android View 总结

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Android 自定义View (一)

Using Views

All of the views in a window are arranged in a single tree. You can add views either from code or by specifying a tree of views in one or more XML layout files. There are many specialized subclasses of views that act as controls or are capable of displaying text, images, or other content.

Once you have created a tree of views, there are typically a few types of common operations you may wish to perform:

  • Set properties: for example setting the text of a TextView. The available properties and the methods that set them will vary among the different subclasses of views. Note that properties that are known at build time can be set in the XML layout files.
  • Set focus: The framework will handled moving focus in response to user input. To force focus to a specific view, callrequestFocus().
  • Set up listeners: Views allow clients to set listeners that will be notified when something interesting happens to the view. For example, all views will let you set a listener to be notified when the view gains or loses focus. You can register such a listener using setOnFocusChangeListener(android.view.View.OnFocusChangeListener). Other view subclasses offer more specialized listeners. For example, a Button exposes a listener to notify clients when the button is clicked.
  • Set visibility: You can hide or show views using setVisibility(int).

Note: The Android framework is responsible for measuring, laying out and drawing views. You should not call methods that perform these actions on views yourself unless you are actually implementing a ViewGroup.

Implementing a Custom View

To implement a custom view, you will usually begin by providing overrides for some of the standard methods that the framework calls on all views. You do not need to override all of these methods. In fact, you can start by just overridingonDraw(

Category Methods Description
Creation Constructors There is a form of the constructor that are called when the view is created from code and a form that is called when the view is inflated from a layout file. The second form should parse and apply any attributes defined in the layout file.
onFinishInflate() Called after a view and all of its children has been inflated from XML.
Layout onMeasure(int, int) Called to determine the size requirements for this view and all of its children.
onLayout(boolean, int, int, int, int) Called when this view should assign a size and position to all of its children.
onSizeChanged(int, int, int, int) Called when the size of this view has changed.
Drawing onDraw( Called when the view should render its content.
Event processing onKeyDown(int, KeyEvent) Called when a new hardware key event occurs.
onKeyUp(int, KeyEvent) Called when a hardware key up event occurs.
onTrackballEvent(MotionEvent) Called when a trackball motion event occurs.
onTouchEvent(MotionEvent) Called when a touch screen motion event occurs.
Focus onFocusChanged(boolean, int, Called when the view gains or loses focus.
onWindowFocusChanged(boolean) Called when the window containing the view gains or loses focus.
Attaching onAttachedToWindow() Called when the view is attached to a window.
onDetachedFromWindow() Called when the view is detached from its window.
onWindowVisibilityChanged(int) Called when the visibility of the window containing the view has changed.


Views may have an integer id associated with them. These ids are typically assigned in the layout XML files, and are used to find specific views within the view tree. A common pattern is to:
  • Define a Button in the layout file and assign it a unique ID.
  • From the onCreate method of an Activity, find the Button
          Button myButton = (Button) findViewById(;

View IDs need not be unique throughout the tree, but it is good practice to ensure that they are at least unique within the part of the tree you are searching.


The geometry of a view is that of a rectangle. A view has a location, expressed as a pair of left and top coordinates, and two dimensions, expressed as a width and a height. The unit for location and dimensions is the pixel.

It is possible to retrieve the location of a view by invoking the methods getLeft() and getTop(). The former returns the left, or X, coordinate of the rectangle representing the view. The latter returns the top, or Y, coordinate of the rectangle representing the view. These methods both return the location of the view relative to its parent. For instance, when getLeft() returns 20, that means the view is located 20 pixels to the right of the left edge of its direct parent.

In addition, several convenience methods are offered to avoid unnecessary computations, namely getRight() andgetBottom(). These methods return the coordinates of the right and bottom edges of the rectangle representing the view. For instance, calling getRight() is similar to the following computation: getLeft() + getWidth() (see Size for more information about the width.)

Size, padding and margins

The size of a view is expressed with a width and a height. A view actually possess two pairs of width and height values.

The first pair is known as measured width and measured heightThese dimensions define how big a view wants to be within its parent(see Layout for more details.) The measured dimensions can be obtained by calling getMeasuredWidth() andgetMeasuredHeight().

