kubeadm安装单机k8s

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目前出现的安装方式

目前我看到的有三种方式
minikube、microk8s、kubeadm
除了以上方式,甚至有以安装二进制文件的方式安装的。参看文档

minikube安装在不同操作系统
https://www.imooc.com/article/23785

从安装的服务来看,k8s 单节点必要的服务包括:

  • 容器运行时: 默认是 Docker
  • etcd: key-value 存储服务,用于保存集群的状态
  • kube-apiserver: 集群资源操作的唯一入口,并提供认证、授权、访问控制、API 注册和发现等机制
  • kube-controller-manager: 维护集群的状态,比如故障检测、自动扩展、滚动更新等
  • kube-scheduler: 负责资源的调度,按照预定的调度策略将 Pod 调度到相应的机器上
  • kubelet: 负责维持容器的生命周期,同时也负责 Volume(CVI)和网络(CNI)的管理
  • kube-proxy: 负责为 Service 提供 cluster 内部的服务发现和负载均衡

三者差异之处在于:

  • microk8s 部署 k8s 是直接安装到主机而不是以容器方式安装
  • microk8s 虽然默认没有安装 DNS 服务,但通常情况下为了使用服务发现,还是需要安装的,microk8s 默认的 DNS 服务是 kube-dns,而不是目前官方推荐的 CoreDNS 。
  • 网络插件 kubeadm 需要自己选择, microk8s 和 minikube 都会自己安装
  • minikube 默认额外安装了 storage-provisioner 用于虚拟机挂载磁盘

从易用角度来看,microk8s 是安装最简单,门槛最低的;minikube 适合对 minikube 比较熟悉的用户。

无论以何种方式安装 k8s, 都需要注意安全问题, 因为在 k8s 的设计中, Master 节点是不会暴露到外网的,用户服务都会安装到 Worker 节点,但是在单节点的情况下,k8s 所监听的端口都没有设防,容器的权限也有可能过大,这些安全问题在 minikube 的文档中也有提到, 需要对网络端口设置 iptables 限制可访问的 IP 等方式来提升安全性,如果是安全性敏感的项目,建议放弃单节点 k8s 的方案。

以上文档参考内容:http://www.ituring.com.cn/article/507461
本文只以kubeadm为例,安装具有普遍性的方式。

kubeadm单机版安装步骤

硬件要求,cetnos7
CPU2,内存2G

安装DOCKER,请参考我之前的资料(Docker第一篇:简介和入门安装:https://blog.csdn.net/zjcjava/article/details/78493724)
设置成服务并启动

systemctl enable docker && systemctl start docker

关闭Centos自带的防火墙服务

 systemctl disable firewalld
 systemctl stop firewalld

1, 初始化系统,安装kubernetes所需的相关程序(所有master和node节点)

添加kubernetes相关的yum库资源,国内可使用阿里云的镜像:

vi /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg
 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg

关闭selinux

# setenforce 0

安装K8S组件
执行以下命令安装kubelet、kubeadm、kubectl:

#指定版本否则都会默认安装库中最新版本,会因为彼此依赖的版本不同安装失败
#yum install -y kubelet-1.13.1 kubeadm-1.13.1 kubectl-1.13.1   kubernetes-cni-0.6.0
#设置开机启动并启动kubelet
# systemctl enable kubelet && systemctl start kubelet

下载镜像

#查看需要依赖的镜像版本
kubeadm config images list
k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver:v1.13.1
k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager:v1.13.1
k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler:v1.13.1
k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy:v1.13.1
k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.1
k8s.gcr.io/etcd:3.2.24
k8s.gcr.io/coredns:1.2.6


vi my.sh

新建一个sh文件,内容如下(下载k8s相关镜像,下载后将镜像名改为k8s.gcr.io/开头的名字,以便kubeadm识别使用)

#!/bin/bash
images=(
    kube-apiserver:v1.13.2
    kube-controller-manager:v1.13.2
    kube-scheduler:v1.13.2
    kube-proxy:v1.13.2
    pause:3.1
    etcd:3.2.24
    coredns:1.2.6
)
for imageName in ${images[@]} ; do
    docker pull registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/${imageName}
    docker tag registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/${image} k8s.gcr.io/${imageName}
    docker rmi registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/${imageName}
done

