Android Handler 消息机制

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/zzw0221/article/details/94119906

1.概述

在Android中使用消息机制,最常见的就是Handler,主要作用用来实现不同线程之间的通信。通常情况下,因为 Android 不能在主线程执行耗时操作,Handler的主要使用场景就是在子线程执行耗时操作后将消息发送到主线程,从而进行UI的更新。

2. Handler 实例

先看一个使用Handler的简单实例:先不考虑Handler造成的内存泄漏问题

package cn.zzw.messenger.handlerdemo;

import androidx.annotation.NonNull;
import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView;

import java.lang.ref.WeakReference;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    private MyHandler mHandler;
    private TextView mTv;
    private Button mBtn;

    private class MyHandler extends Handler {
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
            if (msg.what == 10086) {
                mTv.setText(String.valueOf(msg.arg1));
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        mHandler = new MyHandler();
        mTv = findViewById(R.id.mTv);
        mBtn = findViewById(R.id.mBtn);
        mBtn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View view) {
                new Thread() {
                    @Override
                    public void run() {
                        try {
                            int i = 0;
                            while (i < 100) {
                                i++;
                                Thread.sleep(300);
                                Message msg = Message.obtain();
                                msg.what = 10086;
                                msg.arg1 = i;
                                mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
                            }
                        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                    }
                }.start();
            }
        });
    }
}

步骤:

a. 创建 Handler 对象

b.创建Message对象,封装消息

c.调用 mHandler.sendMessage(msg) 从子线程发送消息

d.在Handler中重写 handleMessage(@NonNull Message msg) 方法,接收消息并处理消息。

 

3. Handler消息机制源码解析

初始化Handler对象的时候,使用的是无参的构造方法:

    public Handler() {
        this(null, false);
    }

可以看到它内部调用的是另外一个两个参数的构造方法:

    public Handler(Callback callback, boolean async) {
        if (FIND_POTENTIAL_LEAKS) {
            final Class<? extends Handler> klass = getClass();
            if ((klass.isAnonymousClass() || klass.isMemberClass() || klass.isLocalClass()) &&
                    (klass.getModifiers() & Modifier.STATIC) == 0) {
                Log.w(TAG, "The following Handler class should be static or leaks might occur: " +
                    klass.getCanonicalName());
            }
        }
        //1
        mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
        if (mLooper == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException(
                "Can't create handler inside thread " + Thread.currentThread()
                        + " that has not called Looper.prepare()");
        }
        //2
        mQueue = mLooper.mQueue;
        mCallback = callback;
        mAsynchronous = async;
    }

 这个构造方法主要作用是获取 mLooper 和 mQueue 对象,其中 mLooper 是通过 Looper.myLooper() 获取。

    public static @Nullable Looper myLooper() {
        return sThreadLocal.get();
    }

 在myLooper 方法中,Looper对象是从 sThreadLocal中获取。

创建 ThreadLocal 对象:

 static final ThreadLocal<Looper> sThreadLocal = new ThreadLocal<Looper>();

ThreadLocal 是确保当前线程有且只有一个Looper对象。 做了软件开发几年了,只有在这个Looper的源码中才接触到ThreadLocal,上次在正航软件面试的时候,聊到 ThreadLocal ,只答出了 ThreadLocal 的作用,并不了 ThreadLocal 的原理,后续会研究下 ThreadLocal 的原理,并写一篇相关的文章。

扯远了,继续拉回正题。

看下 Looper 对象是如何被放到 ThreadLocal 中的:

    public static void prepare() {
        prepare(true);
    }

    private static void prepare(boolean quitAllowed) {
        if (sThreadLocal.get() != null) {
            throw new RuntimeException("Only one Looper may be created per thread");
        }
        sThreadLocal.set(new Looper(quitAllowed));
    }

prepare() 是一个私有的静态的方法。如果 ThreadLocal 中已经存在Looper对象,这时候会抛出异常。只有没有Looper对象的时候,会创建一个新的 Looper 对象。

看看 Looper 的构造方法:

    private Looper(boolean quitAllowed) {
        mQueue = new MessageQueue(quitAllowed);
        mThread = Thread.currentThread();
    }

在这个构造方法中:

 创建了 MessageQueue 对象,所以在 Handler 的构造方法中才能从Looper中获取到 MessageQueue。

而这个 Handler 中 用到的 Looper 对象是什么时候创建的呢?

