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光流法 运动物体检测[Eng]

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// OpticalFlow.cpp : Defines the entry point for the console application.
//

/* --Sparse Optical Flow Demo Program--
* Written by David Stavens (dstavens@robotics.stanford.edu)
*/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <cv.h>
#include <highgui.h>
#include <math.h>
static const double pi = 3.14159265358979323846;

inline static double square(int a)
{
	return a * a;
}
/* This is just an inline that allocates images. I did this to reduce clutter in the
* actual computer vision algorithmic code. Basically it allocates the requested image
* unless that image is already non-NULL. It always leaves a non-NULL image as-is even
* if that image's size, depth, and/or channels are different than the request.
*/
inline static void allocateOnDemand( IplImage **img, CvSize size, int depth, int channels)
{
	if ( *img != NULL ) return;
		*img = cvCreateImage( size, depth, channels );
	if ( *img == NULL )
	{
		fprintf(stderr, "Error: Couldn't allocate image. Out of memory?\n");
		exit(-1);
	}
}

int main(void)
{
	/* Create an object that decodes the input video stream. */
	CvCapture *input_video = cvCaptureFromFile("video1.avi");
	if (input_video == NULL)
	{

	/* Either the video didn't exist OR it uses a codec OpenCV
	* doesn't support.
	*/
	fprintf(stderr, "Error: Can't open video.\n");
	return -1;
	}

	/* This is a hack. If we don't call this first then getting capture
	* properties (below) won't work right. This is an OpenCV bug. We
	* ignore the return value here. But it's actually a video frame.
	*/
	cvQueryFrame( input_video );

	/* Read the video's frame size out of the AVI. */
	CvSize frame_size;
	frame_size.height =	(int) cvGetCaptureProperty( input_video, CV_CAP_PROP_FRAME_HEIGHT );
	frame_size.width =	(int) cvGetCaptureProperty( input_video, CV_CAP_PROP_FRAME_WIDTH );

	/* Determine the number of frames in the AVI. */
	long number_of_frames;

	/* Go to the end of the AVI (ie: the fraction is "1") */
	cvSetCaptureProperty( input_video, CV_CAP_PROP_POS_AVI_RATIO, 1. );

	/* Now that we're at the end, read the AVI position in frames */
	number_of_frames = (int) cvGetCaptureProperty( input_video, CV_CAP_PROP_POS_FRAMES );

	/* Return to the beginning */
	cvSetCaptureProperty( input_video, CV_CAP_PROP_POS_FRAMES, 0. );

	/* Create three windows called "Frame N", "Frame N+1", and "Optical Flow"
	* for visualizing the output. Have those windows automatically change their
	* size to match the output.
	*/

	cvNamedWindow("Optical Flow", CV_WINDOW_AUTOSIZE);
	long current_frame = 0;
	while(true)
	{
		static IplImage *frame = NULL, *frame1 = NULL, *frame1_1C = NULL, *frame2_1C =
		NULL, *eig_image = NULL, *temp_image = NULL, *pyramid1 = NULL, *pyramid2 = NULL;
		/* Go to the frame we want. Important if multiple frames are queried in
		* the loop which they of course are for optical flow. Note that the very
		* first call to this is actually not needed. (Because the correct position
		* is set outsite the for() loop.)
		*/
		cvSetCaptureProperty( input_video, CV_CAP_PROP_POS_FRAMES, current_frame );
		/* Get the next frame of the video.
		* IMPORTANT! cvQueryFrame() always returns a pointer to the _same_
		* memory location. So successive calls:
		* frame1 = cvQueryFrame();
		* frame2 = cvQueryFrame();
		* frame3 = cvQueryFrame();
		* will result in (frame1 == frame2 && frame2 == frame3) being true.
		* The solution is to make a copy of the cvQueryFrame() output.
		*/
		frame = cvQueryFrame( input_video );
		if (frame == NULL)
		{
			/* Why did we get a NULL frame? We shouldn't be at the end. */
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: Hmm. The end came sooner than we thought.\n");
			return -1;
		}

		/* Allocate another image if not already allocated.
		* Image has ONE challenge of color (ie: monochrome) with 8-bit "color" depth.
		* This is the image format OpenCV algorithms actually operate on (mostly).
		*/
		allocateOnDemand( &frame1_1C, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_8U, 1 );