给权限,并运行

chmod 777 my.sh
./my.sh

看下已经拉取下来的镜像,k8s.gcr.io开头的都是刚刚拉取的镜像文件

docker images
REPOSITORY                                              TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
docker.io/centos                                        latest              9f38484d220f        5 months ago        202 MB
docker.io/hello-world                                   latest              fce289e99eb9        7 months ago        1.84 kB
k8s.gcr.io/kube-controller-manager-amd64                v1.11.0             55b70b420785        13 months ago       155 MB
k8s.gcr.io/kube-scheduler-amd64                         v1.11.0             0e4a34a3b0e6        13 months ago       56.8 MB
k8s.gcr.io/kube-proxy-amd64                             v1.11.0             1d3d7afd77d1        13 months ago       97.8 MB
k8s.gcr.io/kube-apiserver-amd64                         v1.11.0             214c48e87f58        13 months ago       187 MB
k8s.gcr.io/coredns                                      1.1.3               b3b94275d97c        14 months ago       45.6 MB
k8s.gcr.io/etcd-amd64                                   3.2.18              b8df3b177be2        16 months ago       219 MB
k8s.gcr.io/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64                   v1.8.3              0c60bcf89900        18 months ago       102 MB
k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-dnsmasq-nanny-amd64                  1.14.8              c2ce1ffb51ed        19 months ago       41 MB
k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-sidecar-amd64                        1.14.8              6f7f2dc7fab5        19 months ago       42.2 MB
k8s.gcr.io/k8s-dns-kube-dns-amd64                       1.14.8              80cc5ea4b547        19 months ago       50.5 MB
k8s.gcr.io/pause-amd64                                  3.1                 da86e6ba6ca1        19 months ago       742 kB
k8s.gcr.io/pause                                        3.1                 da86e6ba6ca1        19 mon

系统设置
初始化kubernets需关闭swap,否则会报错:[ERROR Swap]: running with swap on is not supported. Please disable swap。

cat <<EOF >  /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
sysctl --system

关闭swap
swapoff -a
free -m |grep Swap

初始化master,出现下面的提示说明初始化成功

kubeadm init --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 --kubernetes-version=v1.13.1



Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!

To start using your cluster, you need to run the following as a regular user:

  mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
  sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
  sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

You should now deploy a pod network to the cluster.
Run "kubectl apply -f [podnetwork].yaml" with one of the options listed at:
  https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/addons/

You can now join any number of machines by running the following on each node
as root:

  kubeadm join 192.168.1.101:6443 --token z06izj.jmbtqsw1rvqyhtkx --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:b07c72b5874b7ce015c784c09c67c5f12b3b89932a98dd98393ccdf24fbc4a8f

配置访问集群的,同时好需要执行如下命令:

mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config

本文是讨论单机版的kubernetes,集群不做讨论。

具体出现的错误信息:https://blog.csdn.net/u013355826/article/details/82787241

执行命令如下:

kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-

至此,单机版的Kubernetes就搭建完成了。

验证master节点信息

[root@worker3 shell]# kubectl get cs 
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE              ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok                   
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health": "true"}  
[root@worker3 shell]# kubectl get node 
NAME      STATUS    ROLES     AGE       VERSION
worker3   Ready     master    1d        v1.10.0

创建一个三个副本的Nginx服务

kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --replicas=3
kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=88 --target-port=80 --type=NodePort

通过命令查看服务

[root@worker worker3]# kubectl get service
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1      <none>        443/TCP        1d
nginx        NodePort    10.99.44.183   <none>        88:32584/TCP   20h

打开IP+PORT形式即可看到Nginx的页面,kubernetes验证也完毕。

配套的安装过程中的一些问题以及方案地址:

https://blog.csdn.net/u013355826/article/details/82790183

https://blog.csdn.net/u013355826/article/details/82786649

部署仪表盘

主节点操作

 wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v1.10.1/src/deploy/recommended/kubernetes-dashboard.yaml

这里只需要修改image的地址为国内阿里云的不然翻墙不了会下载不成功 registry.cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/minminmsn/kubernetes-dashboard:v1.10.1

NodePort模式需要修改镜像地址和type: NodePort

vim  kubernetes-dashboard.yaml 
 spec:
      containers:
      - name: kubernetes-dashboard
        image: registry.cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/minminmsn/kubernetes-dashboard:v1.10.1

spec:
  type: NodePort       #增加type: NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 31620  #增加nodePort: 31620
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

这里把官方的改成阿里云的镜像地址registry.cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/minminmsn/kubernetes-dashboard:v1.10.1
修改如上文件,增加如下配置:

type: NodePort # 添加Service的type为NodePort
nodePort: 31000  # 添加映射到虚拟机的端口,k8s只支持30000以上的端口 

访问dashboard有以下几种方式访问dashboard:

  • Nodport方式访问dashboard,service类型改为NodePort
  • loadbalacer方式,service类型改为loadbalacer
  • Ingress方式访问dashboard
  • API server方式访问 dashboard
  • kubectl proxy方式访问dashboard
    官方参考文档:
    https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/access-application-cluster/web-ui-dashboard/#accessing-the-dashboard-ui

修改完成创建服务pod

[root@node03 bin]# kubectl create -f kubernetes-dashboard.yaml
secret/kubernetes-dashboard-certs created
serviceaccount/kubernetes-dashboard created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard-minimal created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/kubernetes-dashboard-minimal created
deployment.apps/kubernetes-dashboard created
service/kubernetes-dashboard created

