as to 关于 至于 就…而论

  • The boxes were marked in such a way as to permit the repeated location of each seed throughout stratification , germi- nation , and subsequent germinant growth.
  • Also, these can give yield criteria for the decision as to whether clones should stay or be moved (or replaced) because of overly large or small reproductive efficiency (Muller-Starck and Ziehe 1984).
  • There was some uncertainty as to whether Fisher should try for a Cambridge scholarship in mathematics or in biology, but in the end mathematics won.
  • We all have our pet ideas as to what are important sources of variation or covariation, and fit models accordingly, but typically many different models can fit almost as well (e.g. full sib common environment and dominance).

albeit, although

  • Recent work in P. lambertiana has confirmed the existence of a 24-nt DCL3 pathway in conifers, albeit with distinct spatial and/or temporal characteristics (40).
  • However, while yield and wood quality are known to act in antagonizing fashion, the results based on PC2 and PC3, albeit collectively accounting for 42% of the total variation, created interesting opportunities for the concurrent selection for both traits without any adverse effect associated with the known negative correlations.
  • In support of this observation, surveys of natural variation in DNA methylation have repeatedly demonstrated that the correlation of methylation variation with differential gene expression is low, albeit significant [15,22,40,41].

ambiguous unambiguous (distinct clear evident explicit)

  • In such situations where spatial patterns are ambiguous about competition, the correlation between tree size and neighborhood density provides a useful measurement (Shackleton 2002).
  • Fibre length is also highly heritable however the nature of genetic correlations is ambiguous in this study.
  • MEAGHER(1986) discussed the implications of the answers to these questions in the context of ambiguous determination of paternity and their relevance to the extent and spread of genes in a well-defined geographical area.
  • Therefore, this figure also establishes that unambiguous assignment of paternity in a natural population is not generally feasible, based solely on exclusionary events.
  • We could not resolve unambiguously the question of the origin of the thirteenth chromosome pair in Douglas fir, but our data allow some speculation.
  • The SAR regression approach was not unambiguously superior to other spatial regression approaches.
  • Our observation of the greater influence of variation in female than in male flowering was not unambiguously supported by the results for these pine seed orchards.

allow (见permit)

  • The availability of cheap and abundant molecular markers in maize (Zea mays L.) has allowed breeders to ask how molecular markers may best be used to achieve breeding progress, without conditioning the question on how breeding has traditionally been done.

at best 在最好的情况下;即便作最乐观的估计,就最乐观的一面看,从最好的角度来看;充其量,至多;说得再好也只是

  • Thus, Drake’s 0.003 rule is at best a rough approximation for microorganisms.
  • If empiricists have been a bit slow to embrace this, opting more commonly to focus on single traits or at best pairs of traits
  • However, the first results on DNA sequence variation for conifers showed, at best, moderate estimates of nucleotide diversity
  • Because of the low mutation rate and due to the fact that a mutation must occur in a predominant parent to cause significant LD, we assume that mutation is at best a marginal factor causing LD in elite maize germplasm.

anti.cip.ate -to expect that something will happen and be ready for it预期,预料

  • The un.pre.ced.ent.ed rates of climate changes anticipated to occur in the future, coupled with land use changes that im.ped.e gene flow, can be expected to disrupt the interplay of adaptation and migration, likely affecting productivity and threatening the persistence of many species.
  • The empirical results are supported by theoretical expectations demonstrating anticipated minimum genetic response compared with conventional approaches.
  • Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups.
  • When applied to hybrid breeding, genomic selection is anticipated to be evenmore efficient because genotypes of hybrids are predetermined by their inbred parents.
  • Hence, tree improve- ment efforts must select for more favourable juvenile wood properties to counterbalance anticipated negative effects on wood quality.
  • This is among the first of many examples of how sequencing of the Populus genome is revolutionizing tree biotechnology and forest ecology research, and we anticipate a flurry of such studies to follow the publication of the sequence this year.
  • Phenotype predictions for unobserved individuals that both anticipate sampling variation and incorporate all posterior uncertainty are easily obtained from MCMC output.
  • It is widely anticipated that a gene-by-gene engineering approach will enable enhanced efficiency in plant breeding

ac.com.mod.ate 适应

  • Here we build on recently developed methods for linkage-disequilibrium mapping of quan- titative traits to construct a general approach that can accommodate nuclear families of any size, with or with- out parental information.
    • a general approach
  • The approach is sufficiently general to accommodate individuals with partial or no marker information.
  • These include the need to accommodate replicate plants for each line, consider spatial variation in field trials, address line by environment interactions, and capture nonadditive effects.
  • Therefore, sta- tistical models of species response to the environment not only need to accommodate spatial structure, but need to distinguish between components due to exogeneous and endogeneous processes rather than discarding all spatial variance.
  • Even when traditional analysis methods accommodate the design, choice about which parameters (e.g., explicit models of dominance, SCA, etc.) should be included in the model can alter the estimates and interpretation of the other parameters.
  • To increase its applicability in clinical genomics, GWAS could further accommodate irregular longitudinal data measured at subject-specific time points.
  • A positive feature of categorical allocation is that the use of likelihoods or posterior probabilities results in a framework in which scoring errors or mutations can be accommodated very easily by modifying the transition probabilities accordingly
  • Here, we derive a robust statistical approach for QTL mapping that accommodates a certain degree of misspecification of the true model by incorporating integrated square errors into the genetic mapping framework
  • Likelihood methods can also be adjusted to accommodate genotyping error, mutation, and null alleles and are helpful in compensating for some of the errors in genotyping caused by microsatellites

a surge of……的涌现

  • Recently, a surge of interest has also been exploded in solving the mixture models by Bayesian approaches
  • For this reason, an understanding of biological curvature and texture has received a surge of interest in structural biology.
  • Recently, with the surge of “omics” technologieswehave been able to generate amore comprehensive panorama of the genome-wide expression profiles during SE
  • This is arguably the most important factor that drives the recent surge of popularity of Bayesian inference in most branches of science.
  • During the last five years there has been a surge of work involving SilviScan (or similar tools) data for DEN and MFA at the ring level.

address- solve problems

  • address
    • ~ questions /issue uncertainty /problems
  • We conclude by briefly summarizing more complex applications of the animal model, and by highlighting key pitfalls and dangers for the researcher wanting to begin using quantitative genetic tools to address ecological and evolutionary questions.
  • We address this issue in a study of two 10-year-old genetic field trials of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. in Australia.
  • Integrating functional mapping into a full-sib family requires a model selection procedure capable of addressing these uncertainties.
  • Phenotypic competition addresses largely the same source of variation as the autoregressive parameters.

appraise; to officially judge how successful, effective, or valuable something is 评定;鉴定;估价

  • evaluate = to appraise; to assess
  • Monitoring programs should be included as part of the breeding program in order to appraise coancestry levels in new orchards and inbreeding levels in seed crops.
  • As part of this section, the authors critically appraise a putative alternative solution namely “land sparing,” which is the spatial separation of biodiversity conservation and agriculture.
  • Longitudinal growth strain at the stem surface is **appraise**d on the basis of stress released on the stem periphery by drilling into wood under the cambium.
  • Given the rapid growth of genomic resources available for studies of non-model organisms, now is an excellent time to appraise the future prospects for molecular genetic- and pedigree-based studies of inbreeding and inbreeding depression in the wild.
  • Note that (1) and (2) can only be **appraise**d precisely for a specific model,(3) for two or more alternative models, and (4) for the appropriateness for the data in hand of the various models
  • The assumption that forest protection and management should be based on central policy and planning within an authoritative and hierarchical forest service, having important territorial and policing functions, was re**appraise**d.
  • However, Peri and Pandey (2001) and others have recently re**appraise**d this convention, finding that more than 40 per cent of known transcripts contain in-frame AUG codons upstream of the actual initiator codon, some of which conform more closely to the Kozak motif than the authentic initiator codon.
  • Discrepancies should, however, cause us to critically reappraise the model, the data, and our preconceptions.
  • Such risks include assessing: the `gain’ projections; the markets’ ability to model the improvements with respect to future potential buyers of the timberland and appraisers who periodically value the timberland; and susceptibility to catastrophic loss due to reduced genetic diversity.
  • Tubby look at their land holdings and reappraise whether the current land use is providing them with the greatest long term benefit.
  • Note that the membership of clusters may change each cycle, so we have to repeatedly re-appraise the memberships.

appreciable很大的 considerable,great,hugely; large

  • Grain angle under bark exhibited non-significant genetic correlations, close to zero, with growth traits, stem form, and branch traits in both species, and with pilodyn penetration in Norway spruce, suggesting that genetic selection for this trait would not generate any appreciable response in the other traits.
  • Some of these mutations can reach an appreciable frequency in the population, for example by random drift or by natural selection.
  • However, using less than 500 markers led to an appreciable loss in accuracy for all four traits.
  • For instance, Daniels [273] studied the effect of eight different pollination regimes, including SMP, on filled seed production of one selected Douglas-fir parent, but found no appreciable increase as compared with the wind-pollinated control.
  • The level of variation found in different wood properties in this study indicated that good genetic gain could be achieved via conventional breeding, subject to these traits showing appreciable genetic control.



