
Example: It was a moonlit night, so the campers dampened down the fire.
— control and reduce something; suppress something.
Example: ① Some boys were over-zealous and we had to damp down their enthusiasm.
② Lack of support has damped down political dissidents' activities.
(11) Dance attendance on/upon someone
— do what someone wants without asking.
Example: The manageress sat still, expecting everyone to dance attendance on her.
(1) Halcyon days
— times of undisturbed peace and happiness.
Example: When people grow older, they long for halcyon days more than anything else.
(2) Hale and hearty
— strong and healthy
Example: In spite of old age, Mr Lin is still hale and hearty.
(3) Half a loaf is better than no bread
— we should be thankful for what we have, even if the amount is not as much as expected.
Example: Dr Huang applied for a week's leave, but was given three days. Half a loaf is better than no bread.
(4) I hate to mention it, but...
— May I remind you that...
Example: I hate to mention it, but you still haven't given me your annual report.
(5) I would be the first/ last person to...
— I am very willing/ unwilling to do something.
Examples: ① If you ask me for assistance, I would be the first person to volunteer.
② I assure you I would be the last person to commit a crime.
(6) Jealous of someone/something
— envious of someone/something
Examples: ① Why is she so jealous of her successful colleagues?
② It is wrong to be jealous of your friends' accomplishments.
(7) Jeer at someone
— laugh or shout disrespectfully at someone
Example: The spectators jeered at the team for playing dreadfully.
(8) Odds are that, the...
— the likelihood is that...
Example: Nobody knows what the pay rise will be like, but the odds are that it will be about 5%.
(9) Of great/ some/ no account
— of great/ some/ no importance.
Examples: ① All political leaders must be persons of great account.
② To the manager, the secretary is a staff member of some account.
③ Don't worry about that matter; it is of no account.
(10) Palm something off on someone/palm someone off with something
— get rid of an undesirable thing by giving, selling, etc. it to someone else; get rid of someone by giving, selling him something.
Examples: ① His 10-year-old car was always breaking down, so he was forced to palm it off on his honest friend.
② The shopkeeper was so tired of the talkative woman that he palmed her off with something of poor quality.
(11) Raise one's eyebrows (at something)
— lift one's eyebrows to show surprise or doubt (of something).
Examples: ① Some foreigners' bold remarks against the authorities raised everyone's eyebrows.
② The people raised their eyebrows at the discontinuity of some excellent staff's teaching contracts.
(1) Above all
— most importantly
Example: A successful person must be learned, healthy and, above all, diligent.
(2) Above average
— above the ordinary standard
Example: Helen's school work is above average; she is better than the majority of her classmates.
(3) Above criticism/ suspicion
— someone or something that cannot be criticised/ suspected
Examples: ① Most of the artist's paintings were so well painted that they were above criticism.
② For the sake of dignity, judges ought to be above suspicion.
(4) Back-breaking task/work, a
— a demanding or exhausting task or work
Example: Digging the hard soil in the garden under the hot sun is really a back-breaking task.
(5) Backfire on someone
— have an unexpected effect opposite to the effect intended
Example: John's new scheme backfired on him and he lost a lot of money.
(6) Backroom boy, a/the
— a person whose work is important but secret
Example: The factory-expansion project has been a great success, but we should not forget the backroom boy who has played an important part.
(7) Call someone names
— insult someone by applying rude names
Example: They keep calling him names by shouting things like "Big head!" and "Four eyes!".
(8) Call someone to account
— demand an explanation from someone
Example: The officer called a soldier to account for not saluting him.
(9) Call something in(to) question
— raise doubts about something
Examples: ① Tom's inability to do work efficiently called into question his suitability for being promoted to a higher position.
② The government's good intentions have sometimes been called in question.
(10) Darby and Joan
— devoted elderly couple
Example: Eric and Irene have been so devoted to each other since their marriage 35 years ago that they are described as "Darby and Joan".
(11) Dare someone to do something (dangerous)
— challenge someone to do something dangerous
Example: We dared our timid friend, Kelvin, to spend a night near the graveyard.
1. Half an eye
— a quick look 一看就明白
Example: The new teacher could see with half an eye that Jim was going to have trouble with some boys who disagreed with him.
— as much one thing as the other
Example: That much-publicised movie was neither good nor bad; it was just half-and-half.
3. Half-baked idea
— an idea that has not been properly thought out
Example: I don't think it wise to adopt his half-baked idea unless it is further developed.
4. I would if I could but I can't
— I would like to do something worthwhile, but I am unable to
Example: X: Marry me while there is still time.
Y: I would if I could but I can't. I have a good boy friend.
5. I wouldn't say no
— I would readily agree
Example: - Have another cup of beer, OK?
- Well, I wouldn't say no.
6. Jib at doing something
— be unwilling to do something
Example: I don't mind mopping the floor, but I jib at cleaning the walls.
7. Join/ combine forces (with someone)
— come together for a common purpose
Examples: 1. The two immediate neighbouring countries have joined forces to fight their common enemy.
2. We must combine forces with the new friends to set up the tent.
8. Of high calibre
— of top quality
Example: A good government places only people of high calibre in key positions.
9. Of no/ little avail
— of no/ little use
Examples: 1. Janet tried hard, but her efforts were of little avail.