The second pair is simply known as width and height, or sometimes drawing width and drawing height. These dimensions define the actual size of the view on screen, at drawing time and after layout. These values may, but do not have to, be different from the measured width and height. The width and height can be obtained by calling getWidth() and getHeight().

To measure its dimensions, a view takes into account its padding. The padding is expressed in pixels for the left, top, right and bottom parts of the view. Padding can be used to offset the content of the view by a specific amount of pixels. For instance, a left padding of 2 will push the view's content by 2 pixels to the right of the left edge. Padding can be set using the setPadding(int, int, int, int) or setPaddingRelative(int, int, int, int) method and queried by calling getPaddingLeft(),getPaddingTop()getPaddingRight()getPaddingBottom()getPaddingStart()getPaddingEnd().

Even though a view can define a padding, it does not provide any support for margins. However, view groups provide such a support. Refer to ViewGroup and ViewGroup.MarginLayoutParams for further information.


Layout is a two pass process: a measure pass and a layout pass. The measuring pass is implemented in measure(int, int) and is a top-down traversal of the view tree. Each view pushes dimension specifications down the tree during the recursion. At the end of the measure pass, every view has stored its measurements. The second pass happens in layout(int, int, int, int) and is also top-down. During this pass each parent is responsible for positioning all of its children using the sizes computed in the measure pass.

When a view's measure() method returns, its getMeasuredWidth() and getMeasuredHeight() values must be set, along with those for all of that view's descendants. A view's measured width and measured height values must respect the constraints imposed by the view's parents. This guarantees that at the end of the measure pass, all parents accept all of their children's measurements. A parent view may call measure() more than once on its children. For example, the parent may measure each child once with unspecified dimensions to find out how big they want to be, then call measure() on them again with actual numbers if the sum of all the children's unconstrained sizes is too big or too small.

The measure pass uses two classes to communicate dimensions. The View.MeasureSpec class is used by views to tell their parents how they want to be measured and positioned. The base LayoutParams class just describes how big the view wants to be for both width and height. For each dimension, it can specify one of:

  • an exact number
  • MATCH_PARENT, which means the view wants to be as big as its parent (minus padding)
  • WRAP_CONTENT, which means that the view wants to be just big enough to enclose its content (plus padding).
There are subclasses of LayoutParams for different subclasses of ViewGroup. For example, AbsoluteLayout has its own subclass of LayoutParams which adds an X and Y value.

MeasureSpecs are used to push requirements down the tree from parent to child. A MeasureSpec can be in one of three modes:

  • UNSPECIFIED: This is used by a parent to determine the desired dimension of a child view. For example, a LinearLayout may call measure() on its child with the height set to UNSPECIFIED and a width of EXACTLY 240 to find out how tall the child view wants to be given a width of 240 pixels.
  • EXACTLY: This is used by the parent to impose an exact size on the child. The child must use this size, and guarantee that all of its descendants will fit within this size.
  • AT_MOST: This is used by the parent to impose a maximum size on the child. The child must guarantee that it and all of its descendants will fit within this size.

To initiate a layout, call requestLayout(). This method is typically called by a view on itself when it believes that is can no longer fit within its current bounds.


Drawing is handled by walking the tree and recording the drawing commands of any View that needs to update. After this, the drawing commands of the entire tree are issued to screen, clipped to the newly damaged area.

The tree is largely recorded and drawn in order, with parents drawn before (i.e., behind) their children, with siblings drawn in the order they appear in the tree. If you set a background drawable for a View, then the View will draw it before calling back to itsonDraw() method. The child drawing order can be overridden with custom child drawing order in a ViewGroup, and withsetZ(float) custom Z values} set on Views.

To force a view to draw, call invalidate().

Event Handling and Threading

The basic cycle of a view is as follows:

  1. An event comes in and is dispatched to the appropriate view. The view handles the event and notifies any listeners.
  2. If in the course of processing the event, the view's bounds may need to be changed, the view will call requestLayout().
  3. Similarly, if in the course of processing the event the view's appearance may need to be changed, the view will callinvalidate().
  4. If either requestLayout() or invalidate() were called, the framework will take care of measuring, laying out, and drawing the tree as appropriate.

Note: The entire view tree is single threaded. You must always be on the UI thread when calling any method on any view. If you are doing work on other threads and want to update the state of a view from that thread, you should use a Handler.