查看运行状态

[root@node03 bin]# kubectl get pods --all-namespaces -o wide | grep dashboard
kube-system   kubernetes-dashboard-77fd78f978-bkm9r   1/1     Running   0          37m   10.244.1.4      node04   <none>

常见异常处理:
Terminating或者Pending时删除当前pod

kubectl delete pod kubernetes-dashboard-57df4db6b-lcj24  -n kube-system

如下异常时

Error from server (AlreadyExists): error when creating "kubernetes-dashboard.yaml": secrets "kubernetes-dashboard-certs" already exists
Error from server (AlreadyExists): error when creating "kubernetes-dashboard.yaml": serviceaccounts "kubernetes-dashboard" already exists
Error from server (AlreadyExists): error when creating "kubernetes-dashboard.yaml": roles.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "kubernetes-dashboard-minimal" already exists
Error from server (AlreadyExists): error when creating "kubernetes-dashboard.yaml": rolebindings.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "kubernetes-dashboard-minimal" already exists

处理如下,卸载之前安装的内容

kubectl delete -f kubernetes-dashboard.yaml 

继续进行,查看service,TYPE类型已经变为NodePort,端口为31000

kubectl get service -n kube-system | grep dashboard
kubernetes-dashboard   NodePort    10.98.190.246   <none>        443:31000/TCP   99s

查看token

[root@node03 bin]# kubectl get secrets -n kube-system | grep kubernetes-dashboard-admin
kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-77hlj           kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      2m56s

[root@node03 bin]# kubectl describe secrets/kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-77hlj  -n kube-system  
Name:         kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token-77hlj
Namespace:    kube-system
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  kubernetes.io/service-account.name: kubernetes-dashboard-admin
              kubernetes.io/service-account.uid: f10a8196-f46a-11e8-8466-1e00f5000055

Type:  kubernetes.io/service-account-token

Data
====
namespace:  11 bytes
token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.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.sks04AJ1D0qx9YwhZevawx9iXp66bBZoAm2bqp6ai-qG3piz4NWLYisWZ40QgrMQ6EGf4j5ax7HKKxQKjxa0eqZ5pgLgoyYOC5jrl6y1jPUSj4ThsG5SnKhH1pr3Jzh7iUY-Ak_ckt1rzVn0AWs7PTL9fRqMJLrN4eFbcZgf5640fcwa4Jlu4pnDatIC7tRm9an_87wGVrn41HrxW4E5ZgKP9evEAhJybaZMTRVebh6jjBDf1XsPe6OMK0KwruNYVcuGY7eluJ0xKN-gwNXKP5MdV6Bii6ikAL_ZJ3PnlEjPl-5KHChMxj129RjlgVKu-IwC633hOnCrBlGfRLJVNQ

导出浏览器证书

cat /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf | grep client-certificate-data | awk -F ': ' '{print $2}' | base64 -d > /etc/kubernetes/pki/client.crt
cat /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf | grep client-key-data | awk -F ': ' '{print $2}' | base64 -d > /etc/kubernetes/pki/client.key
openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey /etc/kubernetes/pki/client.key -in /etc/kubernetes/pki/client.crt -out /etc/kubernetes/pki/client.pfx

开启kubelec proxy,开放dashboard端口,以便我们可以访问ui页面。(该方法为官方推介的其中一种方法,也可以使用NodePort方式):

# kubectl proxy --address=192.168.232.130 --accept-hosts='^*$' &

配置完之后使用http://192.168.232.130:8001/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/#!/overview?namespace=default访问dashboard。

参考资料
https://blog.51cto.com/11889458/2324313
https://blog.csdn.net/shenhonglei1234/article/details/80312709

https://blog.51cto.com/icenycmh/2122309
dashboard安装
https://blog.csdn.net/fanren224/article/details/86610466
kube系列
https://blog.csdn.net/yuhaibao324/article/category/9091187

参考资料

使用kubeadm方式安装kubernetes 1.10.0
http://www.voidcn.com/article/p-zdtfobbv-brq.html
使用kubeadm安装单节点kubernetes集群,在vmware虚拟机centos7
https://blog.csdn.net/c5113620/article/details/82763681

centos7 单节点部署k8s以及kubernetes-dashboard安装
https://blog.csdn.net/moyu_2012/article/details/77683599

k8s集群安装
https://blog.csdn.net/wzr54321/article/details/81907836
https://blog.51cto.com/icenycmh/2121370
kubeadm安装1.9版本
https://blog.51cto.com/foxhound/2057395
kubernetes 安装
https://www.jianshu.com/p/c3dac5234c53

安装异常总结

安装过程中遇到异常:

/proc/sys/net/bridge/bridge-nf-call-iptables contents are not set to 1

执行系统设置部分设置bridge-nf-call-iptables=1后系统更新下配置

[preflight] Some fatal errors occurred:
  [ERROR DirAvailable--var-lib-etcd]: /var/lib/etcd is not empty

直接删除/var/lib/etcd文件夹

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