JAVA-----乱码的处理 乱码的解决方法总结

为什么说乱码是程序员无法避免的话题呢?这个首先要从编码机制上说起,大家都是中文和英文的编码格式不是一样,解码也是不一样的!工作遇到各种各样的乱码的解决方法总结一下。


对于Java由于默认的编码方式是 UNICODE,所以用中文也易出问题,常见的解决是
String s2 = new String(s1.getBytes(“ISO-8859-1”),”GBK”);

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http://weibo.com/p/2309274260875086250134
http://weibo.com/p/2309274260875086250134?2018.07.12&M5i2=D4b3


1、utf8解决JSP中文乱码问题 
一般说来在每个页面的开始处,加入:


<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
    pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>


<%
 request.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");
%>


charset=UTF-8  的作用是指定JSP向客户端输出的编码方式为“UTF-8”


pageEncoding="UTF-8"  为了让JSP引擎能正确地解码含有中文字符的JSP页面,这在LINUX中很有效


 request.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8"); 是对请求进行了中文编码


有时,这样仍不能解决问题,还需要这样处理一下:


String msg = request.getParameter("message");
 String str=new String(msg.getBytes("ISO-8859-1"),"UTF-8");
 out.println(st);


2、Tomcat 5.5 中文乱码


)只要把%TOMCAT安装目录%/   webapps\servlets-examples\WEB-INF\classes\filters\SetCharacterEncodingFilter.class文件拷到你的webapp目录/filters下,如果没有filters目录,就创建一个。   
  2)在你的web.xml里加入如下几行:   <filter>   
  <filter-name>Set   Character   Encoding</filter-name>   
  <filter-class>filters.SetCharacterEncodingFilter</filter-class>   
  <init-param>   
  <param-name>encoding</param-name>   
  <param-value>GBK</param-value>   
  </init-param>   
  </filter>   
      <filter-mapping>   
  <filter-name>Set   Character   Encoding</filter-name>   
  <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>   
  </filter-mapping>   
    
    
    
  3)完成.   
  2   get方式的解决办法   
  1)   打开tomcat的server.xml文件,找到区块,加入如下一行:   
  URIEncoding=”GBK”   
  完整的应如下:   
  <Connector     
  port="80"   maxThreads="150"   minSpareThreads="25"   maxSpareThreads="75"   
  enableLookups="false"   redirectPort="8443"   acceptCount="100"   
  debug="0"   connectionTimeout="20000"     
  disableUploadTimeout="true"     
  URIEncoding="GBK"   
  />      
    
  2)重启tomcat,一切OK。


3、xmlHttpRequest中文问题


页面jsp用的GBK编码




代码
<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=GBK"%> 




javascript部分


代码
function addFracasReport() {   
    var url="controler?actionId=0_06_03_01&actionFlag=0010";   
    var urlmsg="&reportId="+fracasReport1.textReportId.value;  //故障报告表编号   
           
    var xmlHttp=Common.createXMLHttpRequest();   
    xmlHttp.onreadystatechange = Common.getReadyStateHandler(xmlHttp, eval("turnAnalyPage"));   
    xmlHttp.open("POST",url,true);   
    xmlHttp.setRequestHeader( " Content-Type " , " application/x-www-form-urlencoded);   
    xmlHttp.send(urlmsg);   
       





后台java中获得的reportId是乱码,不知道该怎么转,主要是不知道xmlHttp.send(urlmsg);以后是什么编码?在后面用java来转,试了几种,都没有成功,其中有:




代码
public static String UTF_8ToGBK(String str) {   
        try {   
            return new String(str.getBytes("UTF-8"), "GBK");   
        } catch (Exception ex) {   
            return null;   
        }   
    }   
       
    public static String UTF8ToGBK(String str) {   
        try {   
            return new String(str.getBytes("UTF-16BE"), "GBK");   
        } catch (Exception ex) {   
            return null;   
        }   
    }   
       
    public static String GBK(String str) {   
        try {   
            return new String(str.getBytes("GBK"),"GBK");   
        } catch (Exception ex) {   
            return null;   
        }   
    }   
         public static String getStr(String str) {   
        try {   
            String temp_p = str;   
            String temp = new String(temp_p.getBytes("ISO8859_1"), "GBK");   
            temp = sqlStrchop(temp);   
            return temp;   
        } catch (Exception e) {   
            return null;   
        }   
    } 