Focus Handling

The framework will handle routine focus movement in response to user input. This includes changing the focus as views are removed or hidden, or as new views become available. Views indicate their willingness to take focus through the isFocusable()method. To change whether a view can take focus, call setFocusable(boolean). When in touch mode (see notes below) views indicate whether they still would like focus via isFocusableInTouchMode() and can change this viasetFocusableInTouchMode(boolean).

Focus movement is based on an algorithm which finds the nearest neighbor in a given direction. In rare cases, the default algorithm may not match the intended behavior of the developer. In these situations, you can provide explicit overrides by using these XML attributes in the layout file:


To get a particular view to take focus, call requestFocus().

Touch Mode

When a user is navigating a user interface via directional keys such as a D-pad, it is necessary to give focus to actionable items such as buttons so the user can see what will take input. If the device has touch capabilities, however, and the user begins interacting with the interface by touching it, it is no longer necessary to always highlight, or give focus to, a particular view. This motivates a mode for interaction named 'touch mode'.

For a touch capable device, once the user touches the screen, the device will enter touch mode. From this point onward, only views for which isFocusableInTouchMode() is true will be focusable, such as text editing widgets. Other views that are touchable, like buttons, will not take focus when touched; they will only fire the on click listeners.

Any time a user hits a directional key, such as a D-pad direction, the view device will exit touch mode, and find a view to take focus, so that the user may resume interacting with the user interface without touching the screen again.

The touch mode state is maintained across Activitys. Call isInTouchMode() to see whether the device is currently in touch mode.


The framework provides basic support for views that wish to internally scroll their content. This includes keeping track of the X and Y scroll offset as well as mechanisms for drawing scrollbars. See scrollBy(int, int)scrollTo(int, int), andawakenScrollBars() for more details.


Unlike IDs, tags are not used to identify views. Tags are essentially an extra piece of information that can be associated with a view. They are most often used as a convenience to store data related to views in the views themselves rather than by putting them in a separate structure.


The View class exposes an ALPHA property, as well as several transform-related properties, such as TRANSLATION_X andTRANSLATION_Y. These properties are available both in the Property form as well as in similarly-named setter/getter methods (such as setAlpha(float) for ALPHA). These properties can be used to set persistent state associated with these rendering-related properties on the view. The properties and methods can also be used in conjunction with Animator-based animations, described more in the Animation section.


Starting with Android 3.0, the preferred way of animating views is to use the android.animation package APIs. TheseAnimator-based classes change actual properties of the View object, such as alpha and translationX. This behavior is contrasted to that of the pre-3.0 Animation-based classes, which instead animate only how the view is drawn on the display. In particular, the ViewPropertyAnimator class makes animating these View properties particularly easy and efficient.

Alternatively, you can use the pre-3.0 animation classes to animate how Views are rendered. You can attach an Animation object to a view using setAnimation(Animation) or startAnimation(Animation). The animation can alter the scale, rotation, translation and alpha of a view over time. If the animation is attached to a view that has children, the animation will affect the entire subtree rooted by that node. When an animation is started, the framework will take care of redrawing the appropriate views until the animation completes.


Sometimes it is essential that an application be able to verify that an action is being performed with the full knowledge and consent of the user, such as granting a permission request, making a purchase or clicking on an advertisement. Unfortunately, a malicious application could try to spoof the user into performing these actions, unaware, by concealing the intended purpose of the view. As a remedy, the framework offers a touch filtering mechanism that can be used to improve the security of views that provide access to sensitive functionality.

To enable touch filtering, call setFilterTouchesWhenObscured(boolean) or set the android:filterTouchesWhenObscured layout attribute to true. When enabled, the framework will discard touches that are received whenever the view's window is obscured by another visible window. As a result, the view will not receive touches whenever a toast, dialog or other window appears above the view's window.

For more fine-grained control over security, consider overriding the onFilterTouchEventForSecurity(MotionEvent) method to implement your own security policy. See also FLAG_WINDOW_IS_OBSCURED.