		/* Convert whatever the AVI image format is into OpenCV's preferred format.
		* AND flip the image vertically. Flip is a shameless hack. OpenCV reads
		* in AVIs upside-down by default. (No comment :-))
		*/
		cvConvertImage(frame, frame1_1C, CV_CVTIMG_FLIP);

		/* We'll make a full color backup of this frame so that we can draw on it.
		* (It's not the best idea to draw on the static memory space of cvQueryFrame().)
		*/
		allocateOnDemand( &frame1, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_8U, 3 );
		cvConvertImage(frame, frame1, CV_CVTIMG_FLIP);

		/* Get the second frame of video. Sample principles as the first. */
		frame = cvQueryFrame( input_video );
		if (frame == NULL)
		{
			fprintf(stderr, "Error: Hmm. The end came sooner than we thought.\n");
			return -1;
		}
		allocateOnDemand( &frame2_1C, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_8U, 1 );
		cvConvertImage(frame, frame2_1C, CV_CVTIMG_FLIP);

		//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////ST
		/* Shi and Tomasi Feature Tracking! */
		/* Preparation: Allocate the necessary storage. */
		allocateOnDemand( &eig_image, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_32F, 1 );
		allocateOnDemand( &temp_image, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_32F, 1 );

		/* Preparation: This array will contain the features found in frame 1. */
		CvPoint2D32f frame1_features[400];


		/* Preparation: BEFORE the function call this variable is the array size
		* (or the maximum number of features to find). AFTER the function call
		* this variable is the number of features actually found.
		*/
		int number_of_features;

		/* I'm hardcoding this at 400. But you should make this a #define so that you can
		* change the number of features you use for an accuracy/speed tradeoff analysis.
		*/
		number_of_features = 400;

		/* Actually run the Shi and Tomasi algorithm!!
		* "frame1_1C" is the input image.
		* "eig_image" and "temp_image" are just workspace for the algorithm.
		* The first ".01" specifies the minimum quality of the features (based on the
		eigenvalues).
		* The second ".01" specifies the minimum Euclidean distance between features.
		* "NULL" means use the entire input image. You could point to a part of the
		image.
		* WHEN THE ALGORITHM RETURNS:
		* "frame1_features" will contain the feature points.
		* "number_of_features" will be set to a value <= 400 indicating the number of
		feature points found.
		*/
		cvGoodFeaturesToTrack(frame1_1C, eig_image, temp_image, frame1_features, &number_of_features, .01, .01, NULL);

		/* Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical Flow! */
		/* This array will contain the locations of the points from frame 1 in frame 2. */
		CvPoint2D32f frame2_features[400];

		/* The i-th element of this array will be non-zero if and only if the i-th feature of
		* frame 1 was found in frame 2.
		*/
		char optical_flow_found_feature[400];

		/* The i-th element of this array is the error in the optical flow for the i-th feature
		* of frame1 as found in frame 2. If the i-th feature was not found (see the array above)
		* I think the i-th entry in this array is undefined.
		*/
		float optical_flow_feature_error[400];
		
		/* This is the window size to use to avoid the aperture problem (see slide "Optical Flow: Overview"). */
		CvSize optical_flow_window = cvSize(3,3);

		/* This termination criteria tells the algorithm to stop when it has either done 20 iterations or when
		* epsilon is better than .3. You can play with these parameters for speed vs. accuracy but these values
		* work pretty well in many situations.
		*/
		CvTermCriteria optical_flow_termination_criteria = cvTermCriteria( CV_TERMCRIT_ITER | CV_TERMCRIT_EPS, 20, .3 );
		//CvTermCriteria 迭代算法的终止准则   最后一个参数为double epsilon; /* 结果的精确性 */
		/* This is some workspace for the algorithm.
		* (The algorithm actually carves the image into pyramids of different resolutions.)  //差分解法金字塔?
		*/
		allocateOnDemand( &pyramid1, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_8U, 1 );
		allocateOnDemand( &pyramid2, frame_size, IPL_DEPTH_8U, 1 );