4、JDBC ODBC Bridge的Bug及其解决方法


在编写一数据库管理程序时,发现JDBC-ODBC Bridge存在不易发现的Bug。在向数据表插入数据时,如果为英文字符,存储内容完全正确,如果存入中文字符,部分数据库只能存储前七八个中文字符,其他内容被截去,导致存储内容的不完整(有些数据库不存在这个问题,如Sybase SQL Anywhere 5.0。JDBC-ODBC Bridge还存在无法建表的Bug)。


  对于广大需要存储中文信息的Java程序员来说,这可是一个不好的消息。要么改用其他语言编程,要么选择其他价格昂贵的数据库产品。“一次编写,到处运行”的目标,也大打折扣。能不能采用变通的方法,将中文信息进行处理后再存储来解决这个问题呢?答案是肯定的。


  解决问题的具体思路、方法 
  Java采用Unicode码编码方式,中英文字符均采用16bit存储。既然存储英文信息是正确的,根据一定规则,将中文信息转换成英文信息后存储,自然不会出现截尾现象。读取信息时再进行逆向操作,将英文信息还原成中文信息即可。由GB2312编码规则可知,汉字一般为二个高位为1的ASCII码,在转换时将一个汉字的二个高位1去掉,还原时再将二个高位1加上。为了处理含有英文字符的中文字串,对英文字符则需要加上一个Byte 0标记。以下提供的两个公用静态方法,可加入任何一个类中使用。


  将中英文字串转换成纯英文字串 
  public static String toTureAsciiStr(String str){


  StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();


  byte[] bt = str.getBytes();


  for(int i =0 ;i〈bt.length;i++){


  if(bt[i]〈0){


  //是汉字去高位1


  sb.append((char)(bt[i]&&0x7f));


   }else{//是英文字符 补0作记录


  sb.append((char)0);


  sb.append((char)bt[i]);


   }


   }


  return sb.toString();


  }


  将经转换的字串还原 
  public static String unToTrueAsciiStr(String str){


   byte[] bt = str.getBytes();


   int i,l=0,length = bt.length,j=0;


   for(i = 0;i〈length;i++){


   if(bt[i] == 0){


   l++;


   }


   }


   byte []bt2 = new byte[length-l];


   for(i =0 ;i〈length;i++){


   if(bt[i] == 0){


   i++;


   bt2[j] = bt[i];


   }else{


   bt2[j] = (byte)(bt[i]|0x80);


   }


   j++;


   }


  String tt = new String(bt2);


  return tt;


  }


  上例在实际编程中效果很好,只是存储的中文信息需要经过同样处理,才能被其他系统使用。而且如果中文字串出现英文字符,实际上增加了额外的存储空间。


5、Solaris下Servlet编程的中文问题及解决办法 
在使用Java开发Internet上的一个应用系统时,发现在Windows下调试完全正常的Servlet,上传到Solaris 服务器上,运行却出现故障——返回的网页不能显示中文,应为中文的信息全为乱码;用中文信息做关键字,不能正确检索数据库。后来采用加入检查代码等方法探知故障原因如下:


  显示乱码主要是因为通过类 HttpServletResponse提供的方法setContentType 无法改变返回给客户的数据的编码方式,正确的编码方式应为GB2312或者GBK,而事实上为缺省的ISO8859-1。无法检索中文信息则是因为,客户提交的中文信息经浏览器编码到达服务器后,Servlet无法将其正确解码。


  举例说明显示乱码解决方法 
  Servlet 一般通常做法如下:


  public class ZldTestServlet extends HttpServlet {


  public void doGet (HttpServletRequest request,HttpServletResponse response)throws ServletException, IOException{


  //在使用 Writer向浏览器返回数据前,设置 content-type header ,在这里设置相应的字符集gb2312


  response.setContentType("text/html;charset=gb2312");


  PrintWriter out = response.getWriter(); //*


  // 正式返回数据


  out.println("〈html〉〈head〉〈title〉Servlet test〈/title〉〈/head〉" );


  out.println("这是一个测试页!");


  out.println("〈/body〉〈/html〉");


  out.close();


  }


   ...


