【Android应用开发】-(19)Android 串口编程原理和实现方式(附源码)

    提到串口编程,就不得不提到JNI,不得不提到JavaAPI中的文件描述符类:FileDescriptor。下面我分别对JNI、FileDescriptor以及串口的一些知识点和实现的源码进行分析说明。这里主要是参考了开源项目android-serialport-api

    串口编程需要了解的基本知识点:对于串口编程,我们只需对串口进行一系列的设置,然后打开串口,这些操作我们可以参考串口调试助手的源码进行学习。在Java中如果要实现串口的读写功能只需操作文件设备类:FileDescriptor即可,其他的事都由驱动来完成不用多管!当然,你想了解,那就得看驱动代码了。这里并不打算对驱动进行说明,只初略阐述应用层的实现方式。

 

(一)JNI:

    关于JNI的文章网上有很多,不再多做解释,想详细了解的朋友可以查看云中漫步的技术文章,写得很好,分析也很全面,那么在这篇拙文中我强调3点:

    1、如何将编译好的SO文件打包到APK中?(方法很简单,直接在工程目录下新建文件夹 libs/armeabi,将SO文件Copy到此目录即可)

    2、命名要注意的地方?(在编译好的SO文件中,将文件重命名为:libfilename.so即可。其中filename.so是编译好后生成的文件)

    3、MakeFile文件的编写(不用多说,可以直接参考package/apps目录下用到JNI的相关项目写法)

    这是关键的代码:

        int fd;
        speed_t speed;
        jobject mFileDescriptor;

        /* Check arguments */
        {
                speed = getBaudrate(baudrate);
                if (speed == -1) {
                        /* TODO: throw an exception */
                        LOGE("Invalid baudrate");
                        return NULL;
                }
        }

        /* Opening device */
        {
                jboolean iscopy;
                const char *path_utf = (*env)->GetStringUTFChars(env, path, &iscopy);
                LOGD("Opening serial port %s with flags 0x%x", path_utf, O_RDWR | flags);
                fd = open(path_utf, O_RDWR | flags);
                LOGD("open() fd = %d", fd);
                (*env)->ReleaseStringUTFChars(env, path, path_utf);
                if (fd == -1)
                {
                        /* Throw an exception */
                        LOGE("Cannot open port");
                        /* TODO: throw an exception */
                        return NULL;
                }
        }

        /* Configure device */
        {
                struct termios cfg;
                LOGD("Configuring serial port");
                if (tcgetattr(fd, &cfg))
                {
                        LOGE("tcgetattr() failed");
                        close(fd);
                        /* TODO: throw an exception */
                        return NULL;
                }

                cfmakeraw(&cfg);
                cfsetispeed(&cfg, speed);
                cfsetospeed(&cfg, speed);

                if (tcsetattr(fd, TCSANOW, &cfg))
                {
                        LOGE("tcsetattr() failed");
                        close(fd);
                        /* TODO: throw an exception */
                        return NULL;
                }
        }

(二)FileDescritor:

    文件描述符类的实例用作与基础机器有关的某种结构的不透明句柄,该结构表示开放文件、开放套接字或者字节的另一个源或接收者。文件描述符的主要实际用途是创建一个包含该结构的FileInputStreamFileOutputStream。这是API的描述,不太好理解,其实可简单的理解为:FileDescritor就是对一个文件进行读写。

(三)实现串口通信细节

1)  建工程:SerialDemo包名:org.winplus.serial,并在工程目录下新建jni和libs两个文件夹和一个org.winplus.serial.utils,如下图:


2) 新建一个类:SerialPortFinder,添加如下代码:

package org.winplus.serial.utils;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.LineNumberReader;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.Vector;

import android.util.Log;

public class SerialPortFinder {

	private static final String TAG = "SerialPort";

	private Vector<Driver> mDrivers = null;

	public class Driver {
		public Driver(String name, String root) {
			mDriverName = name;
			mDeviceRoot = root;
		}

		private String mDriverName;
		private String mDeviceRoot;
		Vector<File> mDevices = null;

		public Vector<File> getDevices() {
			if (mDevices == null) {
				mDevices = new Vector<File>();
				File dev = new File("/dev");
				File[] files = dev.listFiles();
				int i;
				for (i = 0; i < files.length; i++) {
					if (files[i].getAbsolutePath().startsWith(mDeviceRoot)) {
						Log.d(TAG, "Found new device: " + files[i]);
						mDevices.add(files[i]);
					}
				}
			}
			return mDevices;
		}

