实验说明

1、Exploring the Tensorflow Library

1.1 首先导入库：
import math
import numpy as np
import h5py
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.python.framework import ops
from tf_utils import load_dataset, random_mini_batches, convert_to_one_hot, predict

%matplotlib inline
np.random.seed(1)

1.2 加载数据集：
X_train_orig, Y_train_orig, X_test_orig, Y_test_orig, classes = load_dataset()
print(X_train_orig.shape)
print(Y_train_orig.shape)
print(X_test_orig.shape)
print(Y_test_orig.shape)


1.3 图片示例
index = 2
plt.imshow(X_train_orig[index])
print ("y = " + str(np.squeeze(Y_train_orig[:, index])))


1.4 输出数据集信息
# Flatten the training and test images
X_train_flatten = X_train_orig.reshape(X_train_orig.shape[0], -1).T
X_test_flatten = X_test_orig.reshape(X_test_orig.shape[0], -1).T
# Normalize image vectors
X_train = X_train_flatten/255.
X_test = X_test_flatten/255.
# Convert training and test labels to one hot matrices
Y_train = convert_to_one_hot(Y_train_orig, 6)
Y_test = convert_to_one_hot(Y_test_orig, 6)

print ("number of training examples = " + str(X_train.shape[1]))
print ("number of test examples = " + str(X_test.shape[1]))
print ("X_train shape: " + str(X_train.shape))
print ("Y_train shape: " + str(Y_train.shape))
print ("X_test shape: " + str(X_test.shape))
print ("Y_test shape: " + str(Y_test.shape))
print(Y_test_orig[0][9])
print(Y_test_orig[0][8])
print(Y_test_orig[0][7])
print(Y_test_orig[0][6])
print(Y_test_orig[0][5])
print(Y_test_orig[0][4])


2.1 - Create placeholders

# GRADED FUNCTION: create_placeholders

def create_placeholders(n_x, n_y):
"""
Creates the placeholders for the tensorflow session.

Arguments:
n_x -- scalar, size of an image vector (num_px * num_px = 64 * 64 * 3 = 12288)
n_y -- scalar, number of classes (from 0 to 5, so -> 6)

Returns:
X -- placeholder for the data input, of shape [n_x, None] and dtype "float"
Y -- placeholder for the input labels, of shape [n_y, None] and dtype "float"

Tips:
- You will use None because it let's us be flexible on the number of examples you will for the placeholders.
In fact, the number of examples during test/train is different.
"""

### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 2 lines)
X = tf.placeholder(dtype = tf.float32, shape = [n_x, None])
Y = tf.placeholder(dtype = tf.float32, shape = [n_y, None])
### END CODE HERE ###

return X, Y

X, Y = create_placeholders(12288, 6)
print ("X = " + str(X))
print ("Y = " + str(Y))


2.2 - Initializing the parameters

# GRADED FUNCTION: initialize_parameters

def initialize_parameters():
"""
Initializes parameters to build a neural network with tensorflow. The shapes are:
W1 : [25, 12288]
b1 : [25, 1]
W2 : [12, 25]
b2 : [12, 1]
W3 : [6, 12]
b3 : [6, 1]

Returns:
parameters -- a dictionary of tensors containing W1, b1, W2, b2, W3, b3
"""

tf.set_random_seed(1)                   # so that your "random" numbers match ours

### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 6 lines of code)
W1 = tf.get_variable("W1", [25, 12288], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
b1 = tf.get_variable("b1", [25, 1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())
W2 = tf.get_variable("W2", [12, 25], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
b2 = tf.get_variable("b2", [12, 1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())
W3 = tf.get_variable("W3", [6, 12], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
b3 = tf.get_variable("b3", [6, 1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())
### END CODE HERE ###

parameters = {"W1": W1,
"b1": b1,
"W2": W2,
"b2": b2,
"W3": W3,
"b3": b3}

return parameters

tf.reset_default_graph()
with tf.Session() as sess:
parameters = initialize_parameters()
print("W1 = " + str(parameters["W1"]))
print("b1 = " + str(parameters["b1"]))
print("W2 = " + str(parameters["W2"]))
print("b2 = " + str(parameters["b2"]))


2.3 - Forward propagation in tensorflow

# GRADED FUNCTION: forward_propagation

def forward_propagation(X, parameters):
"""
Implements the forward propagation for the model: LINEAR -> RELU -> LINEAR -> RELU -> LINEAR -> SOFTMAX

Arguments:
X -- input dataset placeholder, of shape (input size, number of examples)
parameters -- python dictionary containing your parameters "W1", "b1", "W2", "b2", "W3", "b3"
the shapes are given in initialize_parameters

Returns:
Z3 -- the output of the last LINEAR unit
"""

# Retrieve the parameters from the dictionary "parameters"
W1 = parameters['W1']
b1 = parameters['b1']
W2 = parameters['W2']
b2 = parameters['b2']
W3 = parameters['W3']
b3 = parameters['b3']

### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 5 lines)              # Numpy Equivalents:
Z1 = tf.add(tf.matmul(W1, X), b1)                                              # Z1 = np.dot(W1, X) + b1
A1 = tf.nn.relu(Z1)                                              # A1 = relu(Z1)
Z2 = tf.add(tf.matmul(W2, A1), b2)                                              # Z2 = np.dot(W2, a1) + b2
A2 = tf.nn.relu(Z2)                                              # A2 = relu(Z2)
Z3 = tf.add(tf.matmul(W3, A2), b3)                                              # Z3 = np.dot(W3,Z2) + b3
### END CODE HERE ###

return Z3

tf.reset_default_graph()

with tf.Session() as sess:
X, Y = create_placeholders(12288, 6)
parameters = initialize_parameters()
Z3 = forward_propagation(X, parameters)
print("Z3 = " + str(Z3))


