Redis数据类型与指令详解之集合(t_set)

本文所引用的源码全部来自Redis2.8.2版本。
REDIS_SET集合数据类型与指令相关文件是t_set.h, redis.h, object.c

转载请注明,文章出自:http://blog.csdn.net/acceptedxukai/article/details/17883153


集合编码方式


Redis 集合(set)使用REDIS_ENCONDING_INT与REDIS_ENCONDING_HT两种编码方式
1、REDIS_ENCONDING_INT: intset.c/intset.h
2、REDIS_ENCONDING_HT: dict.c/dict.h
第一个添加到集合的元素,决定了创建集合时所使用的编码:如果第一个元素可以表示为 long long 类型值(也即是,它是一个整数),那么集合的初始编码为 REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET ;否则,集合的初始编码为 REDIS_ENCODING_HT 。
编码切换:如果一个集合使用 REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET 编码,那么当以下任何一个条件被满足时,这个集合会被转换成 REDIS_ENCODING_HT 编码:
1、 intset 保存的整数值个数超过 server.set_max_intset_entries (默认值为 512 )
2、试图往集合里添加一个新元素,并且这个元素不能被表示为 long long 类型



集合指令实现


SADD


指令格式: SADD key member [member...]
将一个或多个member元素加入到集合key当中,由于集合成员不能重复,已经存在于集合key中的member元素将被忽略。
如果key不存在,则创建一个包含被添加的member元素的新集合。
如果key不是集合类型(REDIS_SET)时,则操作出错,redis返回一个错误。
时间复杂度:O(N)

void saddCommand(redisClient *c) {
    robj *set;
    int j, added = 0;

    set = lookupKeyWrite(c->db,c->argv[1]);//写查找数据库中名为c->argv[1]的集合
    if (set == NULL) {//集合不存在
        set = setTypeCreate(c->argv[2]);//创建一个新的集合
        dbAdd(c->db,c->argv[1],set);//将该集合添加到数据库中,dict中的key就是集合的名称,value就是集合元素
    } else {
        if (set->type != REDIS_SET) {//判断是否是集合类型
            addReply(c,shared.wrongtypeerr);
            return;
        }
    }

    for (j = 2; j < c->argc; j++) {//添加集合元素
        c->argv[j] = tryObjectEncoding(c->argv[j]);//尝试使用整型存储数据
        if (setTypeAdd(set,c->argv[j])) added++;
    }
    if (added) {
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,c->argv[1]);//通知数据库哪些键key变化了,把变化的key存储到watched_keys中,只在事务操作时才用的着
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_SET,"sadd",c->argv[1],c->db->id);//暂不知道啥用途
    }
    server.dirty += added;//数据库中数据变化的数目
    addReplyLongLong(c,added);
}

lookupKeyWrite函数在object.c文件中,用来在数据库中查找指定key的value值。
setTypeCreate函数在创建一个新的Redis_Set时,根据添加的元素类型为整型还是字符串会创建不同的存储数据结构

//创建一个集合对象,如果value是整型,那么使用intset,否则使用dict
robj *setTypeCreate(robj *value) {
    if (isObjectRepresentableAsLongLong(value,NULL) == REDIS_OK)
        return createIntsetObject();//intset
    return createSetObject();//dict
}
robj *createSetObject(void) {
    dict *d = dictCreate(&setDictType,NULL);
    robj *o = createObject(REDIS_SET,d);
    o->encoding = REDIS_ENCODING_HT;
    return o;
}

robj *createIntsetObject(void) {
    intset *is = intsetNew();
    robj *o = createObject(REDIS_SET,is);
    o->encoding = REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET;
    return o;
}
robj *createObject(int type, void *ptr) {
    robj *o = zmalloc(sizeof(*o));
    o->type = type;
    o->encoding = REDIS_ENCODING_RAW;
    o->ptr = ptr;
    o->refcount = 1;

    /* Set the LRU to the current lruclock (minutes resolution). */
    o->lru = server.lruclock;
    return o;
}

SCARD

SCARD key
返回集合key中元素的个数
时间复杂度:O(1)
简单根据集合的编码类型:如果是HT编码,那么直接通过dictSize函数得到字典中元素的个数;如果是intset编码,那么直接通过intsetLen函数得到结果.

SISMEMBER

SISMEMBER key member
判断member元素是否集合key的中的元素
时间复杂度: O(1)
简单根据集合的编码类型:如果是HT编码,那么直接通过dictFind函数查找字典中是否存在该member;如果是intset编码,那么直接通过intsetFind函数查找是否存在该member.

SMEMBERS

SMEMBERS key
返回集合key中的所有元素,不存在的key被视为空集合。
时间复杂度: O(N)

SMOVE

SMOVE source destination member
将member元素从集合source转移到集合destination,如果集合source中不存在member元素,那么SMOVE指令不执行任何操作,返回0。若存在member元素,将member元素从集合source中删除,并添加到集合destination,如果集合destination中已存在member元素,那么仅仅从集合source中删除元素member。

void smoveCommand(redisClient *c) {//将member元素从source集合移动到destination集合
    robj *srcset, *dstset, *ele;
    srcset = lookupKeyWrite(c->db,c->argv[1]);//从数据库中查找集合source
    dstset = lookupKeyWrite(c->db,c->argv[2]);
    ele = c->argv[3] = tryObjectEncoding(c->argv[3]);//member元素

    /* If the source key does not exist return 0 */
    if (srcset == NULL) {
        addReply(c,shared.czero);
        return;
    }

    /* If the source key has the wrong type, or the destination key
     * is set and has the wrong type, return with an error. */
    if (checkType(c,srcset,REDIS_SET) ||
        (dstset && checkType(c,dstset,REDIS_SET))) return;//类型检查

    /* If srcset and dstset are equal, SMOVE is a no-op */
    if (srcset == dstset) {//source与dest相同
        addReply(c,shared.cone);
        return;
    }

    /* If the element cannot be removed from the src set, return 0. */
    if (!setTypeRemove(srcset,ele)) {//从源集合中删除member元素
        addReply(c,shared.czero);
        return;
    }
    notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_SET,"srem",c->argv[1],c->db->id);

    /* Remove the src set from the database when empty */
    if (setTypeSize(srcset) == 0) {//移除member元素后,源集合为空,删除
        dbDelete(c->db,c->argv[1]);
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_GENERIC,"del",c->argv[1],c->db->id);
    }
    signalModifiedKey(c->db,c->argv[1]);
    signalModifiedKey(c->db,c->argv[2]);
    server.dirty++;

    /* Create the destination set when it doesn't exist */
    if (!dstset) {//目标集合不存在,则新建
        dstset = setTypeCreate(ele);
        dbAdd(c->db,c->argv[2],dstset);
    }

    /* An extra key has changed when ele was successfully added to dstset */
    if (setTypeAdd(dstset,ele)) {//添加member元素到目标集合
        server.dirty++;
        notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_SET,"sadd",c->argv[2],c->db->id);
    }
    addReply(c,shared.cone);
}

SPOP

SPOP key
移除并返回集合key中的一个随机元素。
时间复杂度:O(1)
由于是随机删除一个元素,那么对复制与AOF肯定有影响,因此该操作后,需要将该指令改变为SREM即将该元素删除,参考rewriteClientCommandVector函数。


SRANDMEMBER

SRANDMEMBER key [count]
[count]参数可选,如果没有count,那么返回集合中的一个随机元素。
如果count为正数,且小于集合元素个数,那么命令返回一个包含count个元素的数组,数组中的元素各不相同,如果count大于等于集合基数,那么返回整个集合;如果 count 为负数,那么命令返回一个数组,数组中的元素可能会重复出现多次,而数组的长度为count的绝对值。


SREM

SREM key member [member ...]
移除集合key中的一个或多个member元素,不存在的member元素会被忽略。


集合求交算法


集合求交的指令有两个:SINTER与SINTERSTORE

SINTER key [key ...]
返回所有给定集合的交集,不存在的 key 被视为空集,当给定集合当中有一个空集时,结果也为空集.
时间复杂度: O(N * M),N 为给定集合中元素数目最小的集合,M 为给定集合的个数
SINTERSTORE destination key [key ...]
与SINTER指令类似,不同的仅仅将结果集存储到目标集合destination中,如果集合destination已存在,那么将其覆盖

void sinterGenericCommand(redisClient *c, robj **setkeys, unsigned long setnum, robj *dstkey) {
    robj **sets = zmalloc(sizeof(robj*)*setnum);
    setTypeIterator *si;//迭代器
    robj *eleobj, *dstset = NULL;
    int64_t intobj;
    void *replylen = NULL;
    unsigned long j, cardinality = 0;
    int encoding;

    for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {//得到所有的集合
        robj *setobj = dstkey ?
            lookupKeyWrite(c->db,setkeys[j]) :
            lookupKeyRead(c->db,setkeys[j]);
        if (!setobj) {//任何一个集合不存在,那么总的交集就为空
            zfree(sets);
            if (dstkey) {
                if (dbDelete(c->db,dstkey)) {
                    signalModifiedKey(c->db,dstkey);
                    server.dirty++;
                }
                addReply(c,shared.czero);
            } else {
                addReply(c,shared.emptymultibulk);
            }
            return;
        }
        if (checkType(c,setobj,REDIS_SET)) {//类型检查
            zfree(sets);
            return;
        }
        sets[j] = setobj;
    }
    /* Sort sets from the smallest to largest, this will improve our
     * algorithm's performance */
    //按照集合元素个数从小到大排序
    qsort(sets,setnum,sizeof(robj*),qsortCompareSetsByCardinality);