		public String getName() {
			return mDriverName;
		}
	}

	Vector<Driver> getDrivers() throws IOException {
		if (mDrivers == null) {
			mDrivers = new Vector<Driver>();
			LineNumberReader r = new LineNumberReader(new FileReader(
					"/proc/tty/drivers"));
			String l;
			while ((l = r.readLine()) != null) {
				// Issue 3:
				// Since driver name may contain spaces, we do not extract
				// driver name with split()
				String drivername = l.substring(0, 0x15).trim();
				String[] w = l.split(" +");
				if ((w.length >= 5) && (w[w.length - 1].equals("serial"))) {
					Log.d(TAG, "Found new driver " + drivername + " on "
							+ w[w.length - 4]);
					mDrivers.add(new Driver(drivername, w[w.length - 4]));
				}
			}
			r.close();
		}
		return mDrivers;
	}

	public String[] getAllDevices() {
		Vector<String> devices = new Vector<String>();
		// Parse each driver
		Iterator<Driver> itdriv;
		try {
			itdriv = getDrivers().iterator();
			while (itdriv.hasNext()) {
				Driver driver = itdriv.next();
				Iterator<File> itdev = driver.getDevices().iterator();
				while (itdev.hasNext()) {
					String device = itdev.next().getName();
					String value = String.format("%s (%s)", device,
							driver.getName());
					devices.add(value);
				}
			}
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return devices.toArray(new String[devices.size()]);
	}

	public String[] getAllDevicesPath() {
		Vector<String> devices = new Vector<String>();
		// Parse each driver
		Iterator<Driver> itdriv;
		try {
			itdriv = getDrivers().iterator();
			while (itdriv.hasNext()) {
				Driver driver = itdriv.next();
				Iterator<File> itdev = driver.getDevices().iterator();
				while (itdev.hasNext()) {
					String device = itdev.next().getAbsolutePath();
					devices.add(device);
				}
			}
		} catch (IOException e) {
			e.printStackTrace();
		}
		return devices.toArray(new String[devices.size()]);
	}
}

上面这个类在“android-serialport-api串口工具测试随笔”中有详细的说明,我就不多说了。

3)新建SerialPort类,这个类主要用来加载SO文件,通过JNI的方式打开关闭串口

package org.winplus.serial.utils;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileDescriptor;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;

import android.util.Log;

public class SerialPort {
	private static final String TAG = "SerialPort";

	/*
	 * Do not remove or rename the field mFd: it is used by native method
	 * close();
	 */
	private FileDescriptor mFd;
	private FileInputStream mFileInputStream;
	private FileOutputStream mFileOutputStream;

	public SerialPort(File device, int baudrate, int flags)
			throws SecurityException, IOException {

		/* Check access permission */
		if (!device.canRead() || !device.canWrite()) {
			try {
				/* Missing read/write permission, trying to chmod the file */
				Process su;
				su = Runtime.getRuntime().exec("/system/bin/su");
				String cmd = "chmod 666 " + device.getAbsolutePath() + "\n"
						+ "exit\n";
				su.getOutputStream().write(cmd.getBytes());
				if ((su.waitFor() != 0) || !device.canRead()
						|| !device.canWrite()) {
					throw new SecurityException();
				}
			} catch (Exception e) {
				e.printStackTrace();
				throw new SecurityException();
			}
		}

		mFd = open(device.getAbsolutePath(), baudrate, flags);
		if (mFd == null) {
			Log.e(TAG, "native open returns null");
			throw new IOException();
		}
		mFileInputStream = new FileInputStream(mFd);
		mFileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(mFd);
	}

