[AI教程]TensorFlow入门:手势数字识别

实验说明

本实验为吴恩达课后编程作业第二课第三周内容,通过引导我们将完成一个深度学习框架,使我们可以更轻松地构建神经网络。编程框架不仅可以缩短编码时间,而且有时还可以执行加速代码的优化。
数据集下载地址:[https://github.com/stormstone/deeplearning.ai/tree/c38b8ea7cc7fef5caf88be6e06f4e3452690fde7]
工具:Jupyter Notebook (tensorflow) + Python 3.6.3
问题陈述:一天下午,我和一些朋友决定教我们的电脑破译手语。 我们花了几个小时在白墙前拍照,想出了以下数据集。 现在,您的工作是构建一种算法,以促进从语言障碍者到不懂手语的人的通信。
训练集:1080个图像(64乘64像素)的符号表示从0到5的数字(每个数字180个图像)。
测试集:120张图片(64乘64像素)的符号,表示从0到5的数字(每个数字20张图片)。
以下是每个数字的示例,以及如何解释我们如何表示标签。 在我们将图像重新降低到64 x 64像素之前,这些是原始图片。
在这里插入图片描述

1、Exploring the Tensorflow Library

1.1 首先导入库:
import math
import numpy as np
import h5py
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.python.framework import ops
from tf_utils import load_dataset, random_mini_batches, convert_to_one_hot, predict

%matplotlib inline
np.random.seed(1)
1.2 加载数据集:
X_train_orig, Y_train_orig, X_test_orig, Y_test_orig, classes = load_dataset()
print(X_train_orig.shape)
print(Y_train_orig.shape)
print(X_test_orig.shape)
print(Y_test_orig.shape)

运行结果展示:
在这里插入图片描述

1.3 图片示例
index = 2
plt.imshow(X_train_orig[index])
print ("y = " + str(np.squeeze(Y_train_orig[:, index])))

运行结果展示:
在这里插入图片描述

1.4 输出数据集信息
# Flatten the training and test images
X_train_flatten = X_train_orig.reshape(X_train_orig.shape[0], -1).T
X_test_flatten = X_test_orig.reshape(X_test_orig.shape[0], -1).T
# Normalize image vectors
X_train = X_train_flatten/255.
X_test = X_test_flatten/255.
# Convert training and test labels to one hot matrices
Y_train = convert_to_one_hot(Y_train_orig, 6)
Y_test = convert_to_one_hot(Y_test_orig, 6)

print ("number of training examples = " + str(X_train.shape[1]))
print ("number of test examples = " + str(X_test.shape[1]))
print ("X_train shape: " + str(X_train.shape))
print ("Y_train shape: " + str(Y_train.shape))
print ("X_test shape: " + str(X_test.shape))
print ("Y_test shape: " + str(Y_test.shape))
print(Y_test_orig[0][9])
print(Y_test_orig[0][8])
print(Y_test_orig[0][7])
print(Y_test_orig[0][6])
print(Y_test_orig[0][5])
print(Y_test_orig[0][4])

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述

2.1 - Create placeholders

# GRADED FUNCTION: create_placeholders

def create_placeholders(n_x, n_y):
    """
    Creates the placeholders for the tensorflow session.
    
    Arguments:
    n_x -- scalar, size of an image vector (num_px * num_px = 64 * 64 * 3 = 12288)
    n_y -- scalar, number of classes (from 0 to 5, so -> 6)
    
    Returns:
    X -- placeholder for the data input, of shape [n_x, None] and dtype "float"
    Y -- placeholder for the input labels, of shape [n_y, None] and dtype "float"
    
    Tips:
    - You will use None because it let's us be flexible on the number of examples you will for the placeholders.
      In fact, the number of examples during test/train is different.
    """

    ### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 2 lines)
    X = tf.placeholder(dtype = tf.float32, shape = [n_x, None])
    Y = tf.placeholder(dtype = tf.float32, shape = [n_y, None])
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    return X, Y
X, Y = create_placeholders(12288, 6)
print ("X = " + str(X))
print ("Y = " + str(Y))

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述

2.2 - Initializing the parameters

# GRADED FUNCTION: initialize_parameters

def initialize_parameters():
    """
    Initializes parameters to build a neural network with tensorflow. The shapes are:
                        W1 : [25, 12288]
                        b1 : [25, 1]
                        W2 : [12, 25]
                        b2 : [12, 1]
                        W3 : [6, 12]
                        b3 : [6, 1]
    
    Returns:
    parameters -- a dictionary of tensors containing W1, b1, W2, b2, W3, b3
    """
    
    tf.set_random_seed(1)                   # so that your "random" numbers match ours
        
    ### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 6 lines of code)
    W1 = tf.get_variable("W1", [25, 12288], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
    b1 = tf.get_variable("b1", [25, 1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())
    W2 = tf.get_variable("W2", [12, 25], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
    b2 = tf.get_variable("b2", [12, 1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())
    W3 = tf.get_variable("W3", [6, 12], initializer = tf.contrib.layers.xavier_initializer(seed = 1))
    b3 = tf.get_variable("b3", [6, 1], initializer = tf.zeros_initializer())
    ### END CODE HERE ###

    parameters = {"W1": W1,
                  "b1": b1,
                  "W2": W2,
                  "b2": b2,
                  "W3": W3,
                  "b3": b3}
    
    return parameters
tf.reset_default_graph()
with tf.Session() as sess:
    parameters = initialize_parameters()
    print("W1 = " + str(parameters["W1"]))
    print("b1 = " + str(parameters["b1"]))
    print("W2 = " + str(parameters["W2"]))
    print("b2 = " + str(parameters["b2"]))

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述

2.3 - Forward propagation in tensorflow

# GRADED FUNCTION: forward_propagation

def forward_propagation(X, parameters):
    """
    Implements the forward propagation for the model: LINEAR -> RELU -> LINEAR -> RELU -> LINEAR -> SOFTMAX
    
    Arguments:
    X -- input dataset placeholder, of shape (input size, number of examples)
    parameters -- python dictionary containing your parameters "W1", "b1", "W2", "b2", "W3", "b3"
                  the shapes are given in initialize_parameters

    Returns:
    Z3 -- the output of the last LINEAR unit
    """
    
    # Retrieve the parameters from the dictionary "parameters" 
    W1 = parameters['W1']
    b1 = parameters['b1']
    W2 = parameters['W2']
    b2 = parameters['b2']
    W3 = parameters['W3']
    b3 = parameters['b3']
    
    ### START CODE HERE ### (approx. 5 lines)              # Numpy Equivalents:
    Z1 = tf.add(tf.matmul(W1, X), b1)                                              # Z1 = np.dot(W1, X) + b1
    A1 = tf.nn.relu(Z1)                                              # A1 = relu(Z1)
    Z2 = tf.add(tf.matmul(W2, A1), b2)                                              # Z2 = np.dot(W2, a1) + b2
    A2 = tf.nn.relu(Z2)                                              # A2 = relu(Z2)
    Z3 = tf.add(tf.matmul(W3, A2), b3)                                              # Z3 = np.dot(W3,Z2) + b3
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    return Z3
tf.reset_default_graph()

with tf.Session() as sess:
    X, Y = create_placeholders(12288, 6)
    parameters = initialize_parameters()
    Z3 = forward_propagation(X, parameters)
    print("Z3 = " + str(Z3))

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述

2.4 Compute cost

# GRADED FUNCTION: compute_cost 

def compute_cost(Z3, Y):
    """
    Computes the cost
    
    
    Arguments:
    Z3 -- output of forward propagation (output of the last LINEAR unit), of shape (6, number of examples)
    Y -- "true" labels vector placeholder, same shape as Z3
    
    Returns:
    cost - Tensor of the cost function
    """
    
    # to fit the tensorflow requirement for tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(...,...)
    logits = tf.transpose(Z3)
    labels = tf.transpose(Y)
    
    ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line of code)
    cost = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits = logits, labels = labels))
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    return cost
tf.reset_default_graph()

with tf.Session() as sess:
    X, Y = create_placeholders(12288, 6)
    parameters = initialize_parameters()
    Z3 = forward_propagation(X, parameters)
    cost = compute_cost(Z3, Y)
    print("cost = " + str(cost))

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述

2.5 - Building the model

def model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test, learning_rate = 0.0001,
          num_epochs = 1500, minibatch_size = 32, print_cost = True):
    """
    Implements a three-layer tensorflow neural network: LINEAR->RELU->LINEAR->RELU->LINEAR->SOFTMAX.
    
    Arguments:
    X_train -- training set, of shape (input size = 12288, number of training examples = 1080)
    Y_train -- test set, of shape (output size = 6, number of training examples = 1080)
    X_test -- training set, of shape (input size = 12288, number of training examples = 120)
    Y_test -- test set, of shape (output size = 6, number of test examples = 120)
    learning_rate -- learning rate of the optimization
    num_epochs -- number of epochs of the optimization loop
    minibatch_size -- size of a minibatch
    print_cost -- True to print the cost every 100 epochs
    
    Returns:
    parameters -- parameters learnt by the model. They can then be used to predict.
    """
    
    ops.reset_default_graph()                         # to be able to rerun the model without overwriting tf variables
    tf.set_random_seed(1)                             # to keep consistent results
    seed = 3                                          # to keep consistent results
    (n_x, m) = X_train.shape                          # (n_x: input size, m : number of examples in the train set)
    n_y = Y_train.shape[0]                            # n_y : output size
    costs = []                                        # To keep track of the cost
    
    # Create Placeholders of shape (n_x, n_y)
    ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
    X, Y = create_placeholders(n_x, n_y)
    ### END CODE HERE ###

    # Initialize parameters
    ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
    parameters = initialize_parameters()
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # Forward propagation: Build the forward propagation in the tensorflow graph
    ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
    Z3 = forward_propagation(X, parameters)
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # Cost function: Add cost function to tensorflow graph
    ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
    cost = compute_cost(Z3, Y)
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # Backpropagation: Define the tensorflow optimizer. Use an AdamOptimizer.
    ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
    optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(learning_rate = learning_rate).minimize(cost)
    ### END CODE HERE ###
    
    # Initialize all the variables
    init = tf.global_variables_initializer()

    # Start the session to compute the tensorflow graph
    with tf.Session() as sess:
        
        # Run the initialization
        sess.run(init)
        
        # Do the training loop
        for epoch in range(num_epochs):

            epoch_cost = 0.                       # Defines a cost related to an epoch
            num_minibatches = int(m / minibatch_size) # number of minibatches of size minibatch_size in the train set
            seed = seed + 1
            minibatches = random_mini_batches(X_train, Y_train, minibatch_size, seed)

            for minibatch in minibatches:

                # Select a minibatch
                (minibatch_X, minibatch_Y) = minibatch
                
                # IMPORTANT: The line that runs the graph on a minibatch.
                # Run the session to execute the "optimizer" and the "cost", the feedict should contain a minibatch for (X,Y).
                ### START CODE HERE ### (1 line)
                _ , minibatