13. Roman to Integer


Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols: IVXLCD and M.

Symbol       Value
I             1
V             5
X             10
L             50
C             100
D             500
M             1000

For example, two is written as II in Roman numeral, just two one's added together. Twelve is written as, XII, which is simply X + II. The number twenty seven is written as XXVII, which is XX + V + II.

Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not IIII. Instead, the number four is written as IV. Because the one is before the five we subtract it making four. The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as IX. There are six instances where subtraction is used:

  • I can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9. 
  • X can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90. 
  • C can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900.

Given a roman numeral, convert it to an integer. Input is guaranteed to be within the range from 1 to 3999.

Example 1:

Input: "III"
Output: 3

Example 2:

Input: "IV"
Output: 4

Example 3:

Input: "IX"
Output: 9

Example 4:

Input: "LVIII"
Output: 58
Explanation: C = 100, L = 50, XXX = 30 and III = 3.

Example 5:

Input: "MCMXCIV"
Output: 1994
Explanation: M = 1000, CM = 900, XC = 90 and IV = 4.

说一句废话:本来这题不太想写的,确实对罗马数字不太熟悉,写起来比较困难,不过最后想想还是写吧,对于一个强迫症患者LeetCode已完成题目中间空一块太难受了。

题目其实挺简单的,无非就是将字符串分解,然后根据罗马数字的规则,进行数字的转换。

注意下面几个规则就好了:

  • I (1)can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9. 
  • X (5)can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90. 
  • C (100)can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900.

注意到,如果罗马数字左边的数比右边那个数要小,那么需要将两位数组合起来,右边减掉左边,为转换后的数。

fun romanToInt(s: String): Int {
    val sb = StringBuilder(s)
    var result = 0
    while (sb.isNotEmpty()){
        if (sb.length > 1 && romanToNumber(sb[0]) < romanToNumber(sb[1])){
            result += (romanToNumber(sb[1]) - romanToNumber(sb[0]))
            sb.delete(0, 2)
        }else{
            result += romanToNumber(sb[0])
            sb.deleteCharAt(0)
        }
    }
    return result
}

fun romanToNumber(c: Char): Int {
    return when (c) {
        'I' -> 1
        'V' -> 5
        'X' -> 10
        'L' -> 50
        'C' -> 100
        'D' -> 500
        'M' -> 1000
        else -> 0
    }
}


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