在主线程的 ActivityThread 的main 方法中创建的:

在主线程中调用了 :

Looper.prepareMainLooper();

Looper.loop();

具体代码:

prepareMainLooper 方法:

    public static void prepareMainLooper() {
        prepare(false);
        synchronized (Looper.class) {
            if (sMainLooper != null) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("The main Looper has already been prepared.");
            }
            sMainLooper = myLooper();
        }
    }

在这个方法中,在当前线程中有且仅有一个Looper对象。 

通过上面的分析,Handler,Looper,MessageQueue 都有。而他们是怎么进行消息的传送。

消息传送首先要发送消息,调用的是 Handler 的 sendMessage() 方法。

    public final boolean sendMessage(Message msg)
    {
        return sendMessageDelayed(msg, 0);
    }



    public final boolean sendMessageDelayed(Message msg, long delayMillis)
    {
        if (delayMillis < 0) {
            delayMillis = 0;
        }
        return sendMessageAtTime(msg, SystemClock.uptimeMillis() + delayMillis);
    }



    public boolean sendMessageAtTime(Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
        MessageQueue queue = mQueue;
        if (queue == null) {
            RuntimeException e = new RuntimeException(
                    this + " sendMessageAtTime() called with no mQueue");
            Log.w("Looper", e.getMessage(), e);
            return false;
        }
        return enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis);
    }

上面代码的流程是:sendMessage() → sendMessageDelayed() → sendMessageAtTime() → enqueueMessage()

在 sendMessageAtTime() 方法中,拿到 构造方法中获取的 mQueue。将消息(msg)和 消息队列(mQueue) 传入方法enqueueMessage() 中。

再看看 enqueueMessage() :

    private boolean enqueueMessage(MessageQueue queue, Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
        msg.target = this;
        if (mAsynchronous) {
            msg.setAsynchronous(true);
        }
        return queue.enqueueMessage(msg, uptimeMillis);
    }

 在Handler类的 enqueueMessage() 方法中,调用 queue.enqueueMessage() 将消息放入消息队列中。

MessageQueue 类中的 enqueueMessage() : 在此方法中,进行JNI调用,最终调用到Native 方法:nativeWake。Native方法就不往下继续追了。

    boolean enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when) {
        if (msg.target == null) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Message must have a target.");
        }
        if (msg.isInUse()) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(msg + " This message is already in use.");
        }

        synchronized (this) {
            if (mQuitting) {
                IllegalStateException e = new IllegalStateException(
                        msg.target + " sending message to a Handler on a dead thread");
                Log.w(TAG, e.getMessage(), e);
                msg.recycle();
                return false;
            }

            msg.markInUse();
            msg.when = when;
            Message p = mMessages;
            boolean needWake;
            if (p == null || when == 0 || when < p.when) {
                // New head, wake up the event queue if blocked.
                msg.next = p;
                mMessages = msg;
                needWake = mBlocked;
            } else {
                // Inserted within the middle of the queue.  Usually we don't have to wake
                // up the event queue unless there is a barrier at the head of the queue
                // and the message is the earliest asynchronous message in the queue.
                needWake = mBlocked && p.target == null && msg.isAsynchronous();
                Message prev;
                for (;;) {
                    prev = p;
                    p = p.next;
                    if (p == null || when < p.when) {
                        break;
                    }
                    if (needWake && p.isAsynchronous()) {
                        needWake = false;
                    }
                }
                msg.next = p; // invariant: p == prev.next
                prev.next = msg;
            }

            // We can assume mPtr != 0 because mQuitting is false.
            if (needWake) {
                nativeWake(mPtr);
            }
        }
        return true;
    }

以上步骤 Handler 已经将消息发送到消息队列中了。

这时候在回头看在 ActivityThread 的main 方法中,调用到了 Looper 的 loop() 方法。

loop 方法 :