  1. 忍受,忍耐,具有,支撑

    • It also identified a chromosomal region bearing a semi-lethal recessive allele and demonstrated the genetic variability of recombination rate over the genome.
    • First, following on from the discussion above, if recombination occurs in hotspots and these hotspots bear most of the genes, then differential sequencing efforts will be required to obtain data for all of the genes in conifer genome sequencing programs.
    • Therefore, their genetic background may have been indirectly selected toward generalists bearing a plastic adaptability to local conditions.
    • The application of the genomic tools to plant breeding, besides improving the selection process, offers the possibility of planning and developing novel varieties bearing pre-defined traits (breeding by design).
  2. 结果实,开花

    • This can explain why, applying growth regulator to control vegetative vigour, the `Dongkui’ cultivar is prone to bear male flowers [28], as well as provide evidence that male and female of Chinese bayberry may share common ancestors and co-evolved.
    • In plant species that bear both male and female flowers, the same individuals can be used both as females and as males in breeding; this mating design is called a diallel.
  3. bearing on 对…有影响

    • PNAS does not take responsibility for or endorse these services, and their use has no bearing on acceptance of a manuscript for publication.
    • Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and bearing on summative wood analysis and on studies on the hemicelluloses.
    • Most of the attention devoted to identification of variables that have a bearing on resin production, however, has concentrated on environmental attributes and cultural practices aimed at stimulating tree growth.
    • A comparison of these results with those in Table 3 suggested that use of different models would not have appreciable bearing on the estimates of h2.
    • Wood properties of the tree have a major bearing on the final quality and strength of veneer and in turn performance of the final engineered product.
    • Considering the constraints of breeding cycles over several generations also brings into focus practical aspects of GS that have a bearing on its potential for success.
  4. bearing/keep/ in mind that 记住
    • Such an approach could be useful since breeders of autogamous species are primarily interested in selecting progenies that, during homozygosis, accumulate a higher quantity of favorable alleles that associate the best additive genetic values (AGV), bearing in mind that the ultimate aim is the establishment of lines (Fehr, 1987).
    • We must bear in mind that, in breeding procedures using GS, the unintended fixation of deleterious mutations might occur in a short time span because the cycles of selection is turned over rapidly.
    • It is also useful to keep in mind that in a large randomly mating population with no linkage between loci influencing different characters, genetic correlations are soon dissipated (Lande, 1984).
    • One caveat to bear in mind is that many demographic processes, such as population expansion, bottlenecks or population subdivision, can result in patterns of polymorphism that mimic signatures of natural selection.
    • Moreover, we did not standardize the data as in Waldmann and Ericsson (2006), and comparison with their results should be done bearing this in mind.


cull 选择 剔除不好的

  • It is better to cull undesirable individuals (selfed and related progenies) during the nursery stage prior to planting.
  • It is possible that grafts with better flowering are favoured as complements, and it is likely that grafts with inferior flowering are culled at orchard thinning.
  • RKER and LIBBY (1974) suggest that the correlation between self performance and outcross per- formance may be improved by culling the lower .50% of each self family to reduce the bias that may occur due to the segre- gation of rare, recessive, deleterious alleles.
  • With independent culling levels, all genotypes are discarded which have a phenotypic value below the culling level for at least one trait; for example, low yield, poor quality or poor disease resistance.


  • An important corollary to the gene balance hypothesis is balanced gene drive, which predicts, e.g., that multiple tetraploidies will naturally drive up the relative gene content of genes encoding transcription factors, protein kinases, multisubunit proteins like ribosomes and proteasomes, and other subunits of life’s most complicated machines (40).
  • A corollary is that obtaining GS model accuracy beyond that of pedigree-based models would likely necessitate increasing genome coverage by a factor of at least 10X to 100X of that used herein, resulting in the use of a very large number of markers, likely in the hundreds of thousands.
  • In parallel, inbreeding experiments have been conducted as a corollary with an interpretation as being the opposing effect of heterosis.
  • A corollary of the hypothesis is that the chromosomal state most similar to the paleohexaploid progenitor is present in extant members of the genus Vitis, where chromosomes are still assorted in triplets due to an unexpected maintenance of gene order along tens of millions of years13.
  • Falconer (1989) presents the correlated response equation, a corollary to the predicted gain equation, as:
  • An important corollary is that the form of E(Y |X), the regression function, is unaffected by selection operating on X, this being true for any distribution.
  • A corollary of this analysis is that relatively high amounts of resources must be absorbed by the crop to achieve high yields.
  • A corollary of this problem is that lack of dynamic consistency makes any kind of individual differences analysis uninterpretable.

contemplate 考虑

  • Some of the specific changes adopted or **contemplate**d are:
  • The estimates do provide a useful benchmark for breeders interested in the potential for correlated responses in meat quality from selection on growth and yield and for breeders who contemplate the estimation of heritabilities in their breeding lines and/or adding these traits to their breeding objectives.
  • Thus, the simple nested treatment model cross/DH could be **contemplate**d for analysis, where cross codes the particular cross and the DH nested within a cross is coded by DH.
  • However, the lack of repetitive grouping along the orchard’s grid might affect the optimal nature of the design if practices such as systematic thinning are **contemplate**d.
  • Among approaches now being **contemplate**d to raise further the yield ceiling, the exploitation of hybrid vigour (heterosis) is considered widely, the most prospective one.
  • As we learn more about the detail of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, it is interesting to contemplate whether this dominance will continue or whether some form of resolution of the two models will emerge.