    /* The first thing we should output is the total number of elements...
     * since this is a multi-bulk write, but at this stage we don't know
     * the intersection set size, so we use a trick, append an empty object
     * to the output list and save the pointer to later modify it with the
     * right length */
    if (!dstkey) {
        replylen = addDeferredMultiBulkLength(c);
    } else {
        /* If we have a target key where to store the resulting set
         * create this key with an empty set inside */
        dstset = createIntsetObject();
    }

    /* Iterate all the elements of the first (smallest) set, and test
     * the element against all the other sets, if at least one set does
     * not include the element it is discarded */
    /**
        求多个集合交集的算法思想:
        首先按照集合元素个数对集合进行qsort,然后遍历排序后的第一个集合中的元素,查看该元素在
        其他集合中是否存在,如果在其他集合中都存在,那么该元素为一个结果
    */
    si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[0]);
    while((encoding = setTypeNext(si,&eleobj,&intobj)) != -1) {
        for (j = 1; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (sets[j] == sets[0]) continue;//这段代码没意义啊
            if (encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET) {//intset
                /* intset with intset is simple... and fast */
                //集合sets[j]编码为intset
                if (sets[j]->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET &&
                    !intsetFind((intset*)sets[j]->ptr,intobj))//在集合sets[j]中没有找到集合sets[0]的intobj
                {
                    break;
                /* in order to compare an integer with an object we
                 * have to use the generic function, creating an object
                 * for this */
                } else if (sets[j]->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_HT) {//集合sets[j]编码为HT,sets[0]为INTSET
                    eleobj = createStringObjectFromLongLong(intobj);//将sets[0]中的intobj转换为sds
                    if (!setTypeIsMember(sets[j],eleobj)) {//如果eleobj不在集合sets[j]中
                        decrRefCount(eleobj);
                        break;
                    }
                    decrRefCount(eleobj);
                }
            } else if (encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_HT) {//HT
                /* Optimization... if the source object is integer
                 * encoded AND the target set is an intset, we can get
                 * a much faster path. */
                if (eleobj->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INT &&
                    sets[j]->encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET &&
                    !intsetFind((intset*)sets[j]->ptr,(long)eleobj->ptr))
                {
                    break;
                /* else... object to object check is easy as we use the
                 * type agnostic API here. */
                } else if (!setTypeIsMember(sets[j],eleobj)) {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }

        /* Only take action when all sets contain the member */
        if (j == setnum) {
            if (!dstkey) {
                if (encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_HT)
                    addReplyBulk(c,eleobj);
                else
                    addReplyBulkLongLong(c,intobj);
                cardinality++;
            } else {//添加到临时目标集合
                if (encoding == REDIS_ENCODING_INTSET) {
                    eleobj = createStringObjectFromLongLong(intobj);
                    setTypeAdd(dstset,eleobj);
                    decrRefCount(eleobj);
                } else {
                    setTypeAdd(dstset,eleobj);
                }
            }
        }
    }
    setTypeReleaseIterator(si);

    if (dstkey) {
        /* Store the resulting set into the target, if the intersection
         * is not an empty set. */
        int deleted = dbDelete(c->db,dstkey);//覆盖原来的目标集合
        if (setTypeSize(dstset) > 0) {
            dbAdd(c->db,dstkey,dstset);
            addReplyLongLong(c,setTypeSize(dstset));
            notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_SET,"sinterstore",
                dstkey,c->db->id);
        } else {//空集
            decrRefCount(dstset);
            addReply(c,shared.czero);
            if (deleted)
                notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_GENERIC,"del",
                    dstkey,c->db->id);
        }
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,dstkey);
        server.dirty++;
    } else {
        setDeferredMultiBulkLength(c,replylen,cardinality);
    }
    zfree(sets);
}

/*SINTER key [key...]*/
void sinterCommand(redisClient *c) {//计算所有给定集合的交集
    sinterGenericCommand(c,c->argv+1,c->argc-1,NULL);
}