    /**
     * Run the message queue in this thread. Be sure to call
     * {@link #quit()} to end the loop.
     */
    public static void loop() {
        final Looper me = myLooper();
        if (me == null) {
            throw new RuntimeException("No Looper; Looper.prepare() wasn't called on this thread.");
        }
        final MessageQueue queue = me.mQueue;

        // Make sure the identity of this thread is that of the local process,
        // and keep track of what that identity token actually is.
        Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        final long ident = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();

        // Allow overriding a threshold with a system prop. e.g.
        // adb shell 'setprop log.looper.1000.main.slow 1 && stop && start'
        final int thresholdOverride =
                SystemProperties.getInt("log.looper."
                        + Process.myUid() + "."
                        + Thread.currentThread().getName()
                        + ".slow", 0);

        boolean slowDeliveryDetected = false;

        for (;;) {
            Message msg = queue.next(); // might block
            if (msg == null) {
                // No message indicates that the message queue is quitting.
                return;
            }

            // This must be in a local variable, in case a UI event sets the logger
            final Printer logging = me.mLogging;
            if (logging != null) {
                logging.println(">>>>> Dispatching to " + msg.target + " " +
                        msg.callback + ": " + msg.what);
            }

            final long traceTag = me.mTraceTag;
            long slowDispatchThresholdMs = me.mSlowDispatchThresholdMs;
            long slowDeliveryThresholdMs = me.mSlowDeliveryThresholdMs;
            if (thresholdOverride > 0) {
                slowDispatchThresholdMs = thresholdOverride;
                slowDeliveryThresholdMs = thresholdOverride;
            }
            final boolean logSlowDelivery = (slowDeliveryThresholdMs > 0) && (msg.when > 0);
            final boolean logSlowDispatch = (slowDispatchThresholdMs > 0);

            final boolean needStartTime = logSlowDelivery || logSlowDispatch;
            final boolean needEndTime = logSlowDispatch;

            if (traceTag != 0 && Trace.isTagEnabled(traceTag)) {
                Trace.traceBegin(traceTag, msg.target.getTraceName(msg));
            }

            final long dispatchStart = needStartTime ? SystemClock.uptimeMillis() : 0;
            final long dispatchEnd;
            try {
                msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg);
                dispatchEnd = needEndTime ? SystemClock.uptimeMillis() : 0;
            } finally {
                if (traceTag != 0) {
                    Trace.traceEnd(traceTag);
                }
            }
            if (logSlowDelivery) {
                if (slowDeliveryDetected) {
                    if ((dispatchStart - msg.when) <= 10) {
                        Slog.w(TAG, "Drained");
                        slowDeliveryDetected = false;
                    }
                } else {
                    if (showSlowLog(slowDeliveryThresholdMs, msg.when, dispatchStart, "delivery",
                            msg)) {
                        // Once we write a slow delivery log, suppress until the queue drains.
                        slowDeliveryDetected = true;
                    }
                }
            }
            if (logSlowDispatch) {
                showSlowLog(slowDispatchThresholdMs, dispatchStart, dispatchEnd, "dispatch", msg);
            }

            if (logging != null) {
                logging.println("<<<<< Finished to " + msg.target + " " + msg.callback);
            }

            // Make sure that during the course of dispatching the
            // identity of the thread wasn't corrupted.
            final long newIdent = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
            if (ident != newIdent) {
                Log.wtf(TAG, "Thread identity changed from 0x"
                        + Long.toHexString(ident) + " to 0x"
                        + Long.toHexString(newIdent) + " while dispatching to "
                        + msg.target.getClass().getName() + " "
                        + msg.callback + " what=" + msg.what);
            }

            msg.recycleUnchecked();
        }
    }

在这个方法中,开启一个死循环,不断的调用:Message msg = queue.next();

MessageQueue 类中的 next() 方法:

    Message next() {
        // Return here if the message loop has already quit and been disposed.
        // This can happen if the application tries to restart a looper after quit
        // which is not supported.
        final long ptr = mPtr;
        if (ptr == 0) {
            return null;
        }

        int pendingIdleHandlerCount = -1; // -1 only during first iteration
        int nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
        for (;;) {
            if (nextPollTimeoutMillis != 0) {
                Binder.flushPendingCommands();
            }

            nativePollOnce(ptr, nextPollTimeoutMillis);

            synchronized (this) {
                // Try to retrieve the next message.  Return if found.
                final long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
                Message prevMsg = null;
                Message msg = mMessages;
                if (msg != null && msg.target == null) {
                    // Stalled by a barrier.  Find the next asynchronous message in the queue.
                    do {
                        prevMsg = msg;
                        msg = msg.next;
                    } while (msg != null && !msg.isAsynchronous());
                }
                if (msg != null) {
                    if (now < msg.when) {
                        // Next message is not ready.  Set a timeout to wake up when it is ready.
                        nextPollTimeoutMillis = (int) Math.min(msg.when - now, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
                    } else {
                        // Got a message.
                        mBlocked = false;
                        if (prevMsg != null) {
                            prevMsg.next = msg.next;
                        } else {
                            mMessages = msg.next;
                        }
                        msg.next = null;
                        if (DEBUG) Log.v(TAG, "Returning message: " + msg);
                        msg.markInUse();
                        return msg;
                    }
                } else {
                    // No more messages.
                    nextPollTimeoutMillis = -1;
                }

                // Process the quit message now that all pending messages have been handled.
                if (mQuitting) {
                    dispose();
                    return null;
                }

                // If first time idle, then get the number of idlers to run.
                // Idle handles only run if the queue is empty or if the first message
                // in the queue (possibly a barrier) is due to be handled in the future.
                if (pendingIdleHandlerCount < 0
                        && (mMessages == null || now < mMessages.when)) {
                    pendingIdleHandlerCount = mIdleHandlers.size();
                }
                if (pendingIdleHandlerCount <= 0) {
                    // No idle handlers to run.  Loop and wait some more.
                    mBlocked = true;
                    continue;
                }

                if (mPendingIdleHandlers == null) {
                    mPendingIdleHandlers = new IdleHandler[Math.max(pendingIdleHandlerCount, 4)];
                }
                mPendingIdleHandlers = mIdleHandlers.toArray(mPendingIdleHandlers);
            }

            // Run the idle handlers.
            // We only ever reach this code block during the first iteration.
            for (int i = 0; i < pendingIdleHandlerCount; i++) {
                final IdleHandler idler = mPendingIdleHandlers[i];
                mPendingIdleHandlers[i] = null; // release the reference to the handler

                boolean keep = false;
                try {
                    keep = idler.queueIdle();
                } catch (Throwable t) {
                    Log.wtf(TAG, "IdleHandler threw exception", t);
                }

                if (!keep) {
                    synchronized (this) {
                        mIdleHandlers.remove(idler);
                    }
                }
            }

            // Reset the idle handler count to 0 so we do not run them again.
            pendingIdleHandlerCount = 0;

            // While calling an idle handler, a new message could have been delivered
            // so go back and look again for a pending message without waiting.
            nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
        }
    }

这样消息就再次被拿出来了,并调用了:msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg); 而这个 target 实际是一个 Handler 对象。

Handler 类 中的 dispatchMessage()方法:

    public void dispatchMessage(Message msg) {
        if (msg.callback != null) {
            handleCallback(msg);
        } else {
            if (mCallback != null) {
                if (mCallback.handleMessage(msg)) {
                    return;
                }
            }
            handleMessage(msg);
        }
    }

在这个方法中看到了非常熟悉的 handleMessage() 方法,在重写的 handleMessage 方法就可以执行我们期望做的事情了。

 

4.总结

在子线程执行完耗时操作,当Handler发送消息时,将会调用MessageQueue.enqueueMessage,向消息队列中添加消息。当通过Looper.loop开启循环后,会不断地从线程池中读取消息,即调用MessageQueue.next,然后调用目标Handler(即发送该消息的Handler)的dispatchMessage方法传递消息,然后返回到Handler所在线程,目标Handler收到消息,调用handleMessage方法,接收消息,处理消息。

可以用下图来理解:

参考:

https://github.com/LRH1993/android_interview/blob/master/android/basis/message-mechanism.md

https://www.jianshu.com/p/91a4b797553d

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