	// Getters and setters
	public InputStream getInputStream() {
		return mFileInputStream;
	}

	public OutputStream getOutputStream() {
		return mFileOutputStream;
	}

	// JNI
	private native static FileDescriptor open(String path, int baudrate,
			int flags);

	public native void close();

	static {
		System.loadLibrary("serial_port");
	}
}

4) 新建一个MyApplication 继承android.app.Application,用来对串口进行初始化和关闭串口

package org.winplus.serial;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.security.InvalidParameterException;

import org.winplus.serial.utils.SerialPort;
import org.winplus.serial.utils.SerialPortFinder;

import android.content.SharedPreferences;

public class MyApplication extends android.app.Application {
	public SerialPortFinder mSerialPortFinder = new SerialPortFinder();
    private SerialPort mSerialPort = null;

    public SerialPort getSerialPort() throws SecurityException, IOException, InvalidParameterException {
            if (mSerialPort == null) {
                    /* Read serial port parameters */
                    SharedPreferences sp = getSharedPreferences("android_serialport_api.sample_preferences", MODE_PRIVATE);
                    String path = sp.getString("DEVICE", "");
                    int baudrate = Integer.decode(sp.getString("BAUDRATE", "-1"));

                    /* Check parameters */
                    if ( (path.length() == 0) || (baudrate == -1)) {
                            throw new InvalidParameterException();
                    }

                    /* Open the serial port */
                    mSerialPort = new SerialPort(new File(path), baudrate, 0);
            }
            return mSerialPort;
    }

    public void closeSerialPort() {
            if (mSerialPort != null) {
                    mSerialPort.close();
                    mSerialPort = null;
            }
    }
}

5) 新建一个继承抽象的Activity类,主要用于读取串口的信息

package org.winplus.serial;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.security.InvalidParameterException;

import org.winplus.serial.utils.SerialPort;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.app.AlertDialog;
import android.content.DialogInterface;
import android.content.DialogInterface.OnClickListener;
import android.os.Bundle;

public abstract class SerialPortActivity extends Activity {
	protected MyApplication mApplication;
	protected SerialPort mSerialPort;
	protected OutputStream mOutputStream;
	private InputStream mInputStream;
	private ReadThread mReadThread;

	private class ReadThread extends Thread {

		@Override
		public void run() {
			super.run();
			while (!isInterrupted()) {
				int size;
				try {
					byte[] buffer = new byte[64];
					if (mInputStream == null)
						return;
					
					/**
					 * 这里的read要尤其注意,它会一直等待数据,等到天荒地老,海枯石烂。如果要判断是否接受完成,只有设置结束标识,或作其他特殊的处理。
					 */
					size = mInputStream.read(buffer);
					if (size > 0) {
						onDataReceived(buffer, size);
					}
				} catch (IOException e) {
					e.printStackTrace();
					return;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	private void DisplayError(int resourceId) {
		AlertDialog.Builder b = new AlertDialog.Builder(this);
		b.setTitle("Error");
		b.setMessage(resourceId);
		b.setPositiveButton("OK", new OnClickListener() {
			public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
				SerialPortActivity.this.finish();
			}
		});
		b.show();
	}

	@Override
	protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
		super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
		mApplication = (MyApplication) getApplication();
		try {
			mSerialPort = mApplication.getSerialPort();
			mOutputStream = mSerialPort.getOutputStream();
			mInputStream = mSerialPort.getInputStream();

			/* Create a receiving thread */
			mReadThread = new ReadThread();
			mReadThread.start();
		} catch (SecurityException e) {
			DisplayError(R.string.error_security);
		} catch (IOException e) {
			DisplayError(R.string.error_unknown);
		} catch (InvalidParameterException e) {
			DisplayError(R.string.error_configuration);
		}
	}

	protected abstract void onDataReceived(final byte[] buffer, final int size);

	@Override
	protected void onDestroy() {
		if (mReadThread != null)
			mReadThread.interrupt();
		mApplication.closeSerialPort();
		mSerialPort = null;
		super.onDestroy();
	}
}

6)编写string.xml 以及baudrates.xml文件

    在string.xml文件中添加:

    <string name="error_configuration">Please configure your serial port first.</string>
    <string name="error_security">You do not have read/write permission to the serial  port.</string>
    <string name="error_unknown">The serial port can not be opened for an unknown  reason.</string>