/*SINTER destination key [key...]*/
void sinterstoreCommand(redisClient *c) {//计算所有给定集合的交集,但存储在集合destination中
    sinterGenericCommand(c,c->argv+2,c->argc-2,c->argv[1]);
}


集合求差算法


集合求差有两个指令:SDIFF与SDIFFSTORE

SDIFF key [key ...]
返回所有给定集合之间的差集,不存在的集合key视为空集。
时间复杂度: O(N),N 是所有给定集合的成员数量之和。
SDIFFSTORE destination key [key ...]
与SDIFF 类似,但它将差集的结果保存到集合destination,如果集合destination已经存在,则将其覆盖。


集合求并算法


集合求并有两个指令:SUNION与SUNIONSTORE

SUNION key [key ...]
返回所有给定集合的并集,不存在的集合key被视为空集。
时间复杂度: O(N),N 是所有给定集合的成员数量之和。
SUNIONSTORE destination key [key ...]
与SUNION类似,但它将并集结果保存到集合destination,如果集合destination已经存在,则将其覆盖。

#define REDIS_OP_UNION 0
#define REDIS_OP_DIFF 1
#define REDIS_OP_INTER 2

void sunionDiffGenericCommand(redisClient *c, robj **setkeys, int setnum, robj *dstkey, int op) {
    robj **sets = zmalloc(sizeof(robj*)*setnum);
    setTypeIterator *si;
    robj *ele, *dstset = NULL;
    int j, cardinality = 0;
    int diff_algo = 1;

    for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {//取出所有集合
        robj *setobj = dstkey ?
            lookupKeyWrite(c->db,setkeys[j]) :
            lookupKeyRead(c->db,setkeys[j]);
        if (!setobj) {
            sets[j] = NULL;
            continue;
        }
        if (checkType(c,setobj,REDIS_SET)) {
            zfree(sets);
            return;
        }
        sets[j] = setobj;
    }

    /* Select what DIFF algorithm to use.
     *
     * Algorithm 1 is O(N*M) where N is the size of the element first set
     * and M the total number of sets.
     *
     * Algorithm 2 is O(N) where N is the total number of elements in all
     * the sets.
     *
     * We compute what is the best bet with the current input here. */
    //对于SDIFF指令选择最优算法
    if (op == REDIS_OP_DIFF && sets[0]) {
        long long algo_one_work = 0, algo_two_work = 0;

        for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (sets[j] == NULL) continue;

            algo_one_work += setTypeSize(sets[0]);
            algo_two_work += setTypeSize(sets[j]);
        }

        /* Algorithm 1 has better constant times and performs less operations
         * if there are elements in common. Give it some advantage. */
        algo_one_work /= 2;//算法1可能不需要全部比较,因此除2来降低常数时间
        diff_algo = (algo_one_work <= algo_two_work) ? 1 : 2;

        if (diff_algo == 1 && setnum > 1) {
            /* With algorithm 1 it is better to order the sets to subtract
             * by decreasing size, so that we are more likely to find
             * duplicated elements ASAP. */
            //对sets[1]至sets[setnum-1]按照集合元素的个数从大到小排序
            qsort(sets+1,setnum-1,sizeof(robj*),
                qsortCompareSetsByRevCardinality);
        }
    }

    /* We need a temp set object to store our union. If the dstkey
     * is not NULL (that is, we are inside an SUNIONSTORE operation) then
     * this set object will be the resulting object to set into the target key*/
    dstset = createIntsetObject();

    if (op == REDIS_OP_UNION) {//并集操作,把所有元素不重复的操作即可
        /* Union is trivial, just add every element of every set to the
         * temporary set. */
        for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (!sets[j]) continue; /* non existing keys are like empty sets */

