Dubbo扩展点加载与SPI(三)

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/wenjieyatou/article/details/80264761

        SPI的全称是ServiceProviderInterface,即服务提供商接口。直白的说,它主要用来实现一个可扩展的Java应用。有人会觉得这就是建立在面向接口编程下的一种为了使组件可扩展或动态变更实现的规范,常见的类SPI的设计有JDBC、JNDI和JAXP等。例如JDBC的架构是由一套API组成,用于给Java应用提供访问不同数据库的能力,而数据库提供商的驱动软件各不相同,JDBC通过提供一套通用行为的API接口,底层可以由提供商自由实现,虽然JDBC的设计没有指明是SPI,但也和SPI的设计类似。

        java中SPI编程具体看

ServiceLoader

    他的源码介绍为:

/*
 * Copyright (c) 2005, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 * ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
 *
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 *
 */

package java.util;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.net.URL;
import java.security.AccessController;
import java.security.AccessControlContext;
import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;


/**
 * A simple service-provider loading facility.
 *
 * <p> A <i>service</i> is a well-known set of interfaces and (usually
 * abstract) classes.  A <i>service provider</i> is a specific implementation
 * of a service.  The classes in a provider typically implement the interfaces
 * and subclass the classes defined in the service itself.  Service providers
 * can be installed in an implementation of the Java platform in the form of
 * extensions, that is, jar files placed into any of the usual extension
 * directories.  Providers can also be made available by adding them to the
 * application's class path or by some other platform-specific means.
 *
 * <p> For the purpose of loading, a service is represented by a single type,
 * that is, a single interface or abstract class.  (A concrete class can be
 * used, but this is not recommended.)  A provider of a given service contains
 * one or more concrete classes that extend this <i>service type</i> with data
 * and code specific to the provider.  The <i>provider class</i> is typically
 * not the entire provider itself but rather a proxy which contains enough
 * information to decide whether the provider is able to satisfy a particular
 * request together with code that can create the actual provider on demand.
 * The details of provider classes tend to be highly service-specific; no
 * single class or interface could possibly unify them, so no such type is
 * defined here.  The only requirement enforced by this facility is that
 * provider classes must have a zero-argument constructor so that they can be
 * instantiated during loading.
 *
 * <p><a name="format"> A service provider is identified by placing a
 * <i>provider-configuration file</i> in the resource directory
 * <tt>META-INF/services</tt>.</a>  The file's name is the fully-qualified <a
 * href="../lang/ClassLoader.html#name">binary name</a> of the service's type.
 * The file contains a list of fully-qualified binary names of concrete
 * provider classes, one per line.  Space and tab characters surrounding each
 * name, as well as blank lines, are ignored.  The comment character is
 * <tt>'#'</tt> (<tt>'\u0023'</tt>,
 * <font style="font-size:smaller;">NUMBER SIGN</font>); on
 * each line all characters following the first comment character are ignored.
 * The file must be encoded in UTF-8.
 *
 * <p> If a particular concrete provider class is named in more than one
 * configuration file, or is named in the same configuration file more than
 * once, then the duplicates are ignored.  The configuration file naming a
 * particular provider need not be in the same jar file or other distribution
 * unit as the provider itself.  The provider must be accessible from the same
 * class loader that was initially queried to locate the configuration file;
 * note that this is not necessarily the class loader from which the file was
 * actually loaded.
 *
 * <p> Providers are located and instantiated lazily, that is, on demand.  A
 * service loader maintains a cache of the providers that have been loaded so
 * far.  Each invocation of the {@link #iterator iterator} method returns an
 * iterator that first yields all of the elements of the cache, in
 * instantiation order, and then lazily locates and instantiates any remaining
 * providers, adding each one to the cache in turn.  The cache can be cleared
 * via the {@link #reload reload} method.
 *
 * <p> Service loaders always execute in the security context of the caller.
 * Trusted system code should typically invoke the methods in this class, and
 * the methods of the iterators which they return, from within a privileged
 * security context.
 *
 * <p> Instances of this class are not safe for use by multiple concurrent
 * threads.
 *
 * <p> Unless otherwise specified, passing a <tt>null</tt> argument to any
 * method in this class will cause a {@link NullPointerException} to be thrown.
 *
 *
 * <p><span style="font-weight: bold; padding-right: 1em">Example</span>
 * Suppose we have a service type <tt>com.example.CodecSet</tt> which is
 * intended to represent sets of encoder/decoder pairs for some protocol.  In
 * this case it is an abstract class with two abstract methods:
 *
 * <blockquote><pre>
 * public abstract Encoder getEncoder(String encodingName);
 * public abstract Decoder getDecoder(String encodingName);</pre></blockquote>
 *
 * Each method returns an appropriate object or <tt>null</tt> if the provider
 * does not support the given encoding.  Typical providers support more than
 * one encoding.
 *
 * <p> If <tt>com.example.impl.StandardCodecs</tt> is an implementation of the
 * <tt>CodecSet</tt> service then its jar file also contains a file named
 *
 * <blockquote><pre>
 * META-INF/services/com.example.CodecSet</pre></blockquote>
 *
 * <p> This file contains the single line:
 *
 * <blockquote><pre>
 * com.example.impl.StandardCodecs    # Standard codecs</pre></blockquote>
 *
 * <p> The <tt>CodecSet</tt> class creates and saves a single service instance
 * at initialization:
 *
 * <blockquote><pre>
 * private static ServiceLoader<CodecSet> codecSetLoader
 *     = ServiceLoader.load(CodecSet.class);</pre></blockquote>
 *
 * <p> To locate an encoder for a given encoding name it defines a static
 * factory method which iterates through the known and available providers,
 * returning only when it has located a suitable encoder or has run out of
 * providers.
 *
 * <blockquote><pre>
 * public static Encoder getEncoder(String encodingName) {
 *     for (CodecSet cp : codecSetLoader) {
 *         Encoder enc = cp.getEncoder(encodingName);
 *         if (enc != null)
 *             return enc;
 *     }
 *     return null;
 * }</pre></blockquote>
 *
 * <p> A <tt>getDecoder</tt> method is defined similarly.
 *
 *
 * <p><span style="font-weight: bold; padding-right: 1em">Usage Note</span> If
 * the class path of a class loader that is used for provider loading includes
 * remote network URLs then those URLs will be dereferenced in the process of
 * searching for provider-configuration files.
 *
 * <p> This activity is normal, although it may cause puzzling entries to be
 * created in web-server logs.  If a web server is not configured correctly,
 * however, then this activity may cause the provider-loading algorithm to fail
 * spuriously.
 *
 * <p> A web server should return an HTTP 404 (Not Found) response when a
 * requested resource does not exist.  Sometimes, however, web servers are
 * erroneously configured to return an HTTP 200 (OK) response along with a
 * helpful HTML error page in such cases.  This will cause a {@link
 * ServiceConfigurationError} to be thrown when this class attempts to parse
 * the HTML page as a provider-configuration file.  The best solution to this
 * problem is to fix the misconfigured web server to return the correct
 * response code (HTTP 404) along with the HTML error page.
 *
 * @param  <S>
 *         The type of the service to be loaded by this loader
 *
 * @author Mark Reinhold
 * @since 1.6
 */

