高德,百度,Google地图定位偏移以及坐标系转换

本文引用地址

一、地图坐标系解释

在进行地图开发过程中,我们一般能接触到以下三种类型的地图坐标系:

  1. WGS-84原始坐标系,一般用国际GPS纪录仪记录下来的经纬度,通过GPS定位拿到的原始经纬度,Google和高德地图定位的的经纬度(国外)都是基于WGS-84坐标系的。但是在国内是不允许直接用WGS84坐标系标注的,必须经过加密后才能使用。
  2. GCJ-02坐标系,又名“火星坐标系”,是我国国测局独创的坐标体系,由WGS-84加密而成,在国内,必须至少使用GCJ-02坐标系,或者使用在GCJ-02加密后再进行加密的坐标系,如百度坐标系。高德和Google在国内都是使用GCJ-02坐标系,可以说,GCJ-02是国内最广泛使用的坐标系。
  3. 百度坐标系:bd-09,百度坐标系是在GCJ-02坐标系的基础上再次加密偏移后形成的坐标系,只适用于百度地图。(目前百度API提供了从其它坐标系转换为百度坐标系的API,但却没有从百度坐标系转为其他坐标系的API)。

二、坐标系转换(C#版本)

C#版本的WGS-84坐标系转为GCJ-02坐标系,(亲测可用):

const double PI = 3.14159265358979324;
 
const double a = 6378245.0;
const double ee = 0.00669342162296594323;
 
public static void Transform(double wgLat, double wgLon, out double mgLat, out double mgLon)
{
	if (OutOfChina(wgLat, wgLon))
	{
		mgLat = wgLat;
		mgLon = wgLon;
		return;
	}
	double dLat = TransformLat(wgLon - 105.0, wgLat - 35.0);
	double dLon = TransformLon(wgLon - 105.0, wgLat - 35.0);
	double radLat = wgLat / 180.0 * PI;
	double magic = Math.Sin(radLat);
	magic = 1 - ee * magic * magic;
	double sqrtMagic = Math.Sqrt(magic);
	dLat = (dLat * 180.0) / ((a * (1 - ee)) / (magic * sqrtMagic) * PI);
	dLon = (dLon * 180.0) / (a / sqrtMagic * Math.Cos(radLat) * PI);
	mgLat = wgLat + dLat;
	mgLon = wgLon + dLon;
}
 
static bool OutOfChina(double lat, double lon)
{
	if (lon < 72.004 || lon > 137.8347)
		return true;
	if (lat < 0.8293 || lat > 55.8271)
		return true;
	return false;
}
 
static double TransformLat(double x, double y)
{
	double ret = -100.0 + 2.0 * x + 3.0 * y + 0.2 * y * y + 0.1 * x * y + 0.2 * Math.Sqrt(Math.Abs(x));
	ret += (20.0 * Math.Sin(6.0 * x * PI) + 20.0 * Math.Sin(2.0 * x * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
	ret += (20.0 * Math.Sin(y * PI) + 40.0 * Math.Sin(y / 3.0 * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
	ret += (160.0 * Math.Sin(y / 12.0 * PI) + 320 * Math.Sin(y * PI / 30.0)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
	return ret;
}
 
static double TransformLon(double x, double y)
{
	double ret = 300.0 + x + 2.0 * y + 0.1 * x * x + 0.1 * x * y + 0.1 * Math.Sqrt(Math.Abs(x));
	ret += (20.0 * Math.Sin(6.0 * x * PI) + 20.0 * Math.Sin(2.0 * x * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
	ret += (20.0 * Math.Sin(x * PI) + 40.0 * Math.Sin(x / 3.0 * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
	ret += (150.0 * Math.Sin(x / 12.0 * PI) + 300.0 * Math.Sin(x / 30.0 * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
	return ret;
}

三、QT/C++版本的坐标转换

创建头文件,QGCTransform.h:

#ifndef QGCTRANSFORM_H
#define QGCTRANSFORM_H
 
struct gps_position_t {
 int32_t lat; /*< Latitude, expressed as degrees * 1E7*/
 int32_t lon; /*< Longitude, expressed as degrees * 1E7*/
 double lat_f;
 double lon_f;
};
 
class QGCTransform
{
public:
    QGCTransform();
 
    /*WGS-84 to GCJ-02*/
    double PI;
    double a;
    double ee;
 
    gps_position_t gps_t;
 
    void Transform();
    void Transform(double lat, double lon);
 
private:
    bool OutOfChina(double lat, double lon);
    double TransformLat(double x, double y);
    double TransformLon(double x, double y);
};
 
#endif // QGCTRANSFORM_H

创建源文件,QGCTransform.cpp,转换后的GPS经纬度存储在结构体“gps_t”中,代码如下:

#include "QGCTransform.h"
#include <QtMath>
 
QGCTransform::QGCTransform(){
    PI = 3.14159265358979324;
    a = 6378245.0;
    ee = 0.00669342162296594323;
}
 
/*WGS-84 to GCJ-02*/
 
bool QGCTransform::OutOfChina(double lat, double lon){
   if (lon < 72.004 || lon > 137.8347)
       return true;
   if (lat < 0.8293 || lat > 55.8271)
       return true;
   return false;
}
 
double QGCTransform::TransformLat(double x, double y){
   double ret = -100.0 + 2.0 * x + 3.0 * y + 0.2 * y * y + 0.1 * x * y + 0.2 * qSqrt(qAbs(x));
   ret += (20.0 * qSin(6.0 * x * PI) + 20.0 * qSin(2.0 * x * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
   ret += (20.0 * qSin(y * PI) + 40.0 * qSin(y / 3.0 * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
   ret += (160.0 * qSin(y / 12.0 * PI) + 320 * qSin(y * PI / 30.0)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
   return ret;
}
 
double QGCTransform::TransformLon(double x, double y)
{
   double ret = 300.0 + x + 2.0 * y + 0.1 * x * x + 0.1 * x * y + 0.1 * qSqrt(qAbs(x));
   ret += (20.0 * qSin(6.0 * x * PI) + 20.0 * qSin(2.0 * x * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
   ret += (20.0 * qSin(x * PI) + 40.0 * qSin(x / 3.0 * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
   ret += (150.0 * qSin(x / 12.0 * PI) + 300.0 * qSin(x / 30.0 * PI)) * 2.0 / 3.0;
   return ret;
}
 
void QGCTransform::Transform(){
    double lat_s=gps_t.lat * 1E-7;
    double lon_s=gps_t.lon * 1E-7;
    Transform(lat_s, lon_s);
}
 
void QGCTransform::Transform(double lat_s, double lon_s){
    gps_t.lat_f = lat_s;
    gps_t.lon_f = lon_s;
    gps_t.lat = lat_s * 1E7;
    gps_t.lon = lon_s * 1E7;
    if (OutOfChina(lat_s, lon_s ))
    {
       return;
    }
    double dLat = TransformLat(lon_s - 105.0, lat_s - 35.0);
    double dLon = TransformLon(lon_s - 105.0, lat_s - 35.0);
    double radLat = lat_s / 180.0 * PI;
    double magic = qSin(radLat);
    magic = 1 - ee * magic * magic;
    double sqrtMagic = qSqrt(magic);
    dLat = (dLat * 180.0) / ((a * (1 - ee)) / (magic * sqrtMagic) * PI);
    dLon = (dLon * 180.0) / (a / sqrtMagic * qCos(radLat) * PI);
    gps_t.lat = (lat_s + dLat) * 1E7;
    gps_t.lon = (lon_s + dLon) * 1E7;
    gps_t.lat_f = lat_s + dLat;
    gps_t.lon_f = lon_s + dLon;
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