cocos2dx实例开发之2D横版跑酷

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/u012234115/article/details/48275387

从网上下了一点素材资源,外加自己ps一点资源,然后东拼西凑写了一个横版跑酷的小游戏

ps:csdn好不爽,无法传大点的gif,所以只好录了个短的gif,而且压缩之后凑合能看

预览



步骤

1 工程结构

开发环境
  • win8.1
  • vs2013
  • cocos2dx 3.2
代码目录

游戏组成结构


主要有以下几个场景

  • 预加载场景,用于loading等待
  • 主菜单场景
  • 游戏主场景(背景、移动地图、角色、拾取物)
  • 选项界面
  • 关于界面

2 预加载场景

主要是用于图片资源,音频资源的异步预加载,然后在回调里面跳转到主菜单场景,并且添加了进度条提示
void LoadingScene::loadingCallBack(Texture2D *texture)
{
	loadedNum++;
	//此处的预加载帧动画指示用于实验性质
	switch(loadedNum)
	{
	case 1:
		//预加载帧缓存纹理
		SpriteFrameCache::getInstance()->addSpriteFramesWithFile("boy.plist",texture);
		loadProgress->setPercentage((float)loadedNum/totalNum*100);
		break;
	case 2:
		//预加载帧缓存纹理
		SpriteFrameCache::getInstance()->addSpriteFramesWithFile("girl.plist",texture);
		loadProgress->setPercentage((float)loadedNum/totalNum*100);
		break;
	default:
		break;
	}

	if(loadedNum==totalNum)
	{
		//预加载帧动画
		auto boyAnimation=Animation::create();
		boyAnimation->setDelayPerUnit(0.1f);
		for(int i=1;i<=12;i++)
		{
			char str[100]={0};
			sprintf(str,"boy%d.png",i);
			boyAnimation->addSpriteFrame(SpriteFrameCache::getInstance()->getSpriteFrameByName(str));
		}
			
		AnimationCache::getInstance()->addAnimation(boyAnimation,"boyAnimation");

		//预加载帧动画
		auto girlAnimation=Animation::create();
		girlAnimation->setDelayPerUnit(0.2f);
		for(int i=1;i<=8;i++)
			girlAnimation->addSpriteFrame(SpriteFrameCache::getInstance()->getSpriteFrameByName("girl"+std::to_string(i)+".png"));
		AnimationCache::getInstance()->addAnimation(girlAnimation,"girlAnimation");

		////预加载音乐和音效
		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->preloadBackgroundMusic("spring_music.wav");
		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->preloadBackgroundMusic("winter_music.mp3");

		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->preloadEffect("jump.wav");
		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->preloadEffect("point.mp3");
		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->preloadEffect("gameover.wav");
		
		//加载完毕跳转到游戏场景
		auto mainMenu=MainMenu::createScene();
		TransitionScene *transition=TransitionFade::create(1.0f,mainMenu);
		Director::getInstance()->replaceScene(transition);
	}
	
}

3 主菜单场景

添加一个菜单和对应的回调函数,分别有开始游戏、选项、关于等菜单项
//添加菜单
	auto newGameItem=MenuItemImage::create("newgameA.png","newgameB.png",CC_CALLBACK_1(MainMenu::menuStartCallback,this));
	newGameItem->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2));
	
	auto optionItem=MenuItemImage::create("option_btn.png","option_btn.png",CC_CALLBACK_1(MainMenu::menuOptionCallback,this));
	optionItem->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2-60));
	
	auto aboutItem=MenuItemImage::create("aboutA.png","aboutB.png",CC_CALLBACK_1(MainMenu::menuAboutCallback,this));
	aboutItem->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2-120));


	auto menu=Menu::create(newGameItem,optionItem,aboutItem,NULL);
	menu->setPosition(Point::ZERO);
	this->addChild(menu,1);

4 游戏主场景

common头文件
这个头文件里面存储了一些定义的全局变量,比如关卡、男女角色选取等
//游戏关卡枚举
enum Level
{
	SPRING,
	WINTER
};


//游戏角色枚举
enum PlayerType
{
	BOY,
	GIRL
};

//游戏角色状态
enum PlayerState
{
	RUN,
	SLIDE,
	JUMP
};

//地图元素枚举
enum BlockType
{
	LAND,  //砖块
	NPC,   //怪物
	STAR,  //星星
	TOOL,  //工具
	NONE   //空
};