在baudrates.xml文件中添加

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

    <string-array name="baudrates_name">
        <item>50</item>
        <item>75</item>
        <item>110</item>
        <item>134</item>
        <item>150</item>
        <item>200</item>
        <item>300</item>
        <item>600</item>
        <item>1200</item>
        <item>1800</item>
        <item>2400</item>
        <item>4800</item>
        <item>9600</item>
        <item>19200</item>
        <item>38400</item>
        <item>57600</item>
        <item>115200</item>
        <item>230400</item>
        <item>460800</item>
        <item>500000</item>
        <item>576000</item>
        <item>921600</item>
        <item>1000000</item>
        <item>1152000</item>
        <item>1500000</item>
        <item>2000000</item>
        <item>2500000</item>
        <item>3000000</item>
        <item>3500000</item>
        <item>4000000</item>
    </string-array>
    <string-array name="baudrates_value">
        <item>50</item>
        <item>75</item>
        <item>110</item>
        <item>134</item>
        <item>150</item>
        <item>200</item>
        <item>300</item>
        <item>600</item>
        <item>1200</item>
        <item>1800</item>
        <item>2400</item>
        <item>4800</item>
        <item>9600</item>
        <item>19200</item>
        <item>38400</item>
        <item>57600</item>
        <item>115200</item>
        <item>230400</item>
        <item>460800</item>
        <item>500000</item>
        <item>576000</item>
        <item>921600</item>
        <item>1000000</item>
        <item>1152000</item>
        <item>1500000</item>
        <item>2000000</item>
        <item>2500000</item>
        <item>3000000</item>
        <item>3500000</item>
        <item>4000000</item>
    </string-array>

</resources>

7)开始编写界面了:在main.xml布局文件中添加两个编辑框,一个用来发送命令,一个用来接收命令:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="fill_parent"
    android:layout_height="fill_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical" >

    <EditText
        android:id="@+id/EditTextReception"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="fill_parent"
        android:layout_weight="1"
        android:gravity="top"
        android:hint="Reception"
        android:isScrollContainer="true"
        android:scrollbarStyle="insideOverlay" >
    </EditText>

    <EditText
        android:id="@+id/EditTextEmission"
        android:layout_width="fill_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:hint="Emission"
        android:lines="1" >
    </EditText>

</LinearLayout>

8) SerialDemoActivity类的实现:

package org.winplus.serial;

import java.io.IOException;

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.KeyEvent;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.TextView.OnEditorActionListener;

public class SerialDemoActivity extends SerialPortActivity{
	EditText mReception;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
            setContentView(R.layout.main);

//          setTitle("Loopback test");
            mReception = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.EditTextReception);

            EditText Emission = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.EditTextEmission);
            Emission.setOnEditorActionListener(new OnEditorActionListener() {
                    public boolean onEditorAction(TextView v, int actionId, KeyEvent event) {
                            int i;
                            CharSequence t = v.getText();
                            char[] text = new char[t.length()];
                            for (i=0; i<t.length(); i++) {
                                    text[i] = t.charAt(i);
                            }
                            try {
                                    mOutputStream.write(new String(text).getBytes());
                                    mOutputStream.write('\n');
                            } catch (IOException e) {
                                    e.printStackTrace();
                            }
                            return false;
                    }
            });
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDataReceived(final byte[] buffer, final int size) {
            runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
                    public void run() {
                            if (mReception != null) {
                                    mReception.append(new String(buffer, 0, size));
                            }
                    }
            });
    }
}

    写到这里,代码基本上写完了。下面就是要实现JNI层的功能了,要实现JNI,必须首先生成头文件,头文件的生成方式也很简单, 我们编译工程,在终端输入 javah org.winplus.serial.utils.SerialPort 则会生成头文件:org_winplus_serial_utils_SerialPort.h,这个头文件的名字可以随意命名。我们将它命名为:SerialPort.h拷贝到新建的目录jni中,新建SerialPort.c 文件,这两个文件的代码就不贴出来了。直接到上传的代码中看吧。


(四)串口的应用,可实现扫描头,指纹识别等外围USB转串口的特色应用。

 

还蛮繁琐的,以上只是对开源项目android-serialport-api 进行精简想了解此项目请点击此处就这样吧,晚了准备见周公去!

 源码下载地址==》

精心准备的串口编程资料,欢迎下载==》

原创文章,转载请注明出处:http://www.blog.csdn.net/tangcheng_ok

发布了104 篇原创文章 · 获赞 12 · 访问量 94万+
展开阅读全文

没有更多推荐了,返回首页

©️2019 CSDN 皮肤主题: 大白 设计师: CSDN官方博客

分享到微信朋友圈

×

扫一扫,手机浏览