Tensorflow与NLP(CNN文本分类源码解读)

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/Ding_xiaofei/article/details/81051780

开篇

好久没有更新Tensorflow与NLP系列了,时间一长就比较容易遗忘,所以今天还是要开始这些源码的解读。老规矩,原理还是一带而过,重要的是代码的解读,我相信整个代码完整的流程掌握了,原理就不在话下了。

整个模型的流程在图上都有完整的体现。

train.py

参数设置

首先是大量的参数设置

# Data loading params
tf.flags.DEFINE_float("dev_sample_percentage", .1, "Percentage of the training data to use for validation")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string("positive_data_file", "./data/rt-polaritydata/rt-polarity.pos", "Data source for the positive data.")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string("negative_data_file", "./data/rt-polaritydata/rt-polarity.neg", "Data source for the negative data.")

# Model Hyperparameters
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("embedding_dim", 128, "Dimensionality of character embedding (default: 128)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_string("filter_sizes", "3,4,5", "Comma-separated filter sizes (default: '3,4,5')")
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("num_filters", 128, "Number of filters per filter size (default: 128)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_float("dropout_keep_prob", 0.5, "Dropout keep probability (default: 0.5)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_float("l2_reg_lambda", 0.0, "L2 regularization lambda (default: 0.0)")

# Training parameters
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("batch_size", 64, "Batch Size (default: 64)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("num_epochs", 200, "Number of training epochs (default: 200)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("evaluate_every", 100, "Evaluate model on dev set after this many steps (default: 100)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("checkpoint_every", 100, "Save model after this many steps (default: 100)")
tf.flags.DEFINE_integer("num_checkpoints", 5, "Number of checkpoints to store (default: 5)")
# Misc Parameters
tf.flags.DEFINE_boolean("allow_soft_placement", True, "Allow device soft device placement")
tf.flags.DEFINE_boolean("log_device_placement", False, "Log placement of ops on devices")

FLAGS = tf.flags.FLAGS
# FLAGS._parse_flags()
# print("\nParameters:")
# for attr, value in sorted(FLAGS.__flags.items()):
#     print("{}={}".format(attr.upper(), value))
# print("")

参数的设置函数主要有三个参数,参数的名字,参数的默认值,以及参数的解释。这里打印参数的代码被注释了。为什么要这么设置参数呢,因为这样我们可以通过命令行传入我们想要传入的参数,而不需要改动我们的代码。

这里还是要放上源码的地址,以备我忘记github

preprocess

def preprocess():
    # Data Preparation
    # ==================================================

    # Load data
    print("Loading data...")
    x_text, y = data_helpers.load_data_and_labels(FLAGS.positive_data_file, FLAGS.negative_data_file)

    # Build vocabulary
    max_document_length = max([len(x.split(" ")) for x in x_text])
    vocab_processor = learn.preprocessing.VocabularyProcessor(max_document_length)
    x = np.array(list(vocab_processor.fit_transform(x_text)))

    # Randomly shuffle data
    np.random.seed(10)
    shuffle_indices = np.random.permutation(np.arange(len(y)))
    x_shuffled = x[shuffle_indices]
    y_shuffled = y[shuffle_indices]

    # Split train/test set
    # TODO: This is very crude, should use cross-validation
    dev_sample_index = -1 * int(FLAGS.dev_sample_percentage * float(len(y)))
    x_train, x_dev = x_shuffled[:dev_sample_index], x_shuffled[dev_sample_index:]
    y_train, y_dev = y_shuffled[:dev_sample_index], y_shuffled[dev_sample_index:]

    del x, y, x_shuffled, y_shuffled

    print("Vocabulary Size: {:d}".format(len(vocab_processor.vocabulary_)))
    print("Train/Dev split: {:d}/{:d}".format(len(y_train), len(y_dev)))
    return x_train, y_train, vocab_processor, x_dev, y_dev

关于预处理的代码,先是加载数据的代码,我直接放上相应的函数,没有什么特别的可以讲,就是一个加载数据的函数。

def load_data_and_labels(positive_data_file, negative_data_file):
    """
    Loads MR polarity data from files, splits the data into words and generates labels.
    Returns split sentences and labels.
    """
    # Load data from files
    positive_examples = list(open(positive_data_file, "r", encoding='utf-8').readlines())
    positive_examples = [s.strip() for s in positive_examples]
    negative_examples = list(open(negative_data_file, "r", encoding='utf-8').readlines())
    negative_examples = [s.strip() for s in negative_examples]
    # Split by words
    x_text = positive_examples + negative_examples
    x_text = [clean_str(sent) for sent in x_text]
    # Generate labels
    positive_labels = [[0, 1] for _ in positive_examples]
    negative_labels = [[1, 0] for _ in negative_examples]
    y = np.concatenate([positive_labels, negative_labels], 0)
    return [x_text, y]

