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TCP网络通讯如何解决分包粘包问题

标签: 如何解决TCP网络分包粘包问题
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TCP作为常用的网络传输协议,数据流解析是网络应用开发人员永远绕不开的一个问题。
TCP数据传输是以无边界的数据流传输形式,所谓无边界是指数据发送端发送的字节数,在数据接收端接受时并不一定等于发送的字节数,可能会出现粘包情况。

一、TCP粘包情况:

1. 发送端发送了数量比较的数据,接收端读取数据时候数据分批到达,造成一次发送多次读取;通常网络路由的缓存大小有关系,一个数据段大小超过缓存大小,那么就要拆包发送。
2. 发送端发送了几次数据,接收端一次性读取了所有数据,造成多次发送一次读取;通常是网络流量优化,把多个小的数据段集满达到一定的数据量,从而减少网络链路中的传输次数。

TCP粘包的解决方案有很多种方法,最简单的一种就是发送的数据协议定义发送的数据包的结构:
1. 数据头:数据包的大小,固定长度。
2. 数据内容:数据内容,长度为数据头定义的长度大小。
实际操作如下:
a)发送端:先发送数据包的大小,再发送数据内容。
b)接收端:先解析本次数据包的大小N,在读取N个字节,这N个字节就是一个完整的数据内容。
具体流程如下:

实现源码
/** 
 * read size of len from sock into buf. 
 */  
bool readPack(int sock, char* buf, size_t len) {  
    if (NULL == buf || len < 1) {  
        return false;  
    }  
    memset(buf, 0, len); // only reset buffer len.  
    ssize_t read_len = 0, readsum = 0;  
    do {  
        read_len = read(sock, buf + readsum, len - readsum);  
        if (-1 == read_len) { // ignore error case  
            return false;  
        }  
        printf("receive data: %s\n", buf + readsum);  
        readsum += read_len;  
    } while (readsum < len && 0 != read_len);  
    return true;  
} 

二、测试用例介绍

本篇提供的demo主要流程如下:
1. 客户端负责模拟发送数据,服务端负责接受数据,处理粘包问题
a)emulate_subpackage
模拟情况1,一个长数据经过多次才到达目的地,
在客户端字符串“This is a test case for client send subpackage data. data is not send complete at once.”每次只发送6个字节长度。服务端要把字符串集满才能处理数据(打印字符串)
b)emulate_adheringpackage
模拟情况2,多个数据在一次性到达目的地
在客户端将字符串“Hello I'm lucky. Nice too me you”切成三个数据段(都包含数据头和数据内容),然后一次性发送,服务端读取数据时对三个数据段逐个处理。

三、源码实现

server.cpp
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cstring>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <unistd.h>

void newclient(int sock);
bool readPack(int sock, char* buf, size_t len);
void safe_close(int &sock);

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	int sockfd = -1, newsockfd = -1;
	socklen_t c = 0;
	struct sockaddr_in serv_addr, cli_addr;

	// Create socket
	sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
	if (-1 == sockfd) {
		printf("new socket failed. errno: %d, error: %s\n", errno, strerror(errno));
		exit(-1);
	}

	// Prepare the sockaddr_in structure
	serv_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
	serv_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
	serv_addr.sin_port = htons(7890);

	// bind
	if (bind(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *)&serv_addr, sizeof(serv_addr)) < 0) {
		printf("bind failed. errno: %d, error: %s\n", errno, strerror(errno));
		exit(-1);
	}