//场景间隔基本单位定为80,分辨率800*480,则排满是10*6个格子,便于作碰撞检测
const float BLOCK_SIZE=80.0f; 
const float PICKUP_SIZE=40.0f;
const float PLAYER_RADIUS=50.0f;
const float GRAVITY=-1500.0f;
const float PLAYER_SPEED=700.0f;
为了便于计算,将屏幕设计分辨率定位800*480,一个砖块或怪物的大小是80*80,一个拾取物的大小是40*40,这样计算坐标时只需要左整数倍数的偏移就可以了。
游戏里面设置了两种关卡,分别对应了春天和冬天的地图,春天的怪物是绿水灵,冬天的怪物是蓝蘑菇,(玩过冒险岛的都知道),同时还可以选择男、女两种角色。
都是用全局变量进行控制。


游戏角色player类
class Player:public Node
{
public:
	virtual bool init() override;
	CREATE_FUNC(Player);
public:
	void run(); //主角奔跑
	void jump(); //主角跳跃
	void slide(); //主角滑行
	PlayerState playerState; //角色状态
private:
	Sprite *playerSprite; //奔跑的角色精灵
	Sprite *playerSpriteSlideJump; //滑行和起跳的角色精灵
	Animate *playerAnim;
	Texture2D *jumpTexture;
	Texture2D *slideTexture;
	
};
游戏角色分男女,具有奔跑、跳跃、滑行三种状态
角色还有奔跑动画,同时还要为角色绑定刚体,需要受物理引擎作用
playerSprite=Sprite::create(playerTextureName); //此处必须初始化一张角色纹理,否则后面无法切换纹理
	
	jumpTexture=Sprite::create(playerJumpTexureName)->getTexture(); //创建跳跃纹理
	slideTexture=Sprite::create(playerSlideTextureName)->getTexture(); //创建滑行纹理

	playerAnim=Animate::create(playerAnimation);
	this->addChild(playerSprite);

	auto playerBody=PhysicsBody::createBox(playerSprite->getContentSize()); //这里要用包围盒,如果用圆形的话会导致滚动
	playerBody->setDynamic(true);
	playerBody->setContactTestBitmask(1);
	playerBody->setGravityEnable(true);
	playerBody->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0.0f); //设置刚体回弹力
	this->setPhysicsBody(playerBody);

游戏移动地图类
主要是地图中的砖块和怪物等元素的无限滚屏移动
首先,在初始化里面,手动设置初始地图,放置砖块、怪物、拾取物等等
//手动搭建地图,没有加入即时计算~
	//1层
	for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
	{
		if(i!=3&&i!=4&&i!=7&&i!=8)
		{
			//添加land
			auto block=Sprite::create(block_file);
			block->setPosition(BLOCK_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+1*BLOCK_SIZE);
			this->addChild(block);
			block->setTag(LAND); //设置tag
			auto blockBody=PhysicsBody::createBox(block->getContentSize());
			blockBody->setDynamic(false);
			blockBody->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			blockBody->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0);
			block->setPhysicsBody(blockBody);
		}
	}
	//2层
	for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
	{
		if(i==2||i==5||i==6)
		{
			//添加怪物
			auto npc=Sprite::create(npc_file);
			npc->setTag(NPC);
			npc->setPosition(BLOCK_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+2*BLOCK_SIZE);
			auto npcBody=PhysicsBody::createBox(npc->getContentSize());
			npcBody->setDynamic(false);
			npcBody->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			npcBody->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0);
			npc->setPhysicsBody(npcBody);
			this->addChild(npc);
		}
		if(i==3)
		{
			//添加land
			auto block=Sprite::create(block_file);
			block->setPosition(BLOCK_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+1*BLOCK_SIZE);
			this->addChild(block);
			block->setTag(LAND); //设置tag
			auto blockBody=PhysicsBody::createBox(block->getContentSize());
			blockBody->setDynamic(false);
			blockBody->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			blockBody->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0);
			block->setPhysicsBody(blockBody);
		}
	}
	//3层
	for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
	{
		if(i!=0&&i!=3&&i!=4)
		{
			//添加星星
			auto star1=Sprite::create(star_file);
			star1->setTag(STAR);
			star1->setPosition(PICKUP_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+3*BLOCK_SIZE);
			auto starBody1=PhysicsBody::createBox(star1->getContentSize());
			starBody1->setDynamic(false);
			starBody1->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			starBody1->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0.0f);
			star1->setPhysicsBody(starBody1);
			this->addChild(star1);

			auto star2=Sprite::create(star_file);
			star2->setTag(STAR);
			star2->setPosition(PICKUP_SIZE/2*3+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+3*BLOCK_SIZE);
			auto starBody2=PhysicsBody::createBox(star2->getContentSize());
			starBody2->setDynamic(false);
			starBody2->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			starBody2->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0.0f);
			star2->setPhysicsBody(starBody2);
			this->addChild(star2);