值得一提的就是它返回的值,x_text是一个由每句词的列表组成的列表,y的话是由一个长度为2的列表组成的列表。

预处理的第二步就是构建词典,把我们的句子序列(由单词列表构成)转换成数据序列(单词在词典里面的索引),这边完全由tensorflow的内置函数完成。

之后就是打乱数据和划分训练和测试集了。这些代码都是可以直接复用的代码。大部分的深度学习NLP任务都要经过相应的处理。后面我会讲到如何使用训练好的词向量初始化embedding层,它之前的处理和这个也是一样的。这不过,他们使用的词典可能就不是同一个词典了。

train的主体代码

先放上完整的代码,我再逐步分析,相关的分析都在代码注释中体现。

def train(x_train, y_train, vocab_processor, x_dev, y_dev):
    # Training
    # ==================================================

    with tf.Graph().as_default():
        session_conf = tf.ConfigProto(
          allow_soft_placement=FLAGS.allow_soft_placement,
          log_device_placement=FLAGS.log_device_placement)
        sess = tf.Session(config=session_conf)
        with sess.as_default():
            cnn = TextCNN(
                sequence_length=x_train.shape[1],
                num_classes=y_train.shape[1],
                vocab_size=len(vocab_processor.vocabulary_),
                embedding_size=FLAGS.embedding_dim,
                filter_sizes=list(map(int, FLAGS.filter_sizes.split(","))),
                num_filters=FLAGS.num_filters,
                l2_reg_lambda=FLAGS.l2_reg_lambda)

            # Define Training procedure
            global_step = tf.Variable(0, name="global_step", trainable=False)
            optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(1e-3)
            grads_and_vars = optimizer.compute_gradients(cnn.loss)
            train_op = optimizer.apply_gradients(grads_and_vars, global_step=global_step)

            # Keep track of gradient values and sparsity (optional)
            grad_summaries = []
            for g, v in grads_and_vars:
                if g is not None:
                    grad_hist_summary = tf.summary.histogram("{}/grad/hist".format(v.name), g)
                    sparsity_summary = tf.summary.scalar("{}/grad/sparsity".format(v.name), tf.nn.zero_fraction(g))
                    grad_summaries.append(grad_hist_summary)
                    grad_summaries.append(sparsity_summary)
            grad_summaries_merged = tf.summary.merge(grad_summaries)

            # Output directory for models and summaries
            timestamp = str(int(time.time()))
            out_dir = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.path.curdir, "runs", timestamp))
            print("Writing to {}\n".format(out_dir))

            # Summaries for loss and accuracy
            loss_summary = tf.summary.scalar("loss", cnn.loss)
            acc_summary = tf.summary.scalar("accuracy", cnn.accuracy)

            # Train Summaries
            train_summary_op = tf.summary.merge([loss_summary, acc_summary, grad_summaries_merged])
            train_summary_dir = os.path.join(out_dir, "summaries", "train")
            train_summary_writer = tf.summary.FileWriter(train_summary_dir, sess.graph)

            # Dev summaries
            dev_summary_op = tf.summary.merge([loss_summary, acc_summary])
            dev_summary_dir = os.path.join(out_dir, "summaries", "dev")
            dev_summary_writer = tf.summary.FileWriter(dev_summary_dir, sess.graph)

            # Checkpoint directory. Tensorflow assumes this directory already exists so we need to create it
            checkpoint_dir = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(out_dir, "checkpoints"))
            checkpoint_prefix = os.path.join(checkpoint_dir, "model")
            if not os.path.exists(checkpoint_dir):
                os.makedirs(checkpoint_dir)
            saver = tf.train.Saver(tf.global_variables(), max_to_keep=FLAGS.num_checkpoints)

            # Write vocabulary
            vocab_processor.save(os.path.join(out_dir, "vocab"))

            # Initialize all variables
            sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer())

            def train_step(x_batch, y_batch):
                """
                A single training step
                """
                feed_dict = {
                  cnn.input_x: x_batch,
                  cnn.input_y: y_batch,
                  cnn.dropout_keep_prob: FLAGS.dropout_keep_prob
                }
                _, step, summaries, loss, accuracy = sess.run(
                    [train_op, global_step, train_summary_op, cnn.loss, cnn.accuracy],
                    feed_dict)
                time_str = datetime.datetime.now().isoformat()
                print("{}: step {}, loss {:g}, acc {:g}".format(time_str, step, loss, accuracy))
                train_summary_writer.add_summary(summaries, step)

            def dev_step(x_batch, y_batch, writer=None):
                """
                Evaluates model on a dev set
                """
                feed_dict = {
                  cnn.input_x: x_batch,
                  cnn.input_y: y_batch,
                  cnn.dropout_keep_prob: 1.0
                }
                step, summaries, loss, accuracy = sess.run(
                    [global_step, dev_summary_op, cnn.loss, cnn.accuracy],
                    feed_dict)
                time_str = datetime.datetime.now().isoformat()
                print("{}: step {}, loss {:g}, acc {:g}".format(time_str, step, loss, accuracy))
                if writer:
                    writer.add_summary(summaries, step)