public final class ServiceLoader<S>
    implements Iterable<S>
{

    private static final String PREFIX = "META-INF/services/";

    // The class or interface representing the service being loaded
    private final Class<S> service;

    // The class loader used to locate, load, and instantiate providers
    private final ClassLoader loader;

    // The access control context taken when the ServiceLoader is created
    private final AccessControlContext acc;

    // Cached providers, in instantiation order
    private LinkedHashMap<String,S> providers = new LinkedHashMap<>();

    // The current lazy-lookup iterator
    private LazyIterator lookupIterator;

    /**
     * Clear this loader's provider cache so that all providers will be
     * reloaded.
     *
     * <p> After invoking this method, subsequent invocations of the {@link
     * #iterator() iterator} method will lazily look up and instantiate
     * providers from scratch, just as is done by a newly-created loader.
     *
     * <p> This method is intended for use in situations in which new providers
     * can be installed into a running Java virtual machine.
     */
    public void reload() {
        providers.clear();
        lookupIterator = new LazyIterator(service, loader);
    }

    private ServiceLoader(Class<S> svc, ClassLoader cl) {
        service = Objects.requireNonNull(svc, "Service interface cannot be null");
        loader = (cl == null) ? ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader() : cl;
        acc = (System.getSecurityManager() != null) ? AccessController.getContext() : null;
        reload();
    }

    private static void fail(Class<?> service, String msg, Throwable cause)
        throws ServiceConfigurationError
    {
        throw new ServiceConfigurationError(service.getName() + ": " + msg,
                                            cause);
    }

    private static void fail(Class<?> service, String msg)
        throws ServiceConfigurationError
    {
        throw new ServiceConfigurationError(service.getName() + ": " + msg);
    }

    private static void fail(Class<?> service, URL u, int line, String msg)
        throws ServiceConfigurationError
    {
        fail(service, u + ":" + line + ": " + msg);
    }