		}

	}
	//4层
	for(int i=0;i<10;i++)
	{
		if(i==3||i==4)
		{
			//添加land
			auto block=Sprite::create(block_file);
			block->setPosition(BLOCK_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+4*BLOCK_SIZE);
			this->addChild(block);
			block->setTag(LAND); //设置tag
			auto blockBody=PhysicsBody::createBox(block->getContentSize());
			blockBody->setDynamic(false);
			blockBody->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			blockBody->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0);
			block->setPhysicsBody(blockBody);

		}
		if(i==8)
		{
			auto star1=Sprite::create(star_file);
			star1->setTag(STAR);
			star1->setPosition(PICKUP_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+3*BLOCK_SIZE);
			auto starBody1=PhysicsBody::createBox(star1->getContentSize());
			starBody1->setDynamic(false);
			starBody1->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			starBody1->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0.0f);
			star1->setPhysicsBody(starBody1);
			this->addChild(star1);

			auto star2=Sprite::create(star_file);
			star2->setTag(STAR);
			star2->setPosition(PICKUP_SIZE/2*3+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+3*BLOCK_SIZE);
			auto starBody2=PhysicsBody::createBox(star2->getContentSize());
			starBody2->setDynamic(false);
			starBody2->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			starBody2->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0.0f);
			star2->setPhysicsBody(starBody2);
			this->addChild(star2);
		}
		if(i==6)
		{
			//添加道具
			auto tool=Sprite::create(tool_file);
			tool->setTag(TOOL);
			tool->setPosition(PICKUP_SIZE/2+i*BLOCK_SIZE,BLOCK_SIZE/2+3*BLOCK_SIZE);
			auto toolBody=PhysicsBody::createBox(tool->getContentSize());
			toolBody->setDynamic(false);
			toolBody->setContactTestBitmask(1);
			toolBody->getShape(0)->setRestitution(0.0f);
			tool->setPhysicsBody(toolBody);
			this->addChild(tool);
		}
	}
每个物体都绑定了刚体,便于在物理世界做碰撞检测
然后需要启动无限滚屏
//启动调度器,地图滚屏
	this->schedule(schedule_selector(GameMap::mapUpdate),0.01f);
目前所采用的策略是党某个node消失在左侧是,重新设置其坐标到有边缘从右往左移动,不过,更好的方法是动态的随机生成地图结点,但是算法较复杂。
void GameMap::mapUpdate(float dt)
{
	for(auto &node:this->getChildren())
	{
		node->setPositionX(node->getPositionX()-3.0f);
		if(node->getPositionX()<=-node->getContentSize().width/2)
			node->setPositionX(node->getPositionX()+BLOCK_SIZE/2+10*BLOCK_SIZE);
	}

}

游戏主场景类
这里有游戏最重要的逻辑代码。

一开始需要初始化物理引擎
auto *scene=Scene::createWithPhysics();
	scene->getPhysicsWorld()->setGravity(Vec2(0,GRAVITY));

添加背景滚屏,这是底层背景,移动速度比地图移动速度慢,这样有层次感,有景深感觉,让画面更加动感
backGround1=Sprite::create(backGroundFile);
	backGround1->setAnchorPoint(Point::ZERO);
	backGround1->setPosition(Point::ZERO);
	this->addChild(backGround1,0);
	backGround2=Sprite::create(backGroundFile);
	backGround2->setAnchorPoint(Point::ZERO);
	backGround2->setPosition(Point::ZERO);
	this->addChild(backGround2,0);
void GameScene::backGroundUpdate(float dt)
{
	backGround1->setPositionX(backGround1->getPositionX()-1.0f);
	backGround2->setPositionX(backGround1->getPositionX()+backGround1->getContentSize().width);
	if(backGround2->getPositionX()<=0.0f)
		backGround1->setPositionX(0.0f);
}

添加角色
//添加player
	player=Player::create();
	player->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+2*BLOCK_SIZE,visibleOrigin.y+4*BLOCK_SIZE));
	this->addChild(player,1);

添加地图
//设置地图,默认锚点在左下角
	gameMap=GameMap::create();
	gameMap->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x,visibleOrigin.y);
	this->addChild(gameMap,1);

添加两个控制按钮
//添加滑行和跳跃按钮的事件
	score=0; //初始化分数

	slideBtn=Sprite::create("slideButton.png");
	auto slideBtnTexture1=Sprite::create("slideButton.png")->getTexture();
	auto slideBtnTexture2=Sprite::create("slideButtonPress.png")->getTexture();
	slideBtnTextures.pushBack(slideBtnTexture1);
	slideBtnTextures.pushBack(slideBtnTexture2);
	slideBtn->setScale(0.5);
	slideBtn->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+100,visibleOrigin.y+50));
	this->addChild(slideBtn,2);

	jumpBtn=Sprite::create("jumpButton.png");
	auto jumpBtnTexture1=Sprite::create("jumpButton.png")->getTexture();
	auto jumpBtnTexture2=Sprite::create("jumpButtonPress.png")->getTexture();
	jumpBtnTextures.pushBack(jumpBtnTexture1);
	jumpBtnTextures.pushBack(jumpBtnTexture2);
	jumpBtn->setScale(0.5);
	jumpBtn->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width-100,visibleOrigin.y+50));
	this->addChild(jumpBtn,2);

触摸检测,用于控制按钮
滑行时动态更换纹理
跳跃时给角色一个向上的速度,暂停动画,更换纹理
要注意的是,一开始只能二段跳,接了道具之后可以三段跳
bool GameScene::onTouchBegan(Touch *touch,Event *event)
{
	auto touchPoint=touch->getLocation();
	//检测是否触摸在按钮区域
	if(slideBtn->getBoundingBox().containsPoint(touchPoint))
	{
		slideBtn->setTexture(slideBtnTextures.at(1));
		player->slide();
	}

	if(jumpTimes<jumpTotal&&jumpBtn->getBoundingBox().containsPoint(touchPoint))
	{
		if(isSound)
			SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->playEffect("jump.wav"); //播放跳跃音效
		jumpBtn->setTexture(jumpBtnTextures.at(1));
		player->jump();
		jumpTimes++;
	}
		
	return true;
}

void GameScene::onTouchEnded(Touch *touch,Event *event)
{
	auto touchPoint=touch->getLocation();
	//判断是释放时是否在按钮区域
	if(slideBtn->getBoundingBox().containsPoint(touchPoint))
	{
		slideBtn->setTexture(slideBtnTextures.at(0));
		player->run();
	}

	if(jumpBtn->getBoundingBox().containsPoint(touchPoint))
	{
		jumpBtn->setTexture(jumpBtnTextures.at(0));
	}

}

碰撞检测
bool GameScene::onContactBegin(const PhysicsContact &contact)
{
	jumpTimes=0; //落回地面就将已跳跃次数清零

	//获得被碰撞物体,getShapeA  getShapeB要尝试一下
	auto target=contact.getShapeA()->getBody()->getNode();
	if(target->getTag()==STAR)
	{
		//碰到星星就涨分,星星消失
		gameMap->moveNode(target);
		addScore(100); //拾取星星得100
	}
	else if(target->getTag()==NPC&&target->getPositionY()+target->getContentSize().height/2<player->getPositionY()) //此处要用else if,只有当角色在怪物头上才能踩中
	{
		gameMap->moveNode(target);
		addScore(150); //踩怪得150
	}
	else if(target->getTag()==NPC&&target->getPositionY()+target->getContentSize().height/2>=player->getPositionY()) //如果角色正面遇到怪物就挂了
		gameOver();
	else if(target->getTag()==TOOL)
	{
		jumpTotal=3;
		auto toolIcon=Sprite::create("accelerate_state.png");
		toolIcon->setPosition(Point(visibleOrigin.x+180,visibleOrigin.y+50));
		this->addChild(toolIcon,2);
		target->removeFromParent(); //道具只出现一次,从parent里面删除
		addScore(300); //道具300
	}

	//落回地面恢复跑步状态
	if(player->playerState==JUMP)
		player->run();

	return true;
}

碰撞检测的逻辑主要是
  • 判断碰撞的是砖块则继续奔跑
  • 判断碰撞的是怪物,并且是踩在投上,则消除怪物,得分
  • 判断碰撞的是拾取物,则消除拾取物,得分,如果是道具的话则获得三段跳的能力
  • 判断碰撞是正面遇到怪物,则游戏结束

游戏结束的逻辑
  • 正面遇到怪物
  • 落到屏幕底下
void GameScene::gameOver()
{
	//游戏结束停止所有的调度器
	gameMap->unscheduleAllSelectors();
	this->unscheduleAllSelectors();
	//播放游戏结束声音
	if(isSound)
		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->playEffect("gameover.wav");