coupled with/together with 加上,与…结合

  • We pinpoint several future directions in which functional mapping can be coupled with systems biology to unravel the genetic and metabolic machinery of drug response.
  • The evolution of body shape is thought to be tightly coupled to changes in regulatory sequences, but specific molecular events associated with major mor- phological transitions in vertebrates have remained elusive.
  • Breeding in raspberry is time-consuming due to the highly heterozygous nature of this perennial fruit crop, coupled with relatively long periods of juven.ility童期长.
  • The availability of reliable, informative molecular markers coupled with paternity assignment methods [13] created an opportunity whereby the breeding phase of tree breeding could be effectively eliminated.
  • This inbreeding depression coupled with variation in outcrossing rates in the wild (Hardner et al. 1998) is believed to be a major factor driving differences in the performance of open-pollinated families in common-garden trials of E. globulus

com.pelling 令人信服的;极为有趣的;令人激动的;引人入胜的

  • compelling

    • ~association /candidate /gene /method /(experimental) evidence /advantage /benefit /consequence /signal /approach /study /question /efficiency /results /reason /need /support /case /example /
  • For systolic blood pressure收缩压, the most compelling association involved chromosome 12q21 and variants near the ATP2B1 gene.

  • The most compelling regional candidate gene is ATP2B1
  • This is encouraging because it suggests the commonly-used argument for using more resource-intensive and less readily accessible Bayesian methods may be less compelling than suggested by some authors.
  • For all models except pine crown radius, we found compelling evidence for species-specific differences in competitive effects, as has been demonstrated in previous neighborhood analyses of tree growth
  • A particularly compelling advantage of this RI set is that the two parental strains, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, are sequenced
  • This marker, which is a highly polymorphic gene, is a compelling candidate for regulation of these transcript abundances.
  • This generative modelling approach offers several compelling benefits.
  • The differentiation of the marker-allele which is in linkage to low extractives content was a compelling consequence, to make it useable for MAS.
  • Appropriately, the most compelling candidate genes in the regions we identified have well- established effects in cartilage and bone differentiation and have been shown to impact on craniofacial development in animal models.
  • Prior to the GWAS era, the only compelling association signal for fasting glucose levels was known at GCK (MIM 138079) (glucokinase), but GWAS in European samples (46,000 GWAS and 76,000 replication samples) have expanded that number to 16
  • This approach is compelling, in that it addresses two important elements of post-GWAS prioritization: the selected pathway provides a biological vehicle for statistically combining GWAS association results, and an implicated pathway provides a biological interpretation.
  • Nevertheless, this study is compelling in its use of natural genetic variation instead of engineered gene knockouts, suggesting that its profound genetic effects may be more widely generalized.
  • Accounting for the external factors would move them closer to the proposed ‘intrinsic’ line, further supporting the conjecture that the intrinsic line is mainly defined by cancers without compelling known epidemiological risk, whereas those above are at higher risks owing to extrinsic factors.
  • Two compelling questions arise from the discovery of these large gene families in pine
  • The corresponding arguments are no less compelling for EWASs, but the relevant parameters are even more diffi- cult to predict because of the paucity of data and relevant theory.
  • Sequence redundancy of about twofold (rather than the eightfold that is typical of whole-genome efforts) is suggested to offer compelling efficiency in yielding new information69, although it also suffers various limitations as detailed below.

circum.vent v. 包围;智取;绕行,规避更多还是用避免这个意思

  • Hence, measure- ments should be taken to circumvent the problem in trade- offs between gain in selection and keeping diversity
  • To circumvent this problem, a closed-form expression for an upper bound to R2 is obtained instead.
  • The use of CBCS to efficiently capture the complex- ity of repetitive elements33,44— the largest constituent in most angiosperm genomes — might circumvent some problems and create new opportunities.
  • One way to circumvent this limitation is to draw a profile of LD that decays over an extended genomic region
  • To circumvent the limitations of QTL-based models, Meuwissen et al. (2001) proposed using whole genome regression (WGR) methods (also known as models for genomic selection, GS) where information about poten- tially hundreds of thousands of markers is jointly consid- ered.
  • If we can further understand the genetic basis of these negative genetic correlations using molecular tools (e.g., identifying pleiotropic alleles or genes associated with antagonistically correlated traits), more efficient breeding strategies may be developed to circumvent these antagonistic genetic correla- tions by crossing genotypes with a desirable suite of al- leles.
  • The rapid development of high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping technologies is making genome-wide studies in non- model organisms more feasible, which may circumvent the need for associations with known genes.


  • This was in part made possible by the overlap layout consensus (OLC) as- sembly paradigm championed by Myers [13] and ubiquitously implemented in first-generation WGS assemblers.
  • On the one end of the spectrum, Lamb and Jablonka have championed the notion概念见解 that inherited epigenetic variation plays an important role in evolution, adding a complementary Lamarckian dimension to neo- Darwinian mechanisms

commit to 致力于 不及devote用的多

  • The consortium represented by the authorship list hold long-term data that represent a considerable investment in scientific endeavour. Whilst we are committed to sharing these data for scientific research, users are requested to collaborate before publication of these data to ensure accurate biological interpretation.
  • In contrast, relatively meager effort has been committed to determining how strongly genetic effects influence pheno- typic variation for resin yield in loblolly pine.


  • We collected and sequenced 1,495 diverse varieties of hybrid rice (F1), which are grown on 415 million hectares per annum and contribute greatly to the agricultural production.
    • rice ~to production - diverse varieties - hectares - per annum每年 - greatly - agricultural production
  • Cosegregation information from half sibs contributes little to accuracy of GEBVs in current dairy cattle breeding schemes but from full sibs it contributes considerably to accuracy within family in corn breeding.
    • cosegregation information - breeding schemes - considerably - information ~ to accuracy
  • These results present the first step in the application of marker- assisted selection (MAS) to the Western Gulf Forest Tree Improvement Program (WGFTIP) for loblolly pine and will contribute to the knowledgebase necessary for genomic selection technology.
    • present the first step in the application of - knowledgebase - necessary for - genomic selection technology - results ~ to knowledgebase
  • Statistical models play a pivotal role in mapping specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to biological shape and its developmental trajectories.
    • developmental trajectories - qtl ~ to shape and trajectories
  • Currently, the genetic worth of a seedlot is estimated by the mean breeding value of all the parents, including those that contribute to pollen contamination and supplemental mass pollination, weighted by their proportional gamete contributions
    • the genetic worth of a seedlot - pollen contamination - supplemental mass pollination - parents ~ to pollen contamination
  • The advancement made in the procedures described in this document should contribute to superior decisions in many aspects of forest management.
    • advancement ~ to decision
  • A Bayesian analysis using 2 different sets of prior distributions for the variance components showed that inferences differed only when the relative amount of information contributed by the data was small.
    • inferences differed - the relative amount of - information ~ by data
  • Forest managers may endeavor 努力 to understand and explore how competition and spatial dependence contribute to the growth of a forest stand and affect stand dynamics and forest health.
    • endeavor to - explore - competition and spatial dependence ~ to growth
  • Internode length and leaf number contributed substantially to the heterosis of stem volume
    • length and leaf number ~ to heterosis
  • Although much progress has been made in identifying the genes (and, in rare cases, mutations) that contribute to phenotypic variation, less is known about the effects that these genes have on fitness.
    • much process - gene ~ to variation
  • Genetic effects contributed more than nongenetic parental effects to variation in traits measured at the adult stage
    • genetic effects ~ to variation
  • Epistasis has been found to contribute significantly to life-history traits in many studies (reviewed
    • been found to - epistasis ~ to traits
  • Integration of this complex expression data might contribute to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of heterosis.
    • integration ~ to improve our understanding of / a better understanding

cornerstone基石/milestone 里程碑

  • Parentage analysis is a cornerstone of research in molecu- lar ecology.
  • Given their undomesticated state, and difficulty in produc- ing suitable pedigrees as a result of high heterozygosity and long generation cycles [1,39,40], the OP family design should provide a cornerstone for the inevitable next wave of dis- secting complex phenotypes in forest trees.
  • We can thus perceive (9) as the cornerstone of the NOIA model.
  • We will not enter into details, but just note that the sparse structure of the left hand side matrix in (9) is the cornerstone for the fast computation of the AI-matrix used in the numerical maximisation of the REML likelihood.
  • Although it remains the cornerstone approach, cost-per-unit yield gain has risen substantially.
  • Arabidopsis research has also been an important cornerstone in the bid to describe how plants respond to chewing pests.
  • That the lumber sector will remain the cornerstone of the competitiveness of the traditional and emerging forest products industry in Canada is one of the key findings of the Bio-pathways Project


deregulate 放松管制

  • a transgenic construct-driven system for production of non-genetically modified hybrid maize has been deregulated

devote 致力于

  • devote
    • ~ much/ substantial /major /considerable /initial/increasing /more effort to
    • ~ sth. to
    • ~ attention /discussion /energy /interest /resources /research /publications /to
  • The increasing research effort devoted to IGEs suggests that they are a widespread phenomenon, probably particularly in natural populations and plants.
  • This kind of design has the desirable feature that entries need not be replicated, but suffers from the fact that a considerable proportion of plots may need to be devoted to controls.
  • This combining of cycles for testing improves the efficiency of the testing procedure and decreases the percentage of plots devoted to standard check treatments.
  • Acreage devoted to growing longleaf pine has diminished to less than three percent of that at the time of European settlement
  • MUCH effort in genetics has been devoted to revealing the underlying genetic architecture of
    quantitative or complex traits.
  • Variation in drought resistance in conifers has long been recognized to have a genetic basis [61,62], and substantial effort has previously been devoted to attempts at using molecular and genomic tools to uncover the responsible genetic determinants [63-65].
  • How- ever, the REML approach requires an iterative technique that usually tends to be computationally very demanding, especially for multivariate data sets, and much effort has therefore been devoted to development of more efficient algorithms
  • Major efforts devoted to sequencing ESTs in various species are also multiplying 增加 越来越多
  • Therefore, considerable effort has been devoted to develop new statistical methods that estimate the breeding values and heritability in the linear mixed model context
  • Evolutionary change is usually driven by natural selection, and evolutionary biologists have devoted considerable energy to classifying and quantifying patterns of selection
  • Ernst Mayr devoted an extended discussion to the origins of the modern neo- Darwinian consensus in evolutionary biology and the concep- tual unity it forged out of often-conflicting perspectives of the biometrically oriented “naturalist” and Mendelian camps
  • Most of the attention devoted to identification of variables that have a bearing on resin production, however, has concentrated on environmental attributes and cultural practices aimed at stimulating tree growth.
    • have a bearing on与…有关系;对…有影响 - environmental attribute - cultural practice
  • Much less attention has been devoted to the fact that phenotypes may also be correlated.


  • depleted
    • ~ sth/variation /resources
  • Direct sunlight contains a high proportion of red light, whereas light reflected from neighboring vegeta- tion is depleted in red and relatively rich in far red
  • When IGEs differ systematically between relatives and strangers, evolution by kin selection should not fully deplete heritable variation which could be expressed under interactions among strangers.

diminish- reduce /decrease

  • Rapid germination and large seeds resulted in significantly larger seed- lings in the nursery, but these carryover effects diminished with age.
  • Additive genetic correlations with height and stem diameter were negative with the simplest statistical model (r
    A = –0.425 and 0.511, respectively) but vanished or diminished when ring width was added as covariate.
  • Simulations of growth under various scenarios (situation) of climate change indicated that it would be diminished tangibly under more intense warming.

de.fer- delay

  • Some technical derivations are deferred to Appendices A


  • Atkin et al. (2009) have also documented the impact of depth of pedigree and inclusion of historical data on the estimation of additive variance and breeding values in a sugarcane breeding program.
  • Although well-documented software often exists for
    the fixed analog of the additive genetic model, and in some cases also a simple mixed model, the applicability of such software in animal breeding is often limited.
  • Potential criteria for deciding which traits to pursue aggressively in this way might include the strength and robustness of detected associations, evidence that asso- ciations are disrupted by varying linkage disequilibrium patterns, documented associations of identified loci with multiple traits, and public health importance of the traits to be studied.
    • potential criteria - pursue aggressively - strength and robustness - disrupted - public health improtance
  • Site effects have been shown in many studies to be important in heartwood content but genotype by site (GxE) interactions are poorly documented.
    • have been shown in many studies
  • Despite considerable range in data describing current distribution, several studies have documented that the abundance of shortleaf pine in the Missouri Ozarks has diminished
    • the abundance of - has diminished
  • Relationships between wood properties and profitability of kraft pulp production are well documented
    • wood properties - pfofitability of craft pulp production
  • The involvement of NHX1, SOS1 and other CPA1 genes in plant response to NaCl stress has been well documented (An et al., 2007; Ma et al., 2015).
    • the involvement … in … - response to
  • Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation— natural selection—are largely unknown.
    • ecological consequences - key evolutionary process - driving adaptation

depict- to describe something or someone in writing or speech, or to show them in a painting, picture etc【正式】 描写,描述,描绘

  • The familial relatedness axis depicts the relationships among individuals from recent coancestry.
    -familial relatedness

  • The degree and nature of polymorphism revealed by SRAP primerc combination Me4Em4 is depicted in Fig.2.

  • Figure 2 depicts scatter plots of relationships among G, D,and GD that are taken from four randomly sampled animals.

  • Figure 2 depicts the progress of breeding and deployment populations and method of breeding value prediction in the STBA radiata pine breeding history.

  • Signal boundaries, depicted by vertical dotted lines, were chosen using the recombination hot spots flanking the strongest signal.

  • Principal coordinate analysis (PCA) implemented in SAS and the unrooted neighbor- joining (N-J) tree based on the Nei’s distance using MEGA 4.0 (Tamura et al. 2007) were employed to depict genetic relationship between the 192 rapeseed inbred lines.

(un)duly 不适当地 过度地 不适当的

  • In light of these weaknesses it was natural that an alternative would be sought, and so maximum likelihood estimation duly came to be considered.
  • Breeding should therefore focus on improving adaptation, productivity, and stem and branch quality without unduly reducing wood density or adversely affecting fibre traits.
  • Our conclusion is that haying-off is scientifically plausible, but the concept has been unduly extrapolated and might have influenced farmers’ practices in true Mediterranean environments where it is unlikely.
  • The challenge for future yield improvement is to devise strategies that will enhance the scope for PWG to respond to availability of assimilates without unduly enhancing the risk of incomplete grain filling.
  • concerns that an unduly high level of uniformity would be required; and (4) the need to establish standardized protocols and to demonstrate that laboratories around the globe can generate data of sufficient quality and consistency.


event.ual 最终的 last

  • Over the course of evolution, many duplicate genes lose their function and are eventually removed by deletion.
  • Cross-validation (CV) is an essential tool to achieve this goal, where a sample is partitioned into K parts of roughly equal size, one part is predicted using parameters estimated from the remaining K – 1 parts and eventually every part is predicted using a sample excluding that part.
  • The ancestral angiosperm-wide genome duplica- tion apparent in the Amborella genome not only serves as a genetic marker for the origin of extant angiosperms, but it may also have set inmotion a series of events as numerous genes evolved novel functions, eventually leading to modern flowering plants.
  • Further decreasing nc by increasing nr will eventually reduce family selection gains by increasing the contribution of within-family genetic variance components to the family gain denominators.
  • As the position of the endogenous cline is not con- strained by selection, it can move, and eventually comes to rest where the gradient in exogenous allele frequency is locally maximal

ex.plic.it- very clear and direct 明确的

  • explicit
    • ~ attention /description /framework
    • ~ly indicate /examine /account for
  • Such determination requires explicit attention to the prior probability of particular findings, as well as appropriate correction for multiple comparisons.
  • Journals could improve the reporting of gene association results by requiring explicit, critical and standardized descriptions of pre- vious evidence for candidate genes.
  • Neighbour-joining trees based on SNP data provide an explicit framework for investigating hypotheses of breed history and the genesis of phenotypic diversity.
  • Authors should indicate explicitly the phenotype combinations that yield negative mapping results and state how they use phenotypic infor- mation to guide the extension of pedigrees.
  • Although this type of variation has not been explicitly examined in most GWAS until now
  • Alternatively, common environmental variation can be explicitly accounted for by taking replicate measurements of flies of the same genotype emerging from different vials, and at different times.
  • Although neither prediction has yet been explicitly demonstrated in crops, patterns of residual heterozygosity in the maize genome support the first prediction14, and evidence from humans128 bears out the
  • Like GC, this approach does not explicitly model the population structure and is com- putationally fast, but it is much more flexible than GC because epistatic and covariate effects can be included in the regression model.
  • Alternatively, a mixed-model approach that involves estimated kinship, with or without an explicit subpopulation effect, has recently been found to outperform GC in many settings
  • Alternative approaches can be based on the estimated haplotype proportions among cases and controls, without an explicit haplotype assignment for individuals
  • a Bayesian analysis requires explicit assumptions about effect sizes at truly associated SNPs.
  • Indeed, some frequentist approaches to controlling the FDR, which are popular in microarray analyses, do not involve explicit consideration of the number of tests but do involve treating π as a parameter to be estimated41
  • The posterior probability of association depends on modelling assumptions that should be made explicit in a careful analysis.
  • no field experiment can investigate all of the factors that are important for adaptation, but the hope is that by conducting empirical studies in nature, the single or few factors that are explicitly manipulated and tested will be subject to all of the interactions that occur under natural conditions.
    • factors be subjected to all of the interactions

engage 从事,吸引 attract

  • Once molecular markers are cost-effective and applica- ble in plant breeding, it is often straightforward to engage plant breeders to apply them in breeding programs.
  • The Bayesian approach is well suited to the needs of a scientist engaged in the disinterested无私的 pursuit of knowledge, but its greater flexibility can make it more difficult for referees and edi- tors to perform a gatekeeper role in maintaining high publication standards.
  • This recently funded proposal will engage community members over the next 5 yr in activities to capitalize upon the excellence in Arabidopsis research and facilitate new training directions for the next generation of diverse Arabidopsis research scientists.

en.dure 持续的

  • Competition for canopy space is a fundamental structuring feature of forest ecosystems and remains an enduring focus of research attention.
  • Thanks to acclimation, trees overcome envi- ronmental changes and endure for centuries.
  • I sincerely thank my partner Warwick for his enduring love, ongoing support and encouragement, for listening, and for tolerating my crazy hours, odd work practices, and periodic absences.
  • Shortleaf pine grows more slowly but endures competition longer than loblolly pine (Lawson 1990).
  • My deepest gratitude, however, is due to the Thai branch of my family for their enduring support in hard times.
  • In plant and animal breeding, the recipient parent is usually an enduring variety or inbred line/strain that has thrived for decades despite the introduction of new varieties in the field.
  • Most tree species are genetically diverse and much of the variation in genetically-controlled traits is associated with evolu- tionary adaptation of populations to their enduring local growth conditions.
  • An enduring goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the forces that govern how populations and species evolve.
  • However, given the enduring appeal of h2 as a summary statistic, perhaps the most important point to note is that the values of h2 need to be interpreted in the context not just of the biological system (trait and population) in which they were estimated, but also in the context of the model used to determine them.
  • The reason for this number is that the whole genome has endured three duplications.
  • However, the effec- tive number of traits may easily exceed the upper limit of endurable genetic load.
  • Selection criteria are endurance of summer drought, stem quality and wood density

(dis)entangle 〔用绳、网等〕缠住,套住;使卷入;使陷入

  • How can we get accurate information about social issues, collected consistently over time, and yet not entangle the government with sex, reli- gion, and other touchy subjects?
  • This is an effect of predicting the values of individuals, which have only one observation each, such that the genetic value of the individual is entangled with the residual effect of that observation.
  • In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition.
  • We show that the use of genome-wide SNP information can disentangle confounding factors to estimate genetic variances by separating genetic and non-genetic effects.
  • Trees are often found in large populations that are connected by extensive gene flow, an ideal context for disentangling selective from stochastic evolutionary forces.
  • The interrelationship between parent material, topographic position, and pine remnants is complex, and cannot be easily disentangled.
  • Disentangling the contributions of shared environment and genetic dominance effects requires additional data from, for example, twins reared apart, half- sibs, or non-biological relatives reared together.
  • Further research is needed to disentangle the biological role of rapid gene evolution from statistical artifacts of small sequence lengths
  • Specifically, we high- light how these three spatial approaches can provide new insights about landscape spatial pattern and to what degree these methods can disentangle the patterns due to species response to a spatially structured en- vironment and those due to ecological spatial process- es.

enhance (improve)

  • For trials with enhanced designs (RIB or RRC) there was usually an improvement in LogL for all trait types from the simplified design (RCB) model to the design model (using all within-replicate design features)

  • In particular, we clarify the role of the sample variogram and present a range of enhanced graphical diagnostics to aid the spatial modeling process.

    • the role of - sample variogram - a range of - graphical diagnostics - aid - spatial modeling process
  • Second, functional mapping is based on parsimonious modeling of mean-covariance structures, which enhances the statistical power of QTL detection.

    • functional mapping - parsimonious modeling 简约建模 - statistical power
  • This approach, embedded within a mixture likelihood framework, leads to enhanced accuracy, precision, and flexibility of functional mapping while preserving its biological relevance.

    • embedde within
    • flexibility - preserving -biological relevance
  • Results promise 预示 to enhance a fundamental understanding of evolutionary changes of tree architecture under domestication and to design sound silvicultural and breeding measures for improving plant productivity.

    • promise, allow, indicate - fundamental understanding - evolutionary changes - domestication
  • Enhanced forest inventories and silvicultural practices are essential to produce high-quality wood and to meet the growing demand for wood products.

    • forest inventories - silvicultural practices - growing demand
  • Genetic benefits can enhance the fitness of poly.andr.ous 多雄蕊的;一妻多夫的 females through the high intrinsic genetic quality of females’ mates or through the interaction between female and male genes.

    • genetic benefit - polyandrous - high intrinsic genetic quality
  • DNA microarray analysis has emerged as a leading technology to enhance our understanding of gene regulation and function in cellular mechanism controls on a genomic scale.

    • dna microarray analysis - leading technoloty - gene regulation and function - on a genomic scale
  • The integration of game theory into QTL mapping opens new opportunities to enhance the precision and resolution of QTL identification for complex phenotypes.

    • the integration of … into融入 - open new opportunities
  • Management practices are reviewed including those implemented during the establishment phase (orchard size, design, number of parents and their representation) and those implemented for enhanced crop management (crown management, supplemental mass pollination 人工辅助授粉, bloom delay, selective seed harvesting and the production of designer crops).

  • Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map.

    • marker annotation - a variety of - the utility of
  • Pinus taeda also is considered one of the major bioenergy feedstocks [4] and recently was selected as the first pine species for complete genome sequencing with the intent of using genome information to enhance its bioenergy potential

    • one of the major - bioenergy feedstocks 生物能源原料 - with the intent of 怀有… 的目的 - bioenergy potential
  • We conclude that it is advantageous for prediction of single-cross hybrids to enhance a GCA- based model with SCA effects estimated from molec- ular marker data, if SCA variances are of similar or larger importance as GCA variances.

    • advantageous
  • Marker selection will also be enhanced if pairs of tightly-linked markers flanking the QTL can be identified.

    • markers flanking the qtl

en.capsul.ate: to express or show something in a short