    // Parse a single line from the given configuration file, adding the name
    // on the line to the names list.
    //
    private int parseLine(Class<?> service, URL u, BufferedReader r, int lc,
                          List<String> names)
        throws IOException, ServiceConfigurationError
    {
        String ln = r.readLine();
        if (ln == null) {
            return -1;
        }
        int ci = ln.indexOf('#');
        if (ci >= 0) ln = ln.substring(0, ci);
        ln = ln.trim();
        int n = ln.length();
        if (n != 0) {
            if ((ln.indexOf(' ') >= 0) || (ln.indexOf('\t') >= 0))
                fail(service, u, lc, "Illegal configuration-file syntax");
            int cp = ln.codePointAt(0);
            if (!Character.isJavaIdentifierStart(cp))
                fail(service, u, lc, "Illegal provider-class name: " + ln);
            for (int i = Character.charCount(cp); i < n; i += Character.charCount(cp)) {
                cp = ln.codePointAt(i);
                if (!Character.isJavaIdentifierPart(cp) && (cp != '.'))
                    fail(service, u, lc, "Illegal provider-class name: " + ln);
            }
            if (!providers.containsKey(ln) && !names.contains(ln))
                names.add(ln);
        }
        return lc + 1;
    }

    // Parse the content of the given URL as a provider-configuration file.
    //
    // @param  service
    //         The service type for which providers are being sought;
    //         used to construct error detail strings
    //
    // @param  u
    //         The URL naming the configuration file to be parsed
    //
    // @return A (possibly empty) iterator that will yield the provider-class
    //         names in the given configuration file that are not yet members
    //         of the returned set
    //
    // @throws ServiceConfigurationError
    //         If an I/O error occurs while reading from the given URL, or
    //         if a configuration-file format error is detected
    //
    private Iterator<String> parse(Class<?> service, URL u)
        throws ServiceConfigurationError
    {
        InputStream in = null;
        BufferedReader r = null;
        ArrayList<String> names = new ArrayList<>();
        try {
            in = u.openStream();
            r = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in, "utf-8"));
            int lc = 1;
            while ((lc = parseLine(service, u, r, lc, names)) >= 0);
        } catch (IOException x) {
            fail(service, "Error reading configuration file", x);
        } finally {
            try {
                if (r != null) r.close();
                if (in != null) in.close();
            } catch (IOException y) {
                fail(service, "Error closing configuration file", y);
            }
        }
        return names.iterator();
    }

    // Private inner class implementing fully-lazy provider lookup
    //
    private class LazyIterator
        implements Iterator<S>
    {

        Class<S> service;
        ClassLoader loader;
        Enumeration<URL> configs = null;
        Iterator<String> pending = null;
        String nextName = null;

        private LazyIterator(Class<S> service, ClassLoader loader) {
            this.service = service;
            this.loader = loader;
        }

        private boolean hasNextService() {
            if (nextName != null) {
                return true;
            }
            if (configs == null) {
                try {
                    String fullName = PREFIX + service.getName();
                    if (loader == null)
                        configs = ClassLoader.getSystemResources(fullName);
                    else
                        configs = loader.getResources(fullName);
                } catch (IOException x) {
                    fail(service, "Error locating configuration files", x);
                }
            }
            while ((pending == null) || !pending.hasNext()) {
                if (!configs.hasMoreElements()) {
                    return false;
                }
                pending = parse(service, configs.nextElement());
            }
            nextName = pending.next();
            return true;
        }

        private S nextService() {
            if (!hasNextService())
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            String cn = nextName;
            nextName = null;
            Class<?> c = null;
            try {
                c = Class.forName(cn, false, loader);
            } catch (ClassNotFoundException x) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn + " not found");
            }
            if (!service.isAssignableFrom(c)) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn  + " not a subtype");
            }
            try {
                S p = service.cast(c.newInstance());
                providers.put(cn, p);
                return p;
            } catch (Throwable x) {
                fail(service,
                     "Provider " + cn + " could not be instantiated",
                     x);
            }
            throw new Error();          // This cannot happen
        }

