Pytorch.nn.conv2d 过程验证(单,多通道卷积过程)


https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/32190799


首先提出两个问题:


1.输入图片是单通道情况下的filters是如何操作的? 即一通道卷积核卷积过程

2.输入图片是多通道情况下的filters是如何操作的? 即多通道多个卷积核卷积过程


这里首先贴出官方文档:

classtorch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels, out_channels, kernel_size, stride=1, padding=0, dilation=1, groups=1, bias=True)[source]

Parameters:

  • in_channels (int) – Number of channels in the input image
  • out_channels (int) – Number of channels produced by the convolution
  • kernel_size (int or tuple) – Size of the convolving kernel
  • stride (int or tuple, optional) – Stride of the convolution. Default: 1
  • padding (int or tuple, optional) – Zero-padding added to both sides of the input. Default: 0
  • dilation (int or tuple, optional) – Spacing between kernel elements. Default: 1
  • groups (int, optional) – Number of blocked connections from input channels to output channels. Default: 1
  • bias (bool, optional) – If True, adds a learnable bias to the output. Default: True


这个文档中的公式对我来说,并不能看的清楚


一通道卷积核卷积过程:

比如32个卷积核,可以学习32种特征。在有多个卷积核时,如下图所示:输出就为32个feature map

也就是, 当conv2d( in_channels = 1 , out_channels = N)

有N个filter对输入进行滤波。同时输出N个结果即feature map,每个filter滤波输出一个结果.


import torch
from torch.autograd import Variable
##单位矩阵来模拟输入
input=torch.ones(1,1,5,5)
input=Variable(input)
x=torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=1,out_channels=3,kernel_size=3,groups=1)
out=x(input)
print(out)
print(list(x.parameters()))

输出out的结果和conv2d 的参数如下,可以看到,conv2d是有3个filter加一个bias

# out的结果
Variable containing:
(0 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.3065 -0.3065 -0.3065
 -0.3065 -0.3065 -0.3065
 -0.3065 -0.3065 -0.3065

(0 ,1 ,.,.) = 
 -0.3046 -0.3046 -0.3046
 -0.3046 -0.3046 -0.3046
 -0.3046 -0.3046 -0.3046

(0 ,2 ,.,.) = 
  0.0710  0.0710  0.0710
  0.0710  0.0710  0.0710
  0.0710  0.0710  0.0710
[torch.FloatTensor of size 1x3x3x3]

# conv2d的参数
[Parameter containing:
(0 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0789 -0.1932 -0.0990
  0.1571 -0.1784 -0.2334
  0.0311 -0.2595  0.2222

(1 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0703 -0.3159 -0.3295
  0.0723  0.3019  0.2649
 -0.2217  0.0680 -0.0699

(2 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0736 -0.1608  0.1905
  0.2738  0.2758 -0.2776
 -0.0246 -0.1781 -0.0279
[torch.FloatTensor of size 3x1x3x3]
, Parameter containing:
 0.3255
-0.0044
 0.0733
[torch.FloatTensor of size 3]
]

验证如下,因为是单位矩阵,所以直接对参数用sum()来模拟卷积过程:

f_p=list(x.parameters())[0]
f_p=f_p.data.numpy()
print("the result of first channel in image:", f_p[0].sum()+(0.3255))

可以看到结果是和(0 ,0 ,.,.) = -0.3065 ....一样的. 说明操作是通过卷积求和的.

the result of first channel in image: -0.306573044777


多通道卷积核卷积过程:

下图展示了在四个通道上的卷积操作,有两个卷积核,生成两个通道。其中需要注意的是,四个通道上每个通道对应一个卷积核,先将w2忽略,只看w1,那么在w1的某位置(i,j)处的值,是由四个通道上(i,j)处的卷积结果相加得到的。 所以最后得到两个feature map, 即输出层的卷积核核个数为 feature map 的个数。

在pytorch 中的展示为

conv2d( in_channels = X(x>1) , out_channels = N)

有N乘X个filter(N组filters,每组X 个)对输入进行滤波。即每次有一组里X个filter对原X个channels分别进行滤波最后相加输出一个结果,最后输出N个结果即feature map。


验证如下:

##单位矩阵来模拟输入
input=torch.ones(1,3,5,5)
input=Variable(input)
x=torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=3,out_channels=4,kernel_size=3,groups=1)
out=x(input)
print(list(x.parameters()))

可以看到共有4*3=12个filter 和一个1×4的bias 作用在这个(3,5,5)的单位矩阵上

## out输出的结果
Variable containing:
(0 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.6390 -0.6390 -0.6390
 -0.6390 -0.6390 -0.6390
 -0.6390 -0.6390 -0.6390