     * <p>
     * This is called to find out how big a view should be. The parent
     * supplies constraint information in the width and height parameters.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * The actual measurement work of a view is performed in
     * {@link #onMeasure(int, int)}, called by this method. Therefore, only
     * {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} can and must be overridden by subclasses.
     * </p>
     * @param widthMeasureSpec Horizontal space requirements as imposed by the
     *        parent
     * @param heightMeasureSpec Vertical space requirements as imposed by the
     *        parent
     * @see #onMeasure(int, int)
    public final void measure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        boolean optical = isLayoutModeOptical(this);
        if (optical != isLayoutModeOptical(mParent)) {
            Insets insets = getOpticalInsets();
            int oWidth  = insets.left + insets.right;
            int oHeight =  + insets.bottom;
            widthMeasureSpec  = MeasureSpec.adjust(widthMeasureSpec,  optical ? -oWidth  : oWidth);
            heightMeasureSpec = MeasureSpec.adjust(heightMeasureSpec, optical ? -oHeight : oHeight);

        // Suppress sign extension for the low bytes
        long key = (long) widthMeasureSpec << 32 | (long) heightMeasureSpec & 0xffffffffL;
        if (mMeasureCache == null) mMeasureCache = new LongSparseLongArray(2);

        if ((mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_FORCE_LAYOUT) == PFLAG_FORCE_LAYOUT ||
                widthMeasureSpec != mOldWidthMeasureSpec ||
                heightMeasureSpec != mOldHeightMeasureSpec) {

            // first clears the measured dimension flag
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_MEASURED_DIMENSION_SET;


            int cacheIndex = (mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_FORCE_LAYOUT) == PFLAG_FORCE_LAYOUT ? -1 :
            if (cacheIndex < 0 || sIgnoreMeasureCache) {
                // measure ourselves, this should set the measured dimension flag back
                onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
                mPrivateFlags3 &= ~PFLAG3_MEASURE_NEEDED_BEFORE_LAYOUT;
            } else {
                long value = mMeasureCache.valueAt(cacheIndex);
                // Casting a long to int drops the high 32 bits, no mask needed
                setMeasuredDimensionRaw((int) (value >> 32), (int) value);
                mPrivateFlags3 |= PFLAG3_MEASURE_NEEDED_BEFORE_LAYOUT;

            // flag not set, setMeasuredDimension() was not invoked, we raise
            // an exception to warn the developer
                throw new IllegalStateException("View with id " + getId() + ": "
                        + getClass().getName() + "#onMeasure() did not set the"
                        + " measured dimension by calling"
                        + " setMeasuredDimension()");

            mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_LAYOUT_REQUIRED;

        mOldWidthMeasureSpec = widthMeasureSpec;
        mOldHeightMeasureSpec = heightMeasureSpec;

        mMeasureCache.put(key, ((long) mMeasuredWidth) << 32 |
                (long) mMeasuredHeight & 0xffffffffL); // suppress sign extension


     * <p>
     * Measure the view and its content to determine the measured width and the
     * measured height. This method is invoked by {@link #measure(int, int)} and
     * should be overridden by subclasses to provide accurate and efficient
     * measurement of their contents.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * <strong>CONTRACT:</strong> When overriding this method, you
     * <em>must</em> call {@link #setMeasuredDimension(int, int)} to store the
     * measured width and height of this view. Failure to do so will trigger an
     * <code>IllegalStateException</code>, thrown by
     * {@link #measure(int, int)}. Calling the superclass'
     * {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} is a valid use.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * The base class implementation of measure defaults to the background size,
     * unless a larger size is allowed by the MeasureSpec. Subclasses should
     * override {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} to provide better measurements of
     * their content.
     * </p>
     * <p>
     * If this method is overridden, it is the subclass's responsibility to make
     * sure the measured height and width are at least the view's minimum height
     * and width ({@link #getSuggestedMinimumHeight()} and
     * {@link #getSuggestedMinimumWidth()}).
     * </p>
     * @param widthMeasureSpec horizontal space requirements as imposed by the parent.
     *                         The requirements are encoded with
     *                         {@link android.view.View.MeasureSpec}.
     * @param heightMeasureSpec vertical space requirements as imposed by the parent.
     *                         The requirements are encoded with
     *                         {@link android.view.View.MeasureSpec}.
     * @see #getMeasuredWidth()
     * @see #getMeasuredHeight()
     * @see #setMeasuredDimension(int, int)
     * @see #getSuggestedMinimumHeight()
     * @see #getSuggestedMinimumWidth()
     * @see android.view.View.MeasureSpec#getMode(int)
     * @see android.view.View.MeasureSpec#getSize(int)
    protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        setMeasuredDimension(getDefaultSize(getSuggestedMinimumWidth(), widthMeasureSpec),
                getDefaultSize(getSuggestedMinimumHeight(), heightMeasureSpec));
    }<span style="font-family:Microsoft YaHei;">