	// listen
	listen(sockfd, 5);

	printf("listening...\n");
	// accept new connection.
	c = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
	int i = 0;
	while (i++ < 3) {
		printf("waiting for new socket accept.\n");
	    newsockfd = accept(sockfd, (struct sockaddr*)&cli_addr, (socklen_t*)&c);
	    if (newsockfd < 0) {
		    printf("accept connect failed. errno: %d, error: %s\n", errno, strerror(errno));
		    safe_close(sockfd);
		    exit(-1);
	    }
		pid_t pid = fork();
		if (0 == pid) {
			newclient(newsockfd);
	        safe_close(sockfd);
			break;
		} else if (pid > 0) {
			safe_close(newsockfd);
		}
	}
	safe_close(sockfd);
	return 0;
}

void newclient(int sock) {
	printf("newclient sock fd: %d\n", sock);
	int datasize = 0;
	const int HEAD_SIZE = 9;
	char buf[512] = {0};
	while (true) {
		memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
	    if (! readPack(sock, buf, HEAD_SIZE)) {
	   	    printf("read head buffer failed.\n");
	   	    safe_close(sock);
	   	    return;
	    }

	    datasize = atoi(buf);
	    printf("data size: %s, value:%d\n", buf, datasize);
	    memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
	    if (! readPack(sock, buf, datasize)) {
	   	    printf("read data buffer failed\n");
	   	    safe_close(sock);
	   	    return;
	    }
	    printf("data size: %d, text: %s\n", datasize, buf);
		if (0 == strcmp(buf, "exit")) {
			break;
		}
	}
	memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
	snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "from server read complete.");
	write(sock, buf, strlen(buf) + 1);
	printf("newclient sockfd: %d, finish.\n", sock);
	safe_close(sock);
}

void safe_close(int &sock) {
	if (sock > 0) {
		close(sock);
		sock = -1;
	}
}

/**
 * read size of len from sock into buf.
 */
bool readPack(int sock, char* buf, size_t len) {
	if (NULL == buf || len < 1) {
		return false;
	}
	memset(buf, 0, len); // only reset buffer len.
	ssize_t read_len = 0, readsum = 0;
	do {
		read_len = read(sock, buf + readsum, len - readsum);
		if (-1 == read_len) { // ignore error case
			return false;
		}
		printf("receive data: %s\n", buf + readsum);
		readsum += read_len;
	} while (readsum < len && 0 != read_len);
	return true;
}
client.cpp
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <cstring>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <unistd.h>

void safe_close(int &sock);
void emulate_subpackage(int sock);
void emulate_adheringpackage(int sock);

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	char buf[128] = {0};
	int sockfd = -1;
	struct sockaddr_in serv_addr;

	// Create sock
	sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
	if (-1 == sockfd) {
		printf("new socket failed. errno: %d, error: %s\n", errno, strerror(errno));
		exit(-1);
	}

	serv_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("127.0.0.1");
	serv_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
	serv_addr.sin_port = htons(7890);

	// Connect to remote server
	if (connect(sockfd, (struct sockaddr *)&serv_addr, sizeof(serv_addr)) < 0) {
		printf("connection failed. errno: %d, error: %s\n", errno, strerror(errno));
		exit(-1);
	}
	emulate_subpackage(sockfd);
	emulate_adheringpackage(sockfd);

	const int HEAD_SIZE = 9;
	const char temp[] = "exit";
	memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
	snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%0.*zu", HEAD_SIZE - 1, sizeof(temp));
	write(sockfd, buf, HEAD_SIZE);
	write(sockfd, temp, sizeof(temp));

	printf("send complete.\n");
	memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
	read(sockfd, buf, sizeof(buf));
	printf("receive data: %s\n", buf);
	printf("client finish.\n");

	safe_close(sockfd);
	return 0;
}

void safe_close(int &sock) {
	if (sock > 0) {
		close(sock);
		sock = -1;
	}
}

/**
 * emulate socket data write multi part.
 */
void emulate_subpackage(int sock) {
	printf("emulate_subpackage...\n");
	char text[] = "This is a test case for client send subpackage data. data is not send complete at once.";
	const size_t TEXTSIZE = sizeof(text);
	ssize_t len = 0;
	size_t sendsize = 0, sendsum = 0;