2. The U.S. advised the two hostile countries not to use force, but the advice was of no avail.
10. Parting of the ways, a
— the point where the road divides
Example: The two tourists stood undecided at a parting of the ways.
— a deciding point
Example: Kenneth has come to a parting of the ways: going to work or continuing with the study?
11. Pat someone on the back/ give someone a pat on the back
— clap lightly on someone's back for praise, support, etc.
Examples: 1. The basketball coach patted every player on the back with a smile.
2. Jason, our lecturer, gave each of us a pat on the back and uttered a few encouraging words.
1. Above/over one's head: too difficult for someone to understand. 难以理解
Example: What John had said was well above my head; he should have made his speech simpler and clearer.
2. Above oneself: self-satisfied; conceited.
Example: Peter was above himself after he was promoted to a higher position.
3. Above/below par: at a price higher/lower than the original value. (价格) 在一般水平以上／以下
Examples: (1) Most of the good shares are expensive and above par now.
(2) When the market is bad, it is possible
to purchase the stock at a price below par.
4. Back-seat driver, a/the:
(i) the bossy person in a car who always tells the driver what to do. 对司机胡乱指点的乘客
Example: Most of us disliked the back-seat driver who was too arrogant.
(ii) a person who repeatedly gives advice without being asked for it. 自动乱给劝告的人
Example: Let the officer-in-charge handle the
matter; don't be nosey like a back-seat driver.
5. Backstairs influence/talk:secret or indirect influence/talk. 秘密或间接的影响或谈话
Examples: (1) I think his wife has backstairs influence on his decisions.
(2) It is discourteous to have this type of backstairs talk about the new manager.
6. Bad blood between one person and another: ill-feeling between two persons. 仇恨；厌恶
Example: The unfair distribution of the father's assets caused the bad blood between the two siblings.
7. Calculate on/upon (doing)something:depend on (doing)something. 指望；依靠
Examples: (1) We calculate on making an early start in this matter.
(2) Don't calculate upon the weather being fine for tomorrow's basketball match.
8. Call a spade a spade: say exactly what you mean.直言不讳
Example: I am a frank person often calling a spade a spade. Hope you don't mind.
9. Cocoon someone from/against something:keep someone in a protective covering.盖在保护层里
Example: It may not be a good thing to cocoon one's child from the realities of a cruel life.
10. Dark horse, a: a person of unknown abilities and may spring a surprise. 黑马（有本事而深藏不露的人）
Example: No one expected him to run very fast, but he proved to be a dark horse this time and won the race.
11. Dash off: (i) write hurriedly. 匆匆地写
Example: Dan dashed off a letter to his friend while waiting for the plane at the airport.
(ii) leave or move away in a hurry. 猛冲
Example: It is late now; I must dash off to the bus stop before the last bus leaves.
12. Half the battle: a large part of the work.
Example: To know your faults and decide to correct them can be half the battle of self-improvement.
13. Hallmark of something, a: a typical feature of something. 某事的特征
Example: Conciseness in wording is a hallmark of good writing.
14. Hammer away at something: keep working on something. 努力做某事
Example: No matter how, we have to hammer away at the problem until we get it solved.
15. Ideal for: very suitable for. 理想的；最合适的
Example: Good picture dictionaries are ideal for preschool children.
16. Identical to something:exactly alike.与某事相同
Example: On the phone, your voice is almost identical to your elder sister's.
17. Import something to someone/something: give something, usually a quality, to someone/something. 传达
Example: The pepper and the herbal spice have imported a special flavour to the soup.
18. Join hands (with someone):
(i) hold someone's hands, e.g. while dancing.携手
Example: Boys and girls joined hands and danced for 10 minutes.
(ii) unite with someone. 联合
Example: The government has to join hands with the people to combat all forms of social injustice.
19. Join in something: take part in something.
Example: In the get-together last night, all of us joined in the sing-song.
20. Of two evils choose the lesser: pick the evil that is less serious or harmful. 两害取其小和轻的
X: Do you want to walk to the shop which is not very far away or ask Su, who has just got her driving licence to give you a lift?
Y: I choose to walk. Of two evils choose the lesser.
21. Patch up: (i)mend something quickly. 迅速修补
Example: The worker patched up the roof with pieces of tiles and water-proof plastic.
(ii) Settle a quarrel, etc. 解决纷争
Examples: (1) The two friends soon patched up their disagreement.
(2) It is time we patch up our quarrel with our neighbours.
22. Pave the way for something: make it easy or possible for something to happen. 为……铺路
Examples: (1) The peace treaty paves the way for lasting co-existence between the two countries concerned.
(2) People's desire for freedom paved the way for a nation's struggle for independence and actual sovereignty.
(1) Above someone: too difficult for someone to understand. (令人难以理解)）
Example: That speaker's lecture on astronomy seemed to be above the audience.
(2) Abscond from a place : leave a place unlawfully. (潜逃出某地)
Example: The prisoner has twice absconded from the prison, but he was re-arrested and imprisoned again not long later.
(3) Absence makes the heart grow fonder: we have more affection for our friends and relatives when they are away. (不见面令人更怀念)
Example: Michael used to quarrel with his sister, but he has missed her since she went abroad for further studies. It is a case of ‘absence makes the heart grow fonder’.
(4) Bad for someone : harmful for someone. (对某人有害)
Example: Smoking may be thrilling, but it is definitely bad for you.
(5) Bad news travels fast : bad news nearly always reaches us more rapidly than good news. (恶事传千里)
Example: The news of my neighbours' divorce spreads from one person to another. Bad news travels fast, doesn't it?
(6) Bad workman always blames his tools, a : a bad workman tries to excuse his ownlack of skills by blaming the tools for poor workmanship. (技术差的工人埋怨工具不好)
Example: To "I couldn't write well because I had used someone else's pen", your response could be: "A bad workman always blames his tools".
(7) Cajole/coax someone into/out of (doing) something : persuade someone into/away from (doing) something. (劝诱某人做／不做某事)
(i) Can the teacher cajole every lazy pupil into greater efforts?
(ii) Betty tried to coax her father into increasing her pocket money.
(iii) Please cajole the boys out of their unreasonable demands.
(iv) We had to coax his boss out of punishing him.
(8) Calculated risk, a : a possibility of failure that has been estimated before a course of action is taken. (有意尝试的险)
Example: David took a calculated risk when he bought such expensive equipment from that new company.
(9) Calculated to do something :planned with the intention of donig something. (计划做某事)
(i) The new law is calculated to make cheating impossible.
(ii) Such commercials are calculated to attract the attention of ignorant housewives.
(10) Call at a place : arrive at a place, usually for a short time and with a special purpose. (停靠某处)
Example: Some boats called at the port to unload the cargoes.
(11) Call back (someone) :
1.return someone a telephone call.(回电)
Example: Will you call me back later?
2.pay another visit.(再来拜访)
Example: If you don't mind, could you call back later?
1. Date back to/from a certain time:
go back to a certain time 自某时代至今
(1) The history of our club dates back to 1960.
(2) These traditional customs date from the time when we were very small.
2. Daub with something:
cover with something soft and sticky 涂抹
After being in the kitchen for the whole afternoon, Mother's apron is now daubed with cooking oil and condiments.
3. Dawn on/upon someone:
(used with the subject "it") become suddenly clear to someone 突然明白
(1) It dawned on me what he had really meant when he used that analogy.
(2) It dawned upon us that such a dialogue came from a small Chinese town.
4. Half the world knows not how the other half lives:
people of one social class are often ignorant of the problems of those of another class 这类人不知另一类人 的生活方式
People in some poor countries have not enough to eat, but many of us here have leftovers to throw away. Half the world knows not how the other half lives.
5. Hammer out something :
(i) decide on a scheme after a long discussion or argument 竭力做某事
Let's get together to hammer out the required new scheme.
(ii) remove something by hammering 用锤敲去某物 Example:
Please get a mechanic to hammer out the dent on the right side of this car.
6. Impose on someone :
ask someone to do something which he should not be asked to do; bother someone 使人为难
I hope I am not imposing on you by asking you to answer the door.
7. Impoverish someone/something of someone/something else:
take something good away from someone/something 使某人贫困；使某事不妙
The government is paying attention to the problem of emigration, which is gradually impoverishing the country of capable people.
8. Impress someone with something:
make someone realise the importance of something 使某人对某事印象深刻
Our teachers impress us with the need for mutual help.
9. Impress something on/upon someone:
make the importance of something clear to someone 使某人深深意识到某事物
Our leaders in different fields impressed the value of hard work on us.
10. Join with someone:
do the same thing as someone彼此一起
Will all of you join with me in drinking a toast to the bride and the bridegroom?
11. Joint efforts:
Our team won the match through the joint efforts of the coach and the players.
(1) Abscond with something:
go away with something valuable 带贵重物潜逃
I wonder why the accountant in a very big organisation could abscond with a huge sum of money without being detected.
(2) Absence of mind:
Absence of mind during driving often leads to road accidents.
(3) Absent oneself from a place:
be absent from a place 缺席；没去
Lazy students like to absent themselves from class without a good excuse.
(4) Absolve someone from (doing) something:
free someone from fulfilling a promise, etc. or from a guilt, etc. 获免……；免除某人（履行诺言；承受罪责等）
(i) After making an apology, the soldier was absolved from returning to the barracks on certain Saturdays.
(ii) Our education system does not absolve the parents from their responsibilities to their children.
(5) Badly off:
(i) not having much money 穷困
The Huangs are too badly off to have a hoilday abroad as others do. (ii) not having enough 不够；需要某物
Many schools in the village are rather badly off for modern equipment and other facilities.
(6) Bag and baggage:
with all one's belongings 携随身财物（而去）
Some guests were unable to pay the hotel bills and were therefore asked to leave bag and baggage.
(7) Bail someone out:
obtain freedom for someone by paying a bail 保释某人
How much should he pay to bail out the suspect?
(8) Call/bring something to a halt:
stop something; put an end to something停止……
(i) It is time to call the stupid arguments to a halt.
(ii) Production was brought to a halt by the prolonged strike.
(9) Call something to mind:
remember something 记起
I am sure I know the man over there though I can't call to mind where I met him.
(10) Call something to order:
ask something, usually a meeting, to perform in an orderly manner. 要求安静进行某事
After some vehement arguments between two members, the Chairman called the meeting to order again.
(11) Day after day/day in, day out:
continuously for many days. 一天又一天
(i) It went on raining day after day.
(ii) Despite the riot, business went on day in, day out.
- 1. Day dream, a :
imagining about things one would like to do 白日梦.
Some people would like to fall back on a day dream whenever they wished to get what they wanted.
2. Day of reckoning, a :
the time when one is obliged to answer for one's misdeeds 报应的日子.
There will be a day of reckoning for what you have wrongly done to be harmful to others.
3. Hammer something home :
emphasize a point one has made in an argument by repeating it with great force 强调.
In the face of opposition, the speaker hammered his point home with extensive illustrations.
4. Hand back something:
return something by hand 用手交还.
The teacher said that he would hand back the examination scripts in week's time.
5. Hand down somthing to someone:
bequeath something to someone. （遗）传给……
(1) Before the rich man passed away, he handed down his property to his wife.
(2) That big house has been handed down to them by their grandfather.
6. Impose something on someone/something else:
(i) force something on someone. 强加给:
Please don't impose your will on us.
(ii) place a tax, fine, etc. on someone or something. 征（税）；罚（款）
(1) The traffic police have imposed a fine on the reckless motorist.
(2) The government has imposed a heavier tax on liquor.
7. Improve on/upon something:
make something better 改进.
(1) Your suggestion is good, but I think I can still improve on it.
(2) You had good results in the first year, but can you improve upon them this year?
8. Joking apart/aside:
let's stop joking and talk seriously 别再开玩笑.
(1) Joking apart, we really must do something about the leak in the water pipe.
(2) Joking aside, what did John really think of me?
9. Of moment: important. 重要的
Nothing of moment occurred in your absence during the last two weeks.
10. (Go) off one's head: mad. 疯了
(1) You must be off your head to go mountain-climbing on such a cold and rainy day.
(2) When Tom heard that he was dismissed, he almost went off his head.
11. Part company (with someone):
(i) go in different directions. 向不同方向去
Helen and her boy friend parted company at the railway station.
(ii) end a friendship or partnership, etc. 结束；了结
As a result of constant quarrels, the man finally parted company with his wife.
1. Deadbeat: exhausted 精疲力尽的
(a) After the day's hard work, all looked deadbeat.
(b) The long-distance runners were deadbeat as they reached their destination.
2. Dead end, a:
(i) a path or road which has no exit on the other side 没出口的路
Example: Don't drive into that place; it is a dead end.
(ii) the stage in one's work that can make no further progress.不能再进展的阶段
Example: The aircrash investigation has reached a dead end; there is nothing new in the report.
3. Dead-end job, a: a job with no prospects 无晋升希望的工作
Example: Such a job is badly paid and has no good prospects. It is a dead-end job, also known as a blind-alley job.
4. Hand something out to someone:
give something by hand to someone 把……交给……
(a) Some boys are handing out leaflets to passers-by.
(b) Before the lecture, the lecturer handed out lecture notes to his students.
5. Hand over someone/ something to someone: give a person or send a thing to someone 引渡某人；移交某事
(a) The shopkeeper handed the petty thief over to the police.
(b) The old man decided to hand over his business to other family members.
6. Hand something on (to someone):
pass something, especially information(to someone) 把消息等转达给某人
(a) I have some good news to hand on. Don't you want to hear?
(b) Could you please hand this message on to all the staff concerned?
7. In a big way: on a large scale. 大规模的
They plan to organise a concert in a big way.
8. In a bind/jam: in difficulty or trouble.陷入困境
(a) After accepting two job offers from two companies, Joseph was in a bind.
(b) Whenever his research was in a jam, he went to his supervisor for help.
9. Judging from/by something:
if one can see something as an indication; considering something 从某事判断
(a) Judging from the bright sky, there won't be any rain today.
(b) Judging by their dirty clothes, they must just be back from work.
10. Judge someone/ something by appearances: base the judgement of someone / something on outside looks以貌取人，从外表看事情
(a) Don't judge people by appearances, but by their actual performance.
(b) It is safer to judge a thing by its quality, not by appearances.
11. Of necessity: logically and necessarily 逻辑上必要地
Example : University courses must, of necessity, be practical and useful.
1.Accommodate someone with something: provide someone with something, often as a favour 提供
Example: I hope the bank in which you are working in will be kind enough to accommodate me with a car loan.
2. Accompany something with something else: add something to something else.随某物而来
Example: The rascal accompanied his abusive language with a show of his two fists.
3. Accord with something: match something.与某事物相配合
Example: The young man's political ideology does not accord with his father's. The former is radical; the latter is conservative.
4. According to:
(i)as stated or shown. 根据
Example: According to the records, the books you borrowed were often overdue.
(ii) in agreement with. 按照
Example: Always try to act according to your promise.
(iii) in the order of. 循序
Example: The books in a library are arranged according to their authors, titles, etc.
(iv) in proportion to. 视……而定
Example: Part-time workers are normally paid according to the amount of work done by the hour.
5.Bar someone from (doing) something: prevent someone from (doing) something. 阻止某人做某事
(1)The invigilator has the right to bar any dishonest student from taking the examination.
(2)Some members have been barred from the club for misconduct.
6. Bare bones, the: the simplest but most important parts.梗概
Example: These are the bare bones of the system which must be incorporated.
7. Bare of something: missing something that is normally present.（指不该空着）空的
Example: In sharp contrast to other apartments, Judy's was austerely furnished and bare of any ornament.
8.Can/could do no wrong: one is so much favoured that anything he does is thought to be right. 绝对错不了
(1) In the teacher's eyes, a good student like Susan can do no wrong.
(2) Mrs Lin considered her only son perfect and could do no wrong.
9.Can ill afford (to do)something: cannot afford (to do) something. 负担不起
(1) I am busy now and can ill afford to see anyone.
(2) Our soccer team can ill afford to lose the match again.
10.Cancel something out: balance something; strike out something. 抵消
Example: The failure in overseas business cancelled out the overall profits of the company.
11.Dead set against someone/
something: firmly opposed to someone/something. 极力反对
(1) Mr Li is dead set against his arch rival, Mr Huang.
(2) Most workers were dead set against longer working hours.
1. Accustomed/used to(doing)something: in the habit of(doing)something.习惯于……
(1) I am accustomed to getting up early in the morning.
(2 )After some time, westerners are used to the hot weather here.
2. Ache for someone/something or ache to do something:
(i)have a strong desire to do something.渴望得到……
(1) Though separated, John's heart is aching for his former girl friend.
(2) She is aching to tell us the good news about her promotion.
(ii) feel pity for someone.使人感伤
Example: My heart aches for the unfortunate in many countries.
3. Aches and pains:
considerable fatigue, especially in the muscles or joints all over one's body.各种疼痛
Example: June is still young but has behaved like a woman, continually complaining about aches and pains.
4. Achilles' heel: the weakest point in a person's character.致命伤
Example: Insincerity is the Achilles' heel of many people, be they politicians or businessmen.
5. Base on/upon something: (often in the passive)use something as a foundation.基于……
Example: Since that report was based on facts, it must be reliable.
6. Bask in something:
(i) sit or lie in pleasant warmth.取暖
Example: The picknickers are lying on the sand, basking in the mild sunshine.
(ii) enjoy someone's favour.受人赞美、恩惠等
Example: No joy is greater than basking in the praiseworthy remarks of one's employer and colleagues.
7. Bathed in/with something: covered with something.沐浴在……；全湿
(1) Bathed in the morning sunlight, the corn field looks bright like gold.
(2) Being wrongly scolded, the child's eyes were bathed with tears.
8. Cannot make head or tail of something/Can make neither head nor tail of something: cannot understand something.不能理解……
(1) I cannot make head or tail of the policeman's instructions.
(2) The speaker can make neither head nor tail of the audience's questions.
9. Can't be bothered: not willing to care about someone/ something.懒得……；嫌麻烦而不为
(1) Sorry, I can't be bothered to do it now.
(2) We are busy right now and can't be bothered with all these trifling matters.
10. Can't bear/stand the sight of someone/something: seriously upset by seeing someone/something.不忍看……
(1) Ahmad doesn't like to climb up the coconut tree, but he can't bear the sight of others doing it.
(2) How can you become a doctor if you can't stand the sight of blood?
11. Deal in something: buy or sell something.买卖
Example: Many shops along this street deal in fashionable wearing things.
1. Acid test, an:
a way of proving whether something is true or not.决定性考验
Example: The joint military exercise is seen as an acid test of the cooperation among the countries concerned.
2. Acquaint someone/oneself with something:
inform someone of something/make someone familiar with something.使某人认识某事物
(1) We have to acquaint a new worker with the conditions here.
(2) As the company's consultant, you must acquaint yourself with its development plans.
3. Acquiesce in something:
agree to do something; accept something quietly.同意某事；默许
Example: After a long time of consideration, the government has finally acquiesced in the open-door policy.
4. Be-all and end-all of something, the:
the whole of something.某事的全部
Example: Learning how to take orders is not the be-all and end-all of good secretarial work. There are more important things to do.
5. Be that as it may:
even so. 即使如此
Example: I know some of you don't like Anna, but be that as it may, you can at least greet her every day.
6. Bear a grudge against someone/bear someone a/no grudge:
have a/no feeling of anger, dislike, etc. of someone.对某人怀恶意／无恶意
(1) Tony bore a grudge against Aileen because she got the job he wanted.
(2) I don't bear anyone a grudge.
(3) I bear him no grudge. Why is he so hostile?
7. Can't/Couldn't go wrong:
sure to make a success of something or not make any mistake.错不了
Example: You know the ways and means, don't you? You just can't go wrong.
8. Can't hear oneself think:
one is irritated by too much surrounding noise.听不到自己在想什么（喻周遭太吵闹）
Example: Everyone in the lobby kept talking louder and louder until I couldn't hear myself think.
9. Can't help but do something:
unable to choose any other course or action.不得不
Example: Since there is no taxi in this area, we can't help but walk back home.
10. Death is the great leveller:
death makes us all equal.“死亡”是伟大的平等主义者
Example: As there won't be any distinction between wealth and poverty, greatness and humbleness, etc. among the dead, death is the great leveller.
11. Death to someone/something:
bad for or fatal to someone/something.
(1) This type of detergent is death to my sensitive skin.
(2) Living in such a city is death to hysterical people; it was too noisy there.
1. Earn an honest penny:
make money honestly.以正当手段赚钱
Example: Though once a prisoner, Tom is now earning an honest penny by being a regular truck-driver.
2. Earn one's living:
gain money by working.赚钱过生活
Example: Some uneducated and unskilled people earn their living by doing manual work.
3. Ears burn:
feel embarrassed at hearing people talk about you.耳朵发烧（指遭人说坏话而难堪）
Example: Jessie overheard people commenting badly on her and this made her ears burn.
4. Ease off/up
become less strong, less severe.减轻、缓和
(1). The toothache has eased off .
(2). It looks as if the rain is beginning to ease off.
(3). Tell them to ease up and not to work so hard.
(4). Please ease off on the workers; they are getting tired.
5. Facts and figures:
Example: In the report, please include all the facts and figures as long as they are true and reliable.
6. Fade away/out:
(i) become fainter.散开
Example: The music in the hall faded away after a while.
Example: She was so nasty that the interviewers faded her out and sent for someone else.
7. Faint heart never won fair lady:
a timid or discouraged person won't get the best of anything in life.怯懦的人永远博不到美人欢心
Example: Try again! Faint heart never won fair lady, or anything worth having.
8. Gain access to a place:
enter a place.进入某处
Example: You can gain access to the house through this gate.
9. Gain/obtain currency:
become widely known or very common; be believed or accepted.传开
Example: Reports concerning bad government affairs often gain currency in foreign press.
10. Handsome is as handsome does:
a good heart is more important than good looks.行为美才是真美
Example: He looks ugly, but he treats all very well. Handsome is as handsome does.
11. Handy for something:
near something; something is easily reached.离……很近（非常方便）
Example: My apartment is in a convenient location handy for shops and other amenities.
12. In a daze:
in a confused condition.处于茫然状态
Example: After the natural calamity, those who survived were in a daze.
13. In a dream:
in a state of mind in which one doesn't pay attention to the real world.生活在梦幻中
Example: Some people are alert, but some are not and they seem to have lived in a dream.
14. Jump for joy:
show great pleasure.高兴得直跳
Example: The moment she heard the good news getting the much-coveted job, she jumped for joy.
1. Across the board/across-the-board; applying in all cases; affecting everybody or everything. 全面；全部的
(1) The civil servants were given annual bonuses across the board.
(2) Because of bad business, some companies have announced an across-the-board cut in development spending.
2. Act as someone/something: do the work or duties of someone/something. 代替
(1) In the director's absence, Mary will act as the director.
(2) This sofa can act as a bed at night.
3. Act as a brake on/upon/ to someone's activity:
make someone act with more caution; play the role of deterring someone or something. 遏制
Example: The rise in bank interest rate acted as a brake on people's unnecessary loans.
4. Bear a/no resemblance to someone: (not) look like someone. 看起来像／不像……
(1) Helen bears a resemblance to a famous singer.
(2) Though they are sisters, they bear no resemblance to each other.
5. Bear no relation to something:
be very different from something. 与……无相似之处
Example: What Jack has just said bears no relation to the actual fact.
6. Bear out: support or confirm. 支持；证实
Example: I will bear you out if you lodge a complaint against that rascal.
7. Capable of doing something: able to do something. 能够
(1) Is you company capable of handling such a large order?
(2) Be careful! That person is capable of playing tricks.
8. Capitalise on something: take advantage of something. 利用
Example: Our team capitalised on its opponent's obvious weakness and won the game in the end.
9. Decide / determine on / upon someone / (doing) something: choose someone/(doing)something. 考虑后作出决定
(1) Has the committee decided on the finalists of the game?
(2) After some contemplation, the couple determined on spending the holiday abroad.
10. Decline and fall, the: the sequence leading to a final and complete loss of power, etc. 衰亡
Example: Nothing is commoner than the decline and fall of an empire.
11. Dedicate something to someone/(doing) something:
(i) give something completely to someone; devote. 献身于
Example: Dr Lin dedicated his life to finding a cure for AIDS.
(ii) declare something in honour of someone. 献给……
Example: He dedicated his first book to his late mother.
1. East or west, home is best:
no matter where you go, home is the best place for you. 没有任何地方比家好
Example: A traveller knows that east or west, home is best. True, there is no place like home.
2. Easy come, easy go:
he who gets money easily usually sqanders it: easily got easily lost. 易得易失
(1) The young man spent all the inherited money at a short time. Easy come, easy go, isn't it?
(2) Bob made some money from gambling but used it up quickly. With Bob, it's easy come, easy go.
3. Easy in mind: free from anxiety. 安心的
Example: Wicked people are seldom easy in mind.
4. Easy in one's mind: be more relaxed. 放心的
Example: His mother won't be easy in her mind till she knows that he has arrived there safely.
5. Faithful to someone: loyal to someone. 忠于某人
Example: The dog remained faithful to his master when he became poor and miserable.
6. Fall apart: break into pieces. 支离破碎
Example: Tom knocked a tree and his bicycle began to fall apart.
7. Fall away: become less in number. 渐渐减少
Example: The spectators did not find the game interesting and began to fall away.
8. Fall back on something: use something for help when everything else has been tried. 依靠某事物
Example: Don't be worried! You still have your savings to fall back on.
9. Gall and wormwood: something that arouses the most bitter resentment. 怨恨
Example: It was gall and wormwood for the teacher to have to make a withdrawal of his promise in front of all the students.
10. Galvanise someone into (doing) something: move someone to do something. 激起某人行动起来
Example: The news about the general election galvanised potential candidates into preparatory work.
11. Gamble on something:
(i) risk money on the result of a card game, horse-race, etc. 冒险行动或碰运气
Example: Tony sometimes gambled a great
deal of money on the horse-race.