		//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////LK
		/* Actually run Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical Flow!!
		* "frame1_1C" is the first frame with the known features.
		* "frame2_1C" is the second frame where we want to find the first frame's features.
		* "pyramid1" and "pyramid2" are workspace for the algorithm.
		* "frame1_features" are the features from the first frame.
		* "frame2_features" is the (outputted) locations of those features in the second frame.
		* "number_of_features" is the number of features in the frame1_features array.
		* "optical_flow_window" is the size of the window to use to avoid the aperture problem.
		* "5" is the maximum number of pyramids to use. 0 would be just one level.
		* "optical_flow_found_feature" is as described above (non-zero iff feature found by the flow).
		* "optical_flow_feature_error" is as described above (error in the flow for this feature).
		* "optical_flow_termination_criteria" is as described above (how long the algorithm should look).
		* "0" means disable enhancements. (For example, the second aray isn't preinitialized with guesses.)
		*/
		cvCalcOpticalFlowPyrLK(frame1_1C, frame2_1C, pyramid1, pyramid2, frame1_features,
		frame2_features, number_of_features, optical_flow_window, 5,
		optical_flow_found_feature, optical_flow_feature_error,
		optical_flow_termination_criteria, 0 );

		/* For fun (and debugging :)), let's draw the flow field. */
		for(int i = 0; i < number_of_features; i++)
		{
			/* If Pyramidal Lucas Kanade didn't really find the feature, skip it. */
			if ( optical_flow_found_feature[i] == 0 ) continue;
			int line_thickness; line_thickness = 1;
			/* CV_RGB(red, green, blue) is the red, green, and blue components
			* of the color you want, each out of 255.
			*/
			CvScalar line_color; line_color = CV_RGB(255,0,0);
			/* Let's make the flow field look nice with arrows. */        ///////////////////////////画箭头
			/* The arrows will be a bit too short for a nice visualization because of the
			high framerate 帧速率

			* (ie: there's not much motion between the frames). So let's lengthen them
			by a factor of 3.
			*/
			CvPoint p,q;
			p.x = (int) frame1_features[i].x;
			p.y = (int) frame1_features[i].y;
			q.x = (int) frame2_features[i].x;
			q.y = (int) frame2_features[i].y;
			double angle; angle = atan2( (double) p.y - q.y, (double) p.x - q.x );
			double hypotenuse; hypotenuse = sqrt( square(p.y - q.y) + square(p.x - q.x) );
			/* Here we lengthen the arrow by a factor of three. */
			q.x = (int) (p.x - 3 * hypotenuse * cos(angle));
			q.y = (int) (p.y - 3 * hypotenuse * sin(angle));
			/* Now we draw the main line of the arrow. */
			/* "frame1" is the frame to draw on.
			* "p" is the point where the line begins.
			* "q" is the point where the line stops.
			* "CV_AA" means antialiased drawing.
			* "0" means no fractional bits in the center cooridinate or radius.
			*/
			cvLine( frame1, p, q, line_color, line_thickness, CV_AA, 0 );
			/* Now draw the tips of the arrow. I do some scaling so that the
			* tips look proportional to the main line of the arrow.
			*/
			p.x = (int) (q.x + 9 * cos(angle + pi / 4));
			p.y = (int) (q.y + 9 * sin(angle + pi / 4));
			cvLine( frame1, p, q, line_color, line_thickness, CV_AA, 0 );
			p.x = (int) (q.x + 9 * cos(angle - pi / 4));
			p.y = (int) (q.y + 9 * sin(angle - pi / 4));
			cvLine( frame1, p, q, line_color, line_thickness, CV_AA, 0 );
		}
		/* Now display the image we drew on. Recall that "Optical Flow" is the name of
		* the window we created above.
		*/
		frame1->origin = 1;
		cvShowImage("Optical Flow", frame1);
		/* And wait for the user to press a key (so the user has time to look at the
		image).
		* If the argument is 0 then it waits forever otherwise it waits that number of
		milliseconds.
		* The return value is the key the user pressed.
		*/
		int key_pressed;
		key_pressed = cvWaitKey(0);
		/* If the users pushes "b" or "B" go back one frame.
		* Otherwise go forward one frame.
		*/
		if (key_pressed == 'b' || key_pressed == 'B') current_frame--;
		else current_frame++;
		/* Don't run past the front/end of the AVI. */
		if (current_frame < 0) current_frame = 0;
		if (current_frame >= number_of_frames - 1) current_frame = number_of_frames - 2;
	}
}

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