(0 ,1 ,.,.) = 
 -0.1467 -0.1467 -0.1467
 -0.1467 -0.1467 -0.1467
 -0.1467 -0.1467 -0.1467

(0 ,2 ,.,.) = 
  0.4138  0.4138  0.4138
  0.4138  0.4138  0.4138
  0.4138  0.4138  0.4138

(0 ,3 ,.,.) = 
 -0.3981 -0.3981 -0.3981
 -0.3981 -0.3981 -0.3981
 -0.3981 -0.3981 -0.3981
[torch.FloatTensor of size 1x4x3x3]

## x的参数设置
[Parameter containing:
(0 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0803  0.1473 -0.0762
  0.0284 -0.0050 -0.0246
  0.1438  0.0955 -0.0500

(0 ,1 ,.,.) = 
  0.0716  0.0062 -0.1472
  0.1793  0.0543 -0.1764
 -0.1548  0.1379  0.1143

(0 ,2 ,.,.) = 
 -0.1741 -0.1790 -0.0053
 -0.0612 -0.1856 -0.0858
 -0.0553  0.1621 -0.1822

(1 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0773 -0.1385  0.1356
  0.1794 -0.0534 -0.1110
 -0.0137 -0.1744 -0.0188

(1 ,1 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0396  0.0149  0.1537
  0.0846 -0.1123 -0.0556
 -0.1047 -0.1783 -0.0630

(1 ,2 ,.,.) = 
  0.1850  0.0325  0.0332
 -0.0487  0.0018  0.1668
  0.0569  0.0267  0.0124

(2 ,0 ,.,.) = 
  0.1880 -0.0152 -0.1088
 -0.0105  0.1805 -0.0343
 -0.1676  0.1249  0.1872

(2 ,1 ,.,.) = 
  0.0299  0.0449  0.1179
  0.1280 -0.1545  0.0593
 -0.1489  0.1378 -0.1495

(2 ,2 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0922  0.1873 -0.1163
  0.0970 -0.0682 -0.1110
  0.0614 -0.1877  0.1918

(3 ,0 ,.,.) = 
 -0.1257 -0.0814 -0.1923
  0.0048 -0.0789 -0.0048
  0.0780 -0.0290  0.1287

(3 ,1 ,.,.) = 
 -0.0649  0.0773 -0.0584
  0.0092 -0.1168 -0.0923
  0.0614  0.1159  0.0134

(3 ,2 ,.,.) = 
  0.0426 -0.1055  0.1022
 -0.0810  0.0540 -0.1011
  0.0698 -0.0799 -0.0786
[torch.FloatTensor of size 4x3x3x3]
, Parameter containing:
-0.1367
-0.0410
 0.0424
 0.1353
[torch.FloatTensor of size 4]
]


因为是单位矩阵,所以直接对参数用sum()来模拟卷积过程,结果-0.639065589142 与之前的out结果的(0 ,0 ,.,.) = -0.6390 相同, 即conv2d 是通过利用4组filters,每组filter对每个通道分别卷积相加得到结果。

f_p=list(x.parameters())[0]
f_p=f_p.data.numpy()
print(f_p[0].sum()+(-0.1367))

-0.639065589142

再更新

import torch
from torch.autograd import Variable
input=torch.ones(1,1,5,5)
input=Variable(input)
x=torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=1,out_channels=3,kernel_size=3,groups=1)
out=x(input)

f_p=list(x.parameters())[0]
f_p=f_p.data.numpy()
f_b=list(x.parameters())[1]
f_b=f_b.data.numpy()

print("output result is:", out[0][0])
print("the result of first channel in image:", f_p[0].sum()+f_b[0])

output result is: Variable containing:
0.6577 0.6577 0.6577
0.6577 0.6577 0.6577
0.6577 0.6577 0.6577
[torch.FloatTensor of size 3x3]

the result of first channel in image: 0.657724


input=torch.ones(1,3,5,5)
input=Variable(input)
print(input.size())
x=torch.nn.Conv2d(in_channels=3,out_channels=4,kernel_size=3,groups=1)
out=x(input)

f_p=list(x.parameters())[0]
f_b=list(x.parameters())[1]
f_p=f_p.data.numpy()
f_b=f_b.data.numpy()
# print(f_p[...,0])
# print(f_p[...,0].shape)
# print(f_p[...,0].sum()+f_b[0])
print("output result :",out[0][0])
print("simlatuate the result:", f_p[0].sum()+f_b[0])

torch.Size([1, 3, 5, 5])
output result : Variable containing:
-0.2087 -0.2087 -0.2087
-0.2087 -0.2087 -0.2087
-0.2087 -0.2087 -0.2087
[torch.FloatTensor of size 3x3]

simlatuate the result: -0.208715

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