2.4 Compute cost

# GRADED FUNCTION: compute_cost

def compute_cost(Z3, Y):
"""
Computes the cost

Arguments:
Z3 -- output of forward propagation (output of the last LINEAR unit), of shape (6, number of examples)
Y -- "true" labels vector placeholder, same shape as Z3

Returns:
cost - Tensor of the cost function
"""

# to fit the tensorflow requirement for tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(...,...)
logits = tf.transpose(Z3)
labels = tf.transpose(Y)

### START CODE HERE ### (1 line of code)
cost = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits = logits, labels = labels))
### END CODE HERE ###

return cost

tf.reset_default_graph()

with tf.Session() as sess:
X, Y = create_placeholders(12288, 6)
parameters = initialize_parameters()
Z3 = forward_propagation(X, parameters)
cost = compute_cost(Z3, Y)
print("cost = " + str(cost))


2.5 - Building the model

def model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test, learning_rate = 0.0001,
num_epochs = 1500, minibatch_size = 32, print_cost = True):
"""
Implements a three-layer tensorflow neural network: LINEAR->RELU->LINEAR->RELU->LINEAR->SOFTMAX.

Arguments:
X_train -- training set, of shape (input size = 12288, number of training examples = 1080)
Y_train -- test set, of shape (output size = 6, number of training examples = 1080)
X_test -- training set, of shape (input size = 12288, number of training examples = 120)
Y_test -- test set, of shape (output size = 6, number of test examples = 120)
learning_rate -- learning rate of the optimization
num_epochs -- number of epochs of the optimization loop
minibatch_size -- size of a minibatch
print_cost -- True to print the cost every 100 epochs

Returns:
parameters -- parameters learnt by the model. They can then be used to predict.
"""

ops.reset_default_graph()                         # to be able to rerun the model without overwriting tf variables
tf.set_random_seed(1)                             # to keep consistent results
seed = 3                                          # to keep consistent results
(n_x, m) = X_train.shape                          # (n_x: input size, m : number of examples in the train set)
n_y = Y_train.shape[0]                            # n_y : output size
costs = []                                        # To keep track of the cost

# Create Placeholders of shape (n_x, n_y)
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
X, Y = create_placeholders(n_x, n_y)
### END CODE HERE ###

# Initialize parameters
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
parameters = initialize_parameters()
### END CODE HERE ###

# Forward propagation: Build the forward propagation in the tensorflow graph
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
Z3 = forward_propagation(X, parameters)
### END CODE HERE ###

# Cost function: Add cost function to tensorflow graph
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
cost = compute_cost(Z3, Y)
### END CODE HERE ###

# Backpropagation: Define the tensorflow optimizer. Use an AdamOptimizer.
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
### END CODE HERE ###

# Initialize all the variables
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()

# Start the session to compute the tensorflow graph
with tf.Session() as sess:

# Run the initialization
sess.run(init)

# Do the training loop
for epoch in range(num_epochs):

epoch_cost = 0.                       # Defines a cost related to an epoch
num_minibatches = int(m / minibatch_size) # number of minibatches of size minibatch_size in the train set
seed = seed + 1
minibatches = random_mini_batches(X_train, Y_train, minibatch_size, seed)

for minibatch in minibatches:

# Select a minibatch
(minibatch_X, minibatch_Y) = minibatch

# IMPORTANT: The line that runs the graph on a minibatch.
# Run the session to execute the "optimizer" and the "cost", the feedict should contain a minibatch for (X,Y).
### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
_ , minibatch_cost = sess.run([optimizer, cost], feed_dict = {X : minibatch_X, Y : minibatch_Y})
### END CODE HERE ###

epoch_cost += minibatch_cost / num_minibatches

# Print the cost every epoch
if print_cost == True and epoch % 100 == 0:
print ("Cost after epoch %i: %f" % (epoch, epoch_cost))
if print_cost == True and epoch % 5 == 0:
costs.append(epoch_cost)

# plot the cost
plt.plot(np.squeeze(costs))
plt.ylabel('cost')
plt.xlabel('iterations (per tens)')
plt.title("Learning rate =" + str(learning_rate))
plt.show()

# lets save the parameters in a variable
parameters = sess.run(parameters)
print ("Parameters have been trained!")

# Calculate the correct predictions
correct_prediction = tf.equal(tf.argmax(Z3), tf.argmax(Y))

# Calculate accuracy on the test set
accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_prediction, "float"))

print ("Train Accuracy:", accuracy.eval({X: X_train, Y: Y_train}))
print ("Test Accuracy:", accuracy.eval({X: X_test, Y: Y_test}))

return parameters

parameters = model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test)


1.拍摄手势图片。
2.将图像添加到此代码运行目录中的images文件夹内。
3.在以下代码中写下该图像名称（此处照片名字为：thumbs_up.jpg）。
4.运行代码并检查算法是否正确！

import scipy
from PIL import Image
from scipy import ndimage

## START CODE HERE ## (PUT YOUR IMAGE NAME)
my_image = "thumbs_up.jpg"
## END CODE HERE ##

fname = "images/" + my_image