IN THE NEWS - Gays and Disabled Are Now Protected Under Hate Crimes Law in US
时事报道 20091031 在美国同性恋和残疾人受仇恨法保护
This is IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English.
This week, President Obama signed an expansion of federal law on hate crimes. Such laws provide more investigative resources or longer sentences, or both, for crimes driven by prejudice.
Until now, federal law has covered crimes based on a victim's race, color, religion or national origin. Congress first acted in nineteen sixty-eight after the murder of civil rights leader Martin Luther King.
到现在为止，联邦法律中涵盖了基于受害人的种族、肤色、宗教信仰或者是原始国籍等分类的罪行。在民权领袖马丁 路德金被谋杀以后，国会于 1968 年第一次通过这种法律。
Now, after years of effort by gay rights groups and others, the law will include sexual orientation . And it will extend protection to those victimized because of their gender or gender identity or a disability.
The new act passed by Congress is named for two victims of hate crimes. Matthew Shepard was a gay college student murdered in Wyoming in nineteen ninety-eight. That same year, three white men in Texas beat a black man, James Byrd Junior, and pulled him to his death behind a truck.
这项国会通过的新法案被提议出来是因为两个仇恨罪的受害者。大学学生 Matthew Shepard 是一个同性恋者， 1998 年他在怀俄明州被谋杀。同年三个男人在得克萨斯州殴打一个黑人男子， James Byrd Junior ，并且把他放在卡车后施死。
Democrats attached the new hate crimes legislation to a major defense bill that had to be passed. Republicans wanted to consider it separately. John Boehner, the minority leader in the House of Representatives, called it "thought crimes" legislation and "radical social policy."
民主党把这项新的仇恨犯罪法案和一个必须被通过的主要的防卫法案放到一起。共和党的想单独的来考虑它。众议院少数派领袖 John Boehner 称它为思想犯罪法案和激进的社会政策。
In a statement, he said "all violent crimes should be prosecuted vigorously." The legislation, he said, "places a higher value on some lives than others."
Most of the states also have some form of laws of their own dealing with hate crimes. More than seven thousand six hundred incidents were reported nationwide in two thousand seven, the most recent year available. Seventeen percent were linked to sexual orientation.
大部分的州都有各自的某些形式的处理仇恨罪的法律。可得到的最近年是 2007 年，在全国范围内据报道有超过 7600 起犯罪。其中百分之七与性倾向有关。
Frederick Lawrence is a dean at George Washington University Law School. He says the United States has been somewhat of a leader in passing hate crimes legislation. Now such laws are becoming more common internationally.
Frederick Lawrence 是乔治华盛顿大学法学院的主任。他说美国在通过仇恨罪法方面已经相当于是领袖了。现在这样的法规在国际上已经很普遍了。
They take different forms in different countries. For example, some countries ban speech that could incite hatred. Germany bans showing symbols of its Nazi past.
In the United States, free speech is protected by the Constitution. But social and religious conservatives expressed fears that they might now be accused of a hate crime if they denounced homosexuality. Professor Lawrence says the new federal law -- meant to prevent violence -- will not limit free speech rights.
在美国，自由演讲受宪法保护。但是社会和宗教保守人士却害怕他们现在可能会因为谴责同性恋而被起诉。 Lawrence 教授说新的联邦法律用意是防止暴力将不会限制自由言论的权力。
On a separate issue, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton this week criticized international efforts by Islamic countries to ban anti-religious speech.
关于一个独立的问题，本周国务卿 Hillary Clinton 批评伊斯兰国家的禁止反宗教演说的国际努力。
HILLARY CLINTON: "The best antidote to intolerance is not the 'Defamation of Religions' approach of banning and punishing offensive speech, but rather a combination of robust legal protections against discrimination and hate crimes, proactive government outreach to minority religious groups, and a vigorous defense of both freedom of religion and expression."
HILLARY CLINTON ：最好的对于所不能容忍的事情的应对方法并不是中伤信仰方法 ---- 禁止和惩罚令人不快的演说，而是强有力的防歧视和仇恨罪行的保护、胜过各信仰组织的积极主动的政府、对宗教信仰自由与言论自由两者的有力的保护 --- 这三者的结合。
The Organization of the Islamic Conference has been urging the United Nations to approve anti-defamation measures.
And that's IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English, written by Brianna Blake. You can find transcripts and podcasts of our programs -- and share comments -- at www.unsv.com. I'm Bob Doughty.