  }


  解决页面显示乱码问题,需将*处代码换成如下内容:


  PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(response.getOutputStream(),"gb2312"));


  Solaris中文信息检索问题的解决 
  浏览器利用表单向服务器提交信息时,一般采用x-www-form-urlencoded 的MIME格式对数据进行编码。如果使用get方法,参数名称和参数值经编码后附加在URL后,在Java中称作查询串(query string)。


  在Servlet程序中,如果采用ServletRequest的方法getParameter取得参数值,在Solaris环境下,对汉字却不能正确解码。因而无法正确检索数据库。


  在Java 1.2的包——java.net中提供了URLEncode和URLDecode类。类URLEncode提供了按x-www-form-urlencoded格式对给定串进行转换的方法。类URLEncode则提供了逆方法。


6、Common Mail乱码问题
common mail是一个小而方便的mail包,他实现了对Java Mail的封装,使用起来十分的方便,但是我在使用他的时候发现,使用纯文本的内容发送,结果是乱码,代码如下:
public class TestCommonMail {
public static void main(String[] args) throws EmailException, MessagingException {
SimpleEmail email = new SimpleEmail();
email.setCharset("GB2312");
email.setHostName("smtp.163.com");
email.setSubject("test");
email.addTo("test@163.com");
email.setFrom("test@163.com");
email.setMsg("我的测试");
email.setAuthentication("test", "test");
email.send();
}
}


分析了一下commons mail的源码找到了原因。源码如下:
public class SimpleEmail extends Email
{
public Email setMsg(String msg) throws EmailException, MessagingException
{
if (EmailUtils.isEmpty(msg))
{
throw new EmailException("Invalid message supplied");
}


setContent(msg, TEXT_PLAIN);
return this;
}
}


Email代码片段
public void setContent(Object aObject, String aContentType)
{
this.content = aObject;
if (EmailUtils.isEmpty(aContentType))
{
this.contentType = null;
}
else
{
// set the content type
this.contentType = aContentType;


// set the charset if the input was properly formed
String strMarker = "; charset=";
int charsetPos = aContentType.toLowerCase().indexOf(strMarker);
if (charsetPos != -1)
{
// find the next space (after the marker)
charsetPos += strMarker.length();
int intCharsetEnd =
aContentType.toLowerCase().indexOf(" ", charsetPos);


if (intCharsetEnd != -1)
{
this.charset =
aContentType.substring(charsetPos, intCharsetEnd);
}
else
{
this.charset = aContentType.substring(charsetPos);
}
}
}
}


email.send();的send方法将调用
public void buildMimeMessage() throws EmailException
{
try
{
this.getMailSession();
this.message = new MimeMessage(this.session);


if (EmailUtils.isNotEmpty(this.subject))
{
if (EmailUtils.isNotEmpty(this.charset))
{
this.message.setSubject(this.subject, this.charset);
}
else
{
this.message.setSubject(this.subject);
}
}


// ========================================================
// Start of replacement code
if (this.content != null)
{
this.message.setContent(this.content, this.contentType);
}
// end of replacement code
// ========================================================
else if (this.emailBody != null)
{
this.message.setContent(this.emailBody);
}
else
{
this.message.setContent("", Email.TEXT_PLAIN);
}


if (this.fromAddress != null)
{
this.message.setFrom(this.fromAddress);
}
else
{
throw new EmailException("Sender address required");
}


if (this.toList.size() + this.ccList.size() + this.bccList.size() == 0)
{
throw new EmailException(
"At least one receiver address required");
}


if (this.toList.size() > 0)
{
this.message.setRecipients(
Message.RecipientType.TO,
this.toInternetAddressArray(this.toList));
}


if (this.ccList.size() > 0)
{
this.message.setRecipients(
Message.RecipientType.CC,
this.toInternetAddressArray(this.ccList));
}


if (this.bccList.size() > 0)
{
this.message.setRecipients(
Message.RecipientType.BCC,
this.toInternetAddressArray(this.bccList));
}


if (this.replyList.size() > 0)
{
this.message.setReplyTo(
this.toInternetAddressArray(this.replyList));
}


if (this.headers.size() > 0)
{
Iterator iterHeaderKeys = this.headers.keySet().iterator();
while (iterHeaderKeys.hasNext())
{
String name = (String) iterHeaderKeys.next();
String value = (String) headers.get(name);
this.message.addHeader(name, value);
}
}


if (this.message.getSentDate() == null)
{
this.message.setSentDate(getSentDate());
}


if (this.popBeforeSmtp)
{
Store store = session.getStore("pop3");
store.connect(this.popHost, this.popUsername, this.popPassword);
}
}
catch (MessagingException me)
{
throw new EmailException(me);
}
}
由代码可以知道纯文本方式最终调用了Java Mail的
message.setContent(this.content, this.contentType);
content是内容
contentType是类型,如text/plain,
(我们可以试试直接用Java mail发邮件,设置文本内容不使用setText方法,也使用setContent("测试", "text/plain")方式,你可以看到内容也是乱码)
关键就在于text/plain,我们改成text/plain;charset=gb2312,ok乱码解决了。在commons mail我们看SimpleEmail 类中setMsg方法调用的就是 setContent(msg, TEXT_PLAIN);我们只需要将Email类中的常量TEXT_PLAIN修改一下加入 charset=你的字符集 ,重新打包jar,这样就可以了


7、toad的字符集的设置与oracle的安装
oracle数据库服务器的安装一般是中文字符集,有时安装在不同的平台下,设置为ISO编码,toad是oracle开发的最好工具,不是我说的,可是中文环境下安装的toad,打开英文字符的oracle时,中文全是乱码。必须进行设置


环境变量---〉系统变量

  NLS_lANG=SIMPLIFIED CHINESE_CHINA.ZHS16GBK
  或
  NLS_lANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1


AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8MSWIN1252
 
 或者


 打开注册表,点击HKEY_LOCAL_MATHINE
再点击Software,再点击ORACLE
在点击HOME(ORACLE所在目录)
在注册表的右半面有NLS_LANG,
双击它,将你想要的覆盖掉原来的就可以了
最好记下旧的,以便可以改回来。




connect sys/chang_on_install
update props$
set value$='ZHS16CGB231280'
where name='NLS_CHARACTERSET';
commit;
 这样就OK了


 
8、如何解決GWT(google web toolkit)中文的問題
GWT 中文乱码解决方法


1.把你要显示的中文“测试字符串”输入到一个文件,如:1.txt 
2.进入命令行,进入1.txt所在的目录,敲入以下命令:native2ascii.exe 1.txt 2.txt 回车。这样就生成了另外一个文件2.txt。 
3.2.txt的内容如下:\u6d4b\u8bd5\u5b57\u7b26\u4e32 
4.然后用上面的编码,在gwt中使用,就可以了.


9、xmlHttp得到的网页怎么是乱码? 
(1)在服务器端使用WebRequest而不是xmlHttp
(2) 将


StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(stream);




对于简体中文改成:


StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(stream , Encoding.Default );
对于utf-8改成:




StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(stream , Encoding.UTF8 );
当然,Encoding枚举还有很多其他的成员,对于不同的编码content-type可以有选择的应用


(3)后来我发现无论是content-type是gb2312还是utf-8,用




StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(stream , Encoding.Default );


都可以返回正常的汉字,所以统一的改成Encoding.Default


 




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


最后,在服务器端从一个url获得网页的源代码的代码如下:


 


/// <summary>
/// post一个指定的url,获得网页的源代码(用WebRequest实现)
/// </summary>
/// <param name="url"></param>
/// <returns>
/// 如果请求失败,返回null
/// 如果请求成功,返回网页的源代码
/// </returns>
public static string GetContentFromUrl2( string url )
{
    //变量定义
    string respstr;


    WebRequest myWebRequest=WebRequest.Create(url);
    //            myWebRequest.PreAuthenticate=true;
    //            NetworkCredential networkCredential=new NetworkCredential( username , password , domain );
    //            myWebRequest.Credentials=networkCredential;


    // Assign the response object of 'WebRequest' to a 'WebResponse' variable.
    WebResponse myWebResponse=myWebRequest.GetResponse();
    System.IO.Stream stream = myWebResponse.GetResponseStream();
    StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(stream , Encoding.Default );
    //以字符串形式读取数据流
    respstr = sr.ReadToEnd();
    sr.Close(); 
    
    return respstr;
        
}


10、解决weblogic/webshpere中文问题: 
在web.xml文件中需要配置中文环境。r如下: 
<context-param> 
  <param-name>weblogic.httpd.inputCharset./*</param-name> 
  <param-value>GB2312</param-value> 
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