            # Generate batches
            batches = data_helpers.batch_iter(
                list(zip(x_train, y_train)), FLAGS.batch_size, FLAGS.num_epochs)
            # Training loop. For each batch...
            for batch in batches:
                x_batch, y_batch = zip(*batch)
                train_step(x_batch, y_batch)
                current_step = tf.train.global_step(sess, global_step)
                if current_step % FLAGS.evaluate_every == 0:
                    print("\nEvaluation:")
                    dev_step(x_dev, y_dev, writer=dev_summary_writer)
                    print("")
                if current_step % FLAGS.checkpoint_every == 0:
                    path = saver.save(sess, checkpoint_prefix, global_step=current_step)
                    print("Saved model checkpoint to {}\n".format(path))

CNN模型

主要是重点理解卷积和池化的过程

class TextCNN(object):
    """
    A CNN for text classification.
    Uses an embedding layer, followed by a convolutional, max-pooling and softmax layer.
    """
    ##初始化函数
    def __init__(
      self, sequence_length, num_classes, vocab_size,
      embedding_size, filter_sizes, num_filters, l2_reg_lambda=0.0):

        # Placeholders for input, output and dropout
        self.input_x = tf.placeholder(tf.int32, [None, sequence_length], name="input_x")
        self.input_y = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, num_classes], name="input_y")
        self.dropout_keep_prob = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, name="dropout_keep_prob")

        # Keeping track of l2 regularization loss (optional)
        l2_loss = tf.constant(0.0)

        # Embedding layer
        ##使用cpu做embedding层的初始化比较快
        with tf.device('/cpu:0'), tf.name_scope("embedding"):
            self.W = tf.Variable(
                tf.random_uniform([vocab_size, embedding_size], -1.0, 1.0),
                name="W")
            self.embedded_chars = tf.nn.embedding_lookup(self.W, self.input_x)
            ##增加维度,-1代表的是最后一维,这边主要是维护最后一维的通道数,图像是none×x×y×chanel的
            self.embedded_chars_expanded = tf.expand_dims(self.embedded_chars, -1)


        # Create a convolution + maxpool layer for each filter size
        pooled_outputs = []
        for i, filter_size in enumerate(filter_sizes):
            with tf.name_scope("conv-maxpool-%s" % filter_size):
                # Convolution Layer
                filter_shape = [filter_size, embedding_size, 1, num_filters]
                ##前两个是卷积的长和宽,第三个是通道数,最后一个就是输出的通道数,其实就是filter的数目
                W = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal(filter_shape, stddev=0.1), name="W")
                b = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.1, shape=[num_filters]), name="b")
                conv = tf.nn.conv2d(
                    self.embedded_chars_expanded,
                    W,
                    strides=[1, 1, 1, 1],
                    padding="VALID",
                    name="conv")
                # Apply nonlinearity
                h = tf.nn.relu(tf.nn.bias_add(conv, b), name="relu")
                # Maxpooling over the outputs
                pooled = tf.nn.max_pool(
                    h,
                    ksize=[1, sequence_length - filter_size + 1, 1, 1],
                    ##主要是第二个和第三个参数
                    strides=[1, 1, 1, 1],
                    padding='VALID',
                    name="pool")
                pooled_outputs.append(pooled)

        # Combine all the pooled features
        num_filters_total = num_filters * len(filter_sizes)
        ##以第四维来拼接这个张量
        self.h_pool = tf.concat(pooled_outputs, 3)
        ##把这个张量压平
        self.h_pool_flat = tf.reshape(self.h_pool, [-1, num_filters_total])

        # Add dropout
        with tf.name_scope("dropout"):
            self.h_drop = tf.nn.dropout(self.h_pool_flat, self.dropout_keep_prob)

        # Final (unnormalized) scores and predictions
        with tf.name_scope("output"):
            W = tf.get_variable(
                "W",
                shape=[num_filters_total, num_classes],
                initializer=tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer())
            b = tf.Variable(tf.constant(0.1, shape=[num_classes]), name="b")
            l2_loss += tf.nn.l2_loss(W)
            l2_loss += tf.nn.l2_loss(b)
            self.scores = tf.nn.xw_plus_b(self.h_drop, W, b, name="scores")
            self.predictions = tf.argmax(self.scores, 1, name="predictions")

        # Calculate mean cross-entropy loss
        with tf.name_scope("loss"):
            losses = tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits=self.scores, labels=self.input_y)
            self.loss = tf.reduce_mean(losses) + l2_reg_lambda * l2_loss

        # Accuracy
        with tf.name_scope("accuracy"):
            correct_predictions = tf.equal(self.predictions, tf.argmax(self.input_y, 1))
            self.accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_predictions, "float"), name="accuracy")
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