        public boolean hasNext() {
            if (acc == null) {
                return hasNextService();
            } else {
                PrivilegedAction<Boolean> action = new PrivilegedAction<Boolean>() {
                    public Boolean run() { return hasNextService(); }
                };
                return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, acc);
            }
        }

        public S next() {
            if (acc == null) {
                return nextService();
            } else {
                PrivilegedAction<S> action = new PrivilegedAction<S>() {
                    public S run() { return nextService(); }
                };
                return AccessController.doPrivileged(action, acc);
            }
        }

        public void remove() {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

    }

    /**
     * Lazily loads the available providers of this loader's service.
     *
     * <p> The iterator returned by this method first yields all of the
     * elements of the provider cache, in instantiation order.  It then lazily
     * loads and instantiates any remaining providers, adding each one to the
     * cache in turn.
     *
     * <p> To achieve laziness the actual work of parsing the available
     * provider-configuration files and instantiating providers must be done by
     * the iterator itself.  Its {@link java.util.Iterator#hasNext hasNext} and
     * {@link java.util.Iterator#next next} methods can therefore throw a
     * {@link ServiceConfigurationError} if a provider-configuration file
     * violates the specified format, or if it names a provider class that
     * cannot be found and instantiated, or if the result of instantiating the
     * class is not assignable to the service type, or if any other kind of
     * exception or error is thrown as the next provider is located and
     * instantiated.  To write robust code it is only necessary to catch {@link
     * ServiceConfigurationError} when using a service iterator.
     *
     * <p> If such an error is thrown then subsequent invocations of the
     * iterator will make a best effort to locate and instantiate the next
     * available provider, but in general such recovery cannot be guaranteed.
     *
     * <blockquote style="font-size: smaller; line-height: 1.2"><span
     * style="padding-right: 1em; font-weight: bold">Design Note</span>
     * Throwing an error in these cases may seem extreme.  The rationale for
     * this behavior is that a malformed provider-configuration file, like a
     * malformed class file, indicates a serious problem with the way the Java
     * virtual machine is configured or is being used.  As such it is
     * preferable to throw an error rather than try to recover or, even worse,
     * fail silently.</blockquote>
     *
     * <p> The iterator returned by this method does not support removal.
     * Invoking its {@link java.util.Iterator#remove() remove} method will
     * cause an {@link UnsupportedOperationException} to be thrown.
     *
     * @implNote When adding providers to the cache, the {@link #iterator
     * Iterator} processes resources in the order that the {@link
     * java.lang.ClassLoader#getResources(java.lang.String)
     * ClassLoader.getResources(String)} method finds the service configuration
     * files.
     *
     * @return  An iterator that lazily loads providers for this loader's
     *          service
     */
    public Iterator<S> iterator() {
        return new Iterator<S>() {

            Iterator<Map.Entry<String,S>> knownProviders
                = providers.entrySet().iterator();

            public boolean hasNext() {
                if (knownProviders.hasNext())
                    return true;
                return lookupIterator.hasNext();
            }

            public S next() {
                if (knownProviders.hasNext())
                    return knownProviders.next().getValue();
                return lookupIterator.next();
            }

            public void remove() {
                throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
            }