(ii) take a chance or risk. 孤注一掷做……
Example: Some illegal immigrants robbed the bank, gambling on its being not watched at night.
12. Game at which two can play, a: a plan or trick which both sides may use. 你会我也会的一套
Example: Political favouritism is a game at which two can play.
1. Act as a catalyst: cause a change or an event to happen.促使变化
Example: One speaker's questions acted as a catalyst to set off new trains of thought.
2. Act for/on behalf of someone: do something for someone.代……做某事
(1) Mary will act for David in his absence.
(2) The lawyer is acting on behalf of his client.
3. Act high and mighty: act proudly and powerfully. 行为高傲
Example: If Su had not acted high and mighty, she would have had more friends.
4. Act in bad faith: act dishonestly. 行为不诚实
Example: We don't like that man, who often acts in bad faith.
5. Bear someone no ill will: there is no unkind feeling towards someone. 对某人无恶意
Example: Although I didn't agree with him, I bore him no ill will.
6. Bear the brunt of something: suffer the heaviest part of something, such as attack, etc. 承受某事物正面的冲撞
Example: Do you have to bear the brunt of her anger for no reason?
7. Bear up: keep up courage, strength, etc. under adversity or affliction.在困境中不气馁
(1) Irene is bearing up well despite her continual misfortunes.
(2) How are you today? -Not very well, but managing to bear up.
8. Care about something: think that something is important. 理会某事
Example: Some people today don't care about saving money for future use.
9. Care for someone/something:
(i) look after someone/something. 照顾
Example: Who will care for you when you are old?
(ii) like (in negative sentences or questions). 喜爱
(1) Would you care for some more beer?
(2) I don't really care for beer.
10. Care killed a cat: care is a load on the mind, so try not to worry.忧能伤身
Example: If care killed a cat, which has nine lives, it would kill any human being, who has only one life.
11. Careful/careless with/about something: cautious/unconcerned about something.小心；粗心
(1) You should be more careful with your money next time.
(2) Are your other family members careless with money, too?
12.Deep (down): in one's true nature; feeling strongly.在心底
(1) Deep in the boy's mind, he knew he was wrong.
(2) Jack seems unfriendly, but deep down, he is very nice.
1.Act on/upon someone/something:
(i) do something according to someone's advice, instructions, etc. 根据劝告或指示行事
Example: You won't be wrong if you act on his instructions.
(ii) have an effect on someone/something. 对……发生作用
Examples: 1. This medicine doesn't act on him at all. 2. Certain acids act upon metals.
(i) show an idea, etc. by your looks, talk, etc.表演
Example:The children are acting out a story they have read.
(ii) put something into action. 付诸行动
Example:As an idealist, Betty tried to act out her ideals somehow or other.
3.Act out of duty: do what one ought to do, not because what one wants to do. 做份内事
Example:The head of a department generally acts out of duty. He has no time to do more than that.
4.Bear with someone/something: be patient with someone/something. 容忍
Example: If you can just bear with me for a few minutes, I will be able to answer your question.
5.Bear witness to something: prove something. 证明
Example: Jason's latest book bears witness to his writing ability and versatility.
6.Beard the lion in his den: face someone strong openly or boldly. 入狮穴捋狮须（喻公然走访某强人）
Example:The rascal is in his office, so let's go in and beard the lion in his den.
7.Carp/cavil at someone/something:
find fault with small errors. 挑剔；吹毛求疵
1. Janet is always carping at unimportant matters.
2. It is no good carping at the disobedient boy about his behaviour.
3. Why is he cavilling at your minor faults?
8.Carried away: be controlled by one's feelings. 失去自制
Example: Nancy was much carried away while she was arguing with her husband about a misunderstanding.
9.Carrot-and-stick: the hope of re-ward and the threat of punishment. 胡萝卜加大棒（喻软硬兼施）
Example: To a large extent, a student has benefited from the carrot-and-stick approach of teaching.
10.Defeat one's purpose: undo an intended purpose or effect. 达不到自己的目的
Example: If you follow that undertain method,you risk losing the support and defeating your purpose.
11.Defer to something: act according to the opinion of someone or because of something. 遵从
1. I will be glad to defer to your good advice.
2. I am pleased to defer to your rich ex-perience in this matter.
12.Deficient in something: not enough of something. 缺乏
Example:Such food is deficient in vitamins.
1. Act up to something: act according to one's principles,etc. 根据原则等行事
Example: Mr Lin claims to have high principles, but he doesn't always act up to his proclaimed ethics.
2. Actions speak louder than words: what we do is more important than what we say. 行动胜于语言
Example: To prove that he is an honest person, Jim behaved himself. Actions speak louder than words.
3. Adapt oneself to something: make oneself suitable for something. 适应于
Example: When you go to a foreign land, you must adapt yourself to the new customs there.
4. Beat a (hasty)retreat: go away in a hurry. 仓皇撤退；匆匆走开
Example: When the rascals saw the policeman, they beat a retreat.
5. Beat about the bush:(in the negative)go round a subject instead of coming directly to the point. 拐弯抹角地说。
Example: If you have anything to say, go straight to the point. Don't beat about the bush.
6. Beat down (a price): lower the price by bargaining. 降低某物价格
Example: Since $30 is too expensive, you can beat down the price as you wish.