	const int HEAD_SIZE = 9;
	char buf[64] = {0};
	snprintf(buf, HEAD_SIZE, "%08zu", TEXTSIZE);
	write(sock, buf, HEAD_SIZE);
	printf("send data size: %s\n", buf);

	do {
		sendsize = 6;
		if (sendsum + sendsize > TEXTSIZE) {
			sendsize = TEXTSIZE - sendsum;
		}
	    len = write(sock, text + sendsum, sendsize);
		if (-1 == len) {
			printf("send data failed. errno: %d, error: %s\n", errno, strerror(errno));
			return;
		}
		memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
		snprintf(buf, len + 1, text + sendsum);
		printf("send data: %s\n", buf);
		sendsum += len;
		sleep(1);
	} while (sendsum < TEXTSIZE && 0 != len);
}

/**
 * emualte socket data write adhering.
 */
void emulate_adheringpackage(int sock) {
	printf("emulate_adheringpackage...\n");
	const int HEAD_SIZE = 9;
	char buf[1024] = {0};
	char text[128] = {0};
	char *pstart = buf;

	// append text
	memset(text, 0, sizeof(text));
	snprintf(text, sizeof(text), "Hello ");
	snprintf(pstart, HEAD_SIZE, "%08zu", strlen(text) + 1);
	pstart += HEAD_SIZE;
	snprintf(pstart, strlen(text) + 1, "%s", text);
	pstart += strlen(text) + 1;

	// append text
	memset(text, 0, sizeof(text));
	snprintf(text, sizeof(text), "I'm lucky.");
	snprintf(pstart, HEAD_SIZE, "%08zu", strlen(text) + 1);
	pstart += HEAD_SIZE;
	snprintf(pstart, strlen(text) + 1, "%s", text);
	pstart += strlen(text) + 1;

	// append text
	memset(text, 0, sizeof(text));
	snprintf(text, sizeof(text), "Nice too me you");
	snprintf(pstart, HEAD_SIZE, "%08zu", strlen(text) + 1);
	pstart += HEAD_SIZE;
	snprintf(pstart, strlen(text) + 1, "%s", text);
	pstart += strlen(text) + 1;
	write(sock, buf, pstart - buf);
}
Makefile
CC=g++
CFLAGS=-I

all: server.o client.o

server.o: server.cpp
	$(CC) -o server.o server.cpp

client.o: client.cpp
	$(CC) -o client.o client.cpp

clean:
	rm *.o

四、测试结果

编译及运行
$ make
g++ -o server.o server.cpp
g++ -o client.o client.cpp
客户端模拟发送数据
$ ./client.o
emulate_subpackage...
send data size: 00000088
send data: This i
send data: s a te
send data: st cas
send data: e for
send data: client
send data: send
send data: subpac
send data: kage d
send data: ata. d
send data: ata is
send data: not s
send data: end co
send data: mplete
send data: at on
send data: ce.
emulate_adheringpackage...
send complete.
receive data: from server read complete.
client finish.

服务端模拟接受数据
$ ./server.o
listening...
waiting for new socket accept.
waiting for new socket accept.
newclient sock fd: 4
receive data: 00000088
data size: 00000088, value:88
receive data: This i
receive data: s a te
receive data: st cas
receive data: e for
receive data: client
receive data: send
receive data: subpac
receive data: kage d
receive data: ata. d
receive data: ata is
receive data: not s
receive data: end co
receive data: mplete
receive data: at on
receive data: ce.
data size: 88, text: This is a test case for client send subpackage data. data is not send complete at once.
receive data: 00000007
data size: 00000007, value:7
receive data: Hello
data size: 7, text: Hello
receive data: 00000011
data size: 00000011, value:11
receive data: I'm lucky.
data size: 11, text: I'm lucky.
receive data: 00000016
data size: 00000016, value:16
receive data: Nice too me you
data size: 16, text: Nice too me you
receive data: 00000005
data size: 00000005, value:5
receive data: exit
data size: 5, text: exit
newclient sockfd: 4, finish.




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