        };
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new service loader for the given service type and class
     * loader.
     *
     * @param  <S> the class of the service type
     *
     * @param  service
     *         The interface or abstract class representing the service
     *
     * @param  loader
     *         The class loader to be used to load provider-configuration files
     *         and provider classes, or <tt>null</tt> if the system class
     *         loader (or, failing that, the bootstrap class loader) is to be
     *         used
     *
     * @return A new service loader
     */
    public static <S> ServiceLoader<S> load(Class<S> service,
                                            ClassLoader loader)
    {
        return new ServiceLoader<>(service, loader);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new service loader for the given service type, using the
     * current thread's {@linkplain java.lang.Thread#getContextClassLoader
     * context class loader}.
     *
     * <p> An invocation of this convenience method of the form
     *
     * <blockquote><pre>
     * ServiceLoader.load(<i>service</i>)</pre></blockquote>
     *
     * is equivalent to
     *
     * <blockquote><pre>
     * ServiceLoader.load(<i>service</i>,
     *                    Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader())</pre></blockquote>
     *
     * @param  <S> the class of the service type
     *
     * @param  service
     *         The interface or abstract class representing the service
     *
     * @return A new service loader
     */
    public static <S> ServiceLoader<S> load(Class<S> service) {
        ClassLoader cl = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
        return ServiceLoader.load(service, cl);
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new service loader for the given service type, using the
     * extension class loader.
     *
     * <p> This convenience method simply locates the extension class loader,
     * call it <tt><i>extClassLoader</i></tt>, and then returns
     *
     * <blockquote><pre>
     * ServiceLoader.load(<i>service</i>, <i>extClassLoader</i>)</pre></blockquote>
     *
     * <p> If the extension class loader cannot be found then the system class
     * loader is used; if there is no system class loader then the bootstrap
     * class loader is used.
     *
     * <p> This method is intended for use when only installed providers are
     * desired.  The resulting service will only find and load providers that
     * have been installed into the current Java virtual machine; providers on
     * the application's class path will be ignored.
     *
     * @param  <S> the class of the service type
     *
     * @param  service
     *         The interface or abstract class representing the service
     *
     * @return A new service loader
     */
    public static <S> ServiceLoader<S> loadInstalled(Class<S> service) {
        ClassLoader cl = ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader();
        ClassLoader prev = null;
        while (cl != null) {
            prev = cl;
            cl = cl.getParent();
        }
        return ServiceLoader.load(service, prev);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string describing this service.
     *
     * @return  A descriptive string
     */
    public String toString() {
        return "java.util.ServiceLoader[" + service.getName() + "]";
    }

}

          可见,SPI并没有什么神奇的地方,只不过是一种通过面向接口编程来实现服务透明变更的规范而已,带来的好处自然是我们业务系统变得扩展性更强。

         接下来我们看看Dubbo中利用SPI做了哪些事情。Dubbo中SPI进行了扩展,对服务提供者配置文件中的内容进行了改造,由原来的提供者类的全限定名列表改成了KV形式的列表,这也导致了Dubbo中无法直接使用ServiceLoader,所以,与之对应的,在Dubbo中有ExtensionLoader,ExtensionLoader是扩展点载入器,用于载入Dubbo中的各种可配置组件,比如动态代理方式(ProxyFactory)、负载均衡策略(LoadBalance)、RCP协议(Protocol)、拦截器(Filter)、容器类型(Container)、集群方式(Cluster)和注册中心类型(RegistryFactory)等,总之,Dubbo为了应对各种场景,它的所有内部组件都是通过这种SPI的方式来管理的,这也是为什么Dubbo需要将服务提供者配置文件设计成KV键值对形式,这个K就是我们在Dubbo配置文件或注解中用到的K,Dubbo直接通过服务接口(上面提到的ProxyFactory、LoadBalance、Protocol、Filter等)和配置的K从ExtensionLoader拿到服务提供的实现类。与ServiceLoader的load方法对应的是ExtensionLoader的getExtensionLoader方法:

    public static <T> ExtensionLoader<T> getExtensionLoader(Class<T> type) {
        if (type == null)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Extension type == null");
        if (!type.isInterface()) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Extension type(" + type + ") is not interface!");
        }
        if (!withExtensionAnnotation(type)) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Extension type(" + type +
                    ") is not extension, because WITHOUT @" + SPI.class.getSimpleName() + " Annotation!");
        }

        ExtensionLoader<T> loader = (ExtensionLoader<T>) EXTENSION_LOADERS.get(type);
        if (loader == null) {
            EXTENSION_LOADERS.putIfAbsent(type, new ExtensionLoader<T>(type));
            loader = (ExtensionLoader<T>) EXTENSION_LOADERS.get(type);
        }
        return loader;
    }

可以看到ExtensionLoader的定义为一个map.不同的服务接口类型都在EXTENSION_LOADERS中有对应一个ExtensionLoader对象,这样能方便的管理不同服务接口的扩展点。当得到对应服务接口的ExtensionLoader后,就直接通过服务提供配置文件中的K来拿对应的服务提供者实现类的实例了(通过ExtensionLoader#).

 private static final ConcurrentMap<Class<?>, ExtensionLoader<?>> EXTENSION_LOADERS = new ConcurrentHashMap<Class<?>, ExtensionLoader<?>>();