7. Carry all / everything before someone: be completely successful.完全成功
Examples: 1. In school, Sam carried all before him.
2.The soldiers carried everything before them and gained the control of the place.
8. Defraud someone of something:deceive someone so as to get or keep something wrongly or illegally. 从某人处骗取某物
Example: The cashier defrauded the boss of thousands of dollars.
9. Defuse a situation:make the situation less harmful or dangerous. 缓和危急局面。
Example: The police chief succeeded in defusing the situation before any real trouble started.
10. Defy someone to do something: challenge someone to do something. 激某人做不愿做的事
Example: Since you are a brave man, I defy you to fight that bully.
11. Eat away something:destroy something by chemical action. 腐蚀
Example:The acid has eaten away the metal bit by bit.
12. Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die: We should enjoy ourselves while we can because life is uncertain. 生命无常应自我享受
Example: Life is full of imponderables. Hence, let's eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we die.
13. Eat humble pie: be more respectful or apologetic than one has been before. 赔礼
Example: If his wife excused herself, would he not make her eat humble pie again?
1. Fall foul of something: quarrel; fight; get into trouble. 与某人／某事冲突
Example: Being dishonest, he soon fell foul of the law.
2. Fall in/ into place: become clear. 开始有头绪；开始明朗了
Example:Just wait and see. The mystery will fall into place soon.
3. Fall in love with someone:love someone. 爱上某人
Example:The two young persons fell in love with each other.
4. Gasp out something:say something while breathing. 喘着气说话
Example:The girl ran up and gasped out the robbery to the police.
5. Gateway/ pathway to something, the / a way of reaching a place or gaining something. 达到……的途径
1. Generally speaking, diligence is the gateway to success.
2. Constant practice is the pathway to a better command of the language being learned.
6. Gather from something: understand from something said or done.（从所做的或所说的事）理解
Example: I didn't gather much from the confused story he had just told us.
7. Hang on someone's lips/ every word/ the words of someone: listen attentively to someone. 注意听某人说话
1. The speaker was so eloquent that everybody was hanging on his lips.
2. June hung on every word of her teacher and took detailed notes.
3. Deeply interested, the audience hung on the words of the invited speaker.
8. In a fit of ……: under the influence of a sudden violent feeling (e.g. temper, anger, etc.) 在一股……下；在一阵……下
Example: Mr brown hit his son in a fit of temper.
9. in/ like a flash: in a very short time; quickly. 很快；立刻
1. I will be back in a flash.
2. Last night's bank robbery happened like a flash.
10. In a fog: in a confused and uncertain state of mind. 迷惑
1.Tom was in a fog about his science lesson this morning.
2.Mr Lin told me he was in a fog about what to do.
11. Jumble up/ together: mix or throw together without any order. 胡乱混在一起
1. The letters of the words have been jumbled up.
2. Returned books were jumbled together on the library tables.
12. Jump on someone:
(i) make a sudden attack on someone. 突击
Example: The robber jumped on his victim in a dark corner.
(ii) criticise someone unfairly. 不公平地批评某人
Example: Why did you jump on him for his minor pronunciation problems?
1. Add fuel to the fire/ flames: cause someone to be more angry. 火上加油
Example: The workers were not satisfied with their wages, and when they were made to work longer hours, the whole matter added fuel to the fire.
2. Add insult to injury: make matters even worse. 伤害之外又加侮辱（使关系更差）
Examples: 1. Asking the wounded man to pay for the damage of the car was simply adding insult to injury. 2. Having failed to thank me for my help, Bob complained about my insincere attitude. He added insult to injury.
3. Add to something: increase something. 加上
Examples: 1.The rise in food prices has added to the livelihood problems of the poor. 2. Heavy rain added to the difficulties of driving on an unfamiliar road.
4. Beat someone at his own game:do better than someone in his own field of activity.在某人拿手的方面胜过某人
Example: Jason won a book prize and beat his rival at his own game.
5. Beat the drum for someone/something:do everything possible to draw public attention to something for someone. 为某人／某事敲边鼓
Examples: a. His party's supporters never missed an opportunity to beat the drum for him. b. I know you are now beating the drum for your new product.
6. Beat up someone: hit someone severely. 毒打某人
Example:The rude man beat up his wife without any good reason.
7. Carry forward : (of accounts) move to the next page for further addition. 把总数转记于另一页
Example: She forgot to carry the total figure forward. so there was a mistake in the calculation.
8. Carry on (with something): continue (wtih something.) 继续
Examples:1.It is difficult to carry on a conversation in a crowded place . 2 Please carry on with your work after the tea break.
9. Carry one's point: succeed in making others to agree with what one has suggested. 说服别人接受自己的观点
Example: Now that you have carried your point, is there any need for further discussion?
10. Degenerate into something:become less good or admirable. 衰退、恶化
Example: The lengthy discussion soon degenerated into an exchange of insults.
11. Degrade oneself:disgrace oneself. 降低自己身份
Example: Don't degrade yourself by asking for money all the time.
12. Delegate (power,rights) to someone: give power, rights, etc. to someone. 把权利等委托给某人
Example: The captain delegated his supervisory power to his capable assistant.
13. Eat into something: (i)destroy by chemical action. 腐蚀
Example: Acid eats into metal. (ii)use or waste gradually. 消耗
Example: Increasing expenses have eaten into her savings.