	//游戏结束出现菜单
	visibleSize=Director::getInstance()->getVisibleSize();
	visibleOrigin=Director::getInstance()->getVisibleOrigin();
	
	auto gameOverPanel=Node::create();
	auto overLabel=Sprite::create("gameover.png");
	overLabel->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2+100);
	gameOverPanel->addChild(overLabel);

	auto backItem=MenuItemImage::create("back_to_menu.png","back_to_menu_press.png",[](Object *sender)
	{
		//用lambda表达式作为菜单函数回调
		auto mainMenu=MainMenu::createScene();
		TransitionScene *transition=TransitionFade::create(1.0f,mainMenu);
		Director::getInstance()->replaceScene(transition);
	});
	auto backMenu=Menu::createWithItem(backItem);
	backMenu->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2-50);

	gameOverPanel->addChild(backMenu);

	gameOverPanel->setPositionY(visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height);
	this->addChild(gameOverPanel,3);
	//滑入gameover logo,注意node的锚点在左下角
	gameOverPanel->runAction(MoveTo::create(0.5f,Vec2(visibleOrigin.x,visibleOrigin.y)));

}

其他逻辑
都放到update这个函数里面进行

角色被阻挡后赶到原来的位置

//当角色被挡道之后跟上原来的位置
	float step=2.0f;
	if(player->getPositionX()<2*BLOCK_SIZE)
		player->setPositionX(player->getPositionX()+step);
	if(player->getPositionX()>2*BLOCK_SIZE)
		player->setPositionX(player->getPositionX()-step);

加分
void GameScene::addScore(float number)
{
	if(isSound)
		SimpleAudioEngine::getInstance()->playEffect("point.mp3"); //播放得分音效
	score+=number;
	scoreLabel->setString(String::createWithFormat("score: %d",score)->_string);
}

5 设置场景

设置游戏关卡、游戏角色和声音,这里懒得加xml配置文件存储。
//春天
	auto springItem=MenuItemImage::create("spring_icon.png","spring_icon_press.png",[](Object *sender)
	{
		//修改关卡
		level=SPRING;
		textLevel->setString("level: Spring");
	});
	

	springItem->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/4+35,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/4*3);
	//冬天
	auto winterItem=MenuItemImage::create("winter_icon.png","winter_icon_press.png",[](Object *sender)
	{
		//修改关卡
		level=WINTER;
		textLevel->setString("level: Winter");
	});
	winterItem->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/4*3-35,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/4*3);
	//男生
	auto boyItem=MenuItemImage::create("boy1.png","boy_jump.png",[](Object *sender)
	{
		//修改角色
		playerType=BOY;
		textPlayer->setString("player: Boy");
	});
	boyItem->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2-100);
	//女生
	auto girlItem=MenuItemImage::create("girl1.png","girl_jump.png",[](Object *sender)
	{
		//修改角色
		playerType=GIRL;
		textPlayer->setString("player: Girl");
	});
	girlItem->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2+200,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2-100);

	//声音开关
	auto soundItem=MenuItemImage::create("sound_on.png","sound_off.png",[](Object *sender)
	{
		//修改声音
		isSound=!isSound;
		textSound->setString(isSound?"sound: On":"sound: Off");
	});
	soundItem->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+soundItem->getContentSize().width/2,visibleOrigin.y+soundItem->getContentSize().height/2);


	auto menu=Menu::create(backItem,springItem,winterItem,boyItem,girlItem,soundItem,NULL);
	menu->setPosition(Point::ZERO);

	this->addChild(menu);
通过全局变量与其他场景交互


6 关于场景

//添加动态背景
	auto backGround=Sprite::create("about.jpg");
	backGround->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2);
	auto repeatAnim=MoveBy::create(3.0f,Vec2(0,50));
	backGround->runAction(RepeatForever::create(Sequence::create(repeatAnim,repeatAnim->reverse(),NULL)));
	this->addChild(backGround,0);

	//添加关于告示
	auto aboutLabel=Sprite::create("aboutLabel.png");
	aboutLabel->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2);
	this->addChild(aboutLabel,1);
	auto text=LabelBMFont::create("author:tashaxing\nE-mail:tashaxing@163.com\n\nWish you have fun!","bitmapFontChinese.fnt");
	text->setPosition(visibleOrigin.x+visibleSize.width/2,visibleOrigin.y+visibleSize.height/2);
	this->addChild(text,2);
一些简介


效果图

















整个demo也做了蛮久的,很多图片和图标,配色都是我自己ps的,算是策划、美术和程序一人承担了。

源码下载
github:parkour

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