所以在源码中就是通过以下方式获得的。

  public static ProxyFactory proxy = ExtensionLoader.getExtensionLoader(ProxyFactory.class).getAdaptiveExtension();
  private static Protocol protocol = ExtensionLoader.getExtensionLoader(Protocol.class).getAdaptiveExtension();

看到这里,我们已经明白Dubbo框架内部是如何采用SPI来组装自己的功能的,那么如果某些扩展点是由使用方(即Dubbo的用户)来定义的,Dubbo是怎么加载它们的呢?前面说了ServiceLoader中默认的服务提供者配置文件的目录是MEAT-INF/services/,该目录由ServiceLoader的PREFIX来定义,而Dubbo中则会在三种目录下去加载服务提供者配置文件,由ExtensionLoader的三个成员变量来定义:即对于每个CLASSPATH,Dubbo都会去扫描资源文件夹下的这三个目录来加载扩展点,加载过程可以参看ExtensionLoader#ExtensionLoader:

    private static final String SERVICES_DIRECTORY = "META-INF/services/";

    private static final String DUBBO_DIRECTORY = "META-INF/dubbo/";

    private static final String DUBBO_INTERNAL_DIRECTORY = DUBBO_DIRECTORY + "internal/";

以下代码便是如何扫描目录:

 private void loadDirectory(Map<String, Class<?>> extensionClasses, String dir) {
        String fileName = dir + type.getName();
        try {
            Enumeration<java.net.URL> urls;
            ClassLoader classLoader = findClassLoader();
            if (classLoader != null) {
                urls = classLoader.getResources(fileName);
            } else {
                urls = ClassLoader.getSystemResources(fileName);
            }
            if (urls != null) {
                while (urls.hasMoreElements()) {
                    java.net.URL resourceURL = urls.nextElement();
                    loadResource(extensionClasses, classLoader, resourceURL);
                }
            }
        } catch (Throwable t) {
            logger.error("Exception when load extension class(interface: " +
                    type + ", description file: " + fileName + ").", t);
        }
    }

以下代码便是如何加载扩展点:

    // synchronized in getExtensionClasses
    private Map<String, Class<?>> loadExtensionClasses() {
        final SPI defaultAnnotation = type.getAnnotation(SPI.class);
        if (defaultAnnotation != null) {
            String value = defaultAnnotation.value();
            if ((value = value.trim()).length() > 0) {
                String[] names = NAME_SEPARATOR.split(value);
                if (names.length > 1) {
                    throw new IllegalStateException("more than 1 default extension name on extension " + type.getName()
                            + ": " + Arrays.toString(names));
                }
                if (names.length == 1) cachedDefaultName = names[0];
            }
        }

        Map<String, Class<?>> extensionClasses = new HashMap<String, Class<?>>();
        loadDirectory(extensionClasses, DUBBO_INTERNAL_DIRECTORY);//对应默认目录
        loadDirectory(extensionClasses, DUBBO_DIRECTORY);
        loadDirectory(extensionClasses, SERVICES_DIRECTORY);
        return extensionClasses;
    }

        可以看到最后几行就是去这三个目录下去找服务提供者配置文件,loadFile的方法是通用的,因为很多开源框架都有资源查找的需求,比如说Spring,所以loadFile的实现这里就不给出了。从这个方法也可以看出,Dubbo中的所有服务接口都标有@SPI注解,这样就能轻易的区分出该接口下是否会有服务提供类。但Dubbo是怎么保证扫描到所有包含服务提供者配置文件的呢?因为我们知道,在Spring容器中,如果它需要扫描包含@Service注解的实现类时,它需要我们去指导Spring去哪些CLASSPATH路径下面找这些需要注册的服务Bean,但Dubbo好像并不需要我们显式的告诉它去哪些地方找这些服务提供者配置文件。后来才发现,在ClassLoader中已经把它所加载的class和其对应的package信息(packages)、对应的文件系统路径(pdcache)都存储了起来,由于我们实现Dubbo的服务接口来自定义Dubbo扩展点时,我们需要依赖Dubbo的包,所以业务类的类加载器只会是Dubbo容器的父类加载器或者是同一个类加载器,这样就能很容易找到所有的CLASSPATH了(双亲委派模型),所以Dubbo也是在所有的CLASS PATH下去查找这三个文件。

可以看出,Java体系的SPI还是大有用途,是一种面向接口编程的经典案例。




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