# 超好理解的哈夫曼树（最优二叉树）与例题

【5、8、4、11、9、13】→【4、5、8、9、11、13】

## 例一、哈夫曼树

5
1 2 2 5 9

37

2010年北京邮电大学计算机研究生机试真题

## 例一我们用不是建树的方法，只用数组来模拟上面的哈夫曼树构造过程

//不建树的方式
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
int huffman[100010];
int main()
{
int n;
cin>>n;
for(int i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
cin>>huffman[i];
}
int i=2;
int sum=0;
while(i<=n)
{
sort(huffman+1,huffman+1+n);    //根据哈夫曼树原理每次生成新的节点都要重新排序
int temp=huffman[i]+huffman[i-1];   //就算新的父节点的权值
sum+=temp;  //求和器计算最后的哈夫曼权值
huffman[i]=temp;
/*
//优化
huffman[i]+=huffman[i-1];
sum+=huffman[i];
*/
i++;
}
cout<<sum<<endl;
return 0;
}

## 例二、

Farmer John wants to repair a small length of the fence around the pasture. He measures the fence and finds that he needs N (1 ≤ N ≤ 20,000) planks of wood, each having some integer length Li (1 ≤ Li ≤ 50,000) units. He then purchases a single long board just long enough to saw into the N planks (i.e., whose length is the sum of the lengths Li). FJ is ignoring the “kerf”, the extra length lost to sawdust when a sawcut is made; you should ignore it, too.

FJ sadly realizes that he doesn’t own a saw with which to cut the wood, so he mosies over to Farmer Don’s Farm with this long board and politely asks if he may borrow a saw.

Farmer Don, a closet capitalist, doesn’t lend FJ a saw but instead offers to charge Farmer John for each of the N-1 cuts in the plank. The charge to cut a piece of wood is exactly equal to its length. Cutting a plank of length 21 costs 21 cents.

Farmer Don then lets Farmer John decide the order and locations to cut the plank. Help Farmer John determine the minimum amount of money he can spend to create the N planks. FJ knows that he can cut the board in various different orders which will result in different charges since the resulting intermediate planks are of different lengths.

Input
Line 1: One integer N, the number of planks
Lines 2… N+1: Each line contains a single integer describing the length of a needed plank
Output
Line 1: One integer: the minimum amount of money he must spend to make N-1 cuts

Sample Input
3
8
5
8

Sample Output
34

Hint
He wants to cut a board of length 21 into pieces of lengths 8, 5, and 8.
The original board measures 8+5+8=21. The first cut will cost 21, and should be used to cut the board into pieces measuring 13 and 8. The second cut will cost 13, and should be used to cut the 13 into 8 and 5. This would cost 21+13=34. If the 21 was cut into 16 and 5 instead, the second cut would cost 16 for a total of 37 (which is more than 34).

## 其实对于一般的哈夫曼树的问题我们一般也不采用递归建树和遍历树的方式来实现。因为每一次生成父亲结点的时候我们都会重新进行一次从小到大的排列，也就是这些结点的排列就有序的，这就可以让我们联想到一种新的数据结构，堆！！！也就是优先队列，让队列中的数从小到大排列，每次让最小的两个相加，让相加的两个数出队列，得到的和放入队尾，然后让和叠加，重复操作，得出结果。

#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
#include <queue>
using namespace std;
priority_queue<int,vector<int>,greater<int> > q;//最后两个 > 要分开，否则就是右移符号
//greater的作用是使进入队列的数从小到大排列
//less从大到小 priority_queue<int> q;默认less；
int main()
{
int n,m;
cin>>n;
while(n--)
{
cin>>m;
q.push(m);
}
int sum=0;
while(q.size()>=2)
{
//最小的两个元素出队列形成新的父亲结点重新压入栈
int a=q.top();
q.pop();
int b=q.top();
q.pop();
int c=a+b;
sum+=c;
q.push(c);
}
cout<<sum<<endl;
return 0;
}

01-21
08-18 1万+

04-27 2995
05-24 1万+
08-14 323
01-04 7966
08-13 139
04-09 368
03-26 2122
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