     * <p>This method must be called by {@link #onMeasure(int, int)} to store the
     * measured width and measured height. Failing to do so will trigger an
     * exception at measurement time.</p>
     * @param measuredWidth The measured width of this view.  May be a complex
     * bit mask as defined by {@link #MEASURED_SIZE_MASK} and
     * @param measuredHeight The measured height of this view.  May be a complex
     * bit mask as defined by {@link #MEASURED_SIZE_MASK} and
    protected final void setMeasuredDimension(int measuredWidth, int measuredHeight) {
        boolean optical = isLayoutModeOptical(this);
        if (optical != isLayoutModeOptical(mParent)) {
            Insets insets = getOpticalInsets();
            int opticalWidth  = insets.left + insets.right;
            int opticalHeight =  + insets.bottom;

            measuredWidth  += optical ? opticalWidth  : -opticalWidth;
            measuredHeight += optical ? opticalHeight : -opticalHeight;
        setMeasuredDimensionRaw(measuredWidth, measuredHeight);
     * Ask all of the children of this view to measure themselves, taking into
     * account both the MeasureSpec requirements for this view and its padding.
     * We skip children that are in the GONE state The heavy lifting is done in
     * getChildMeasureSpec.
     * @param widthMeasureSpec The width requirements for this view
     * @param heightMeasureSpec The height requirements for this view
    protected void measureChildren(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
        final int size = mChildrenCount;
        final View[] children = mChildren;
        for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
            final View child = children[i];
            if ((child.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) != GONE) {
                measureChild(child, widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);


     * Ask one of the children of this view to measure itself, taking into
     * account both the MeasureSpec requirements for this view and its padding.
     * The heavy lifting is done in getChildMeasureSpec.
     * @param child The child to measure
     * @param parentWidthMeasureSpec The width requirements for this view
     * @param parentHeightMeasureSpec The height requirements for this view
    protected void measureChild(View child, int parentWidthMeasureSpec,
            int parentHeightMeasureSpec) {
        final LayoutParams lp = child.getLayoutParams();

        final int childWidthMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentWidthMeasureSpec,
                mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight, lp.width);
        final int childHeightMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentHeightMeasureSpec,
                mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom, lp.height);

        child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);


     * Does the hard part of measureChildren: figuring out the MeasureSpec to
     * pass to a particular child. This method figures out the right MeasureSpec
     * for one dimension (height or width) of one child view.
     * The goal is to combine information from our MeasureSpec with the
     * LayoutParams of the child to get the best possible results. For example,
     * if the this view knows its size (because its MeasureSpec has a mode of
     * EXACTLY), and the child has indicated in its LayoutParams that it wants
     * to be the same size as the parent, the parent should ask the child to
     * layout given an exact size.
     * @param spec The requirements for this view
     * @param padding The padding of this view for the current dimension and
     *        margins, if applicable
     * @param childDimension How big the child wants to be in the current
     *        dimension
     * @return a MeasureSpec integer for the child
    public static int getChildMeasureSpec(int spec, int padding, int childDimension) {
        int specMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(spec);
        int specSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(spec);

        int size = Math.max(0, specSize - padding);

        int resultSize = 0;
        int resultMode = 0;

        switch (specMode) {
        // Parent has imposed an exact size on us
        case MeasureSpec.EXACTLY:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size. So be it.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size. It can't be
                // bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;

        // Parent has imposed a maximum size on us
        case MeasureSpec.AT_MOST:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                // Child wants a specific size... so be it
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size, but our size is not fixed.
                // Constrain child to not be bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size. It can't be
                // bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;

        // Parent asked to see how big we want to be
        case MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                // Child wants a specific size... let him have it
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size... find out how big it should
                // be
                resultSize = View.sUseZeroUnspecifiedMeasureSpec ? 0 : size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size.... find out how
                // big it should be
                resultSize = View.sUseZeroUnspecifiedMeasureSpec ? 0 : size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED;
        return MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(resultSize, resultMode);


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