            si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[j]);
            while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
                // 已有的元素不会被计数
                if (setTypeAdd(dstset,ele)) cardinality++;
                decrRefCount(ele);
            }
            setTypeReleaseIterator(si);
        }
    } else if (op == REDIS_OP_DIFF && sets[0] && diff_algo == 1) {//选择算法1
        /* DIFF Algorithm 1:
         *
         * We perform the diff by iterating all the elements of the first set,
         * and only adding it to the target set if the element does not exist
         * into all the other sets.
         *
         * This way we perform at max N*M operations, where N is the size of
         * the first set, and M the number of sets. */
        /** 遍历 sets[0] ,对于其中的每个元素ele,
         只有ele在set[1]至set[setnum-1]的每个集合中均不存在,该元素ele才是一个结果
         算法复杂度: O(MlogM) + O(sum(size(sets[0]) * size(sets[j]))) j = [1,setnum-1]
                     M = setnum - 1
         */
        si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[0]);
        while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
            for (j = 1; j < setnum; j++) {
                if (!sets[j]) continue; /* no key is an empty set. *///空集合
                if (setTypeIsMember(sets[j],ele)) break;
            }
            if (j == setnum) {
                /* There is no other set with this element. Add it. */
                setTypeAdd(dstset,ele);
                cardinality++;
            }
            decrRefCount(ele);
        }
        setTypeReleaseIterator(si);
    } else if (op == REDIS_OP_DIFF && sets[0] && diff_algo == 2) {//选择算法2
        /* DIFF Algorithm 2:
         *
         * Add all the elements of the first set to the auxiliary set.
         * Then remove all the elements of all the next sets from it.
         *
         * This is O(N) where N is the sum of all the elements in every
         * set. */
        /**将 sets[0] 的所有元素保存到临时目标集合dstset中
           遍历set[1]至set[setnum-1]的每个集合,如果被遍历集合和 dstset 有相同的元素,
           那么从dstset中删除那个元素
           算法复杂度:O(sum(size(sets[j]))) j = [0,setnum-1]
         */
        for (j = 0; j < setnum; j++) {
            if (!sets[j]) continue; /* non existing keys are like empty sets */

            si = setTypeInitIterator(sets[j]);
            while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
                if (j == 0) {
                    if (setTypeAdd(dstset,ele)) cardinality++;
                } else {
                    if (setTypeRemove(dstset,ele)) cardinality--;
                }
                decrRefCount(ele);
            }
            setTypeReleaseIterator(si);

            /* Exit if result set is empty as any additional removal
             * of elements will have no effect. */
            if (cardinality == 0) break;
        }
    }

    /* Output the content of the resulting set, if not in STORE mode */
    if (!dstkey) {
        addReplyMultiBulkLen(c,cardinality);
        si = setTypeInitIterator(dstset);
        while((ele = setTypeNextObject(si)) != NULL) {
            addReplyBulk(c,ele);
            decrRefCount(ele);
        }
        setTypeReleaseIterator(si);
        decrRefCount(dstset);
    } else {
        /* If we have a target key where to store the resulting set
         * create this key with the result set inside */
        int deleted = dbDelete(c->db,dstkey);//dstkey已存在直接删除
        if (setTypeSize(dstset) > 0) {
            dbAdd(c->db,dstkey,dstset);
            addReplyLongLong(c,setTypeSize(dstset));
            notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_SET,
                op == REDIS_OP_UNION ? "sunionstore" : "sdiffstore",
                dstkey,c->db->id);
        } else {
            decrRefCount(dstset);
            addReply(c,shared.czero);
            if (deleted)
                notifyKeyspaceEvent(REDIS_NOTIFY_GENERIC,"del",
                    dstkey,c->db->id);
        }
        signalModifiedKey(c->db,dstkey);
        server.dirty++;
    }
    zfree(sets);
}

/*SUNION key [key..]*/
void sunionCommand(redisClient *c) {//计算所有给定集合的并集
    sunionDiffGenericCommand(c,c->argv+1,c->argc-1,NULL,REDIS_OP_UNION);
}

/*SUNIONSTORE destination key [key..]*/
void sunionstoreCommand(redisClient *c) {//计算所有给定集合的并集,当将结果存储在destination中
    sunionDiffGenericCommand(c,c->argv+2,c->argc-2,c->argv[1],REDIS_OP_UNION);
}

/*SDIFF key [key...]*/
void sdiffCommand(redisClient *c) {//计算第一个集合与另外所有集合的差集
    sunionDiffGenericCommand(c,c->argv+1,c->argc-1,NULL,REDIS_OP_DIFF);
}

/*SDIFFSTORE destination key [key...]*/
void sdiffstoreCommand(redisClient *c) {//与SDIFF类似,但将结果存储在destination中
    sunionDiffGenericCommand(c,c->argv+2,c->argc-2,c->argv[1],REDIS_OP_DIFF);
}

小结

集合是Redis中重要的数据类型,其存储使用intset与hash table(dict)两种数据结构,集合的所有指令都比较简单易懂,集合求差算法的两种优化方式可以学习。

集合所有指令的注解http://redis.io/commands#set

感谢黄健宏(huangz1990)的Redis设计与实现及其他对Redis2.6源码的相关注释对我在研究Redis2.8源码方面的帮助。




发布了101 篇原创文章 · 获赞 26 · 访问量 47万+
展开阅读全文

没有更多推荐了,返回首页

©️2019 CSDN 皮肤主题: 大白 设计师: CSDN官方博客

分享到微信朋友圈

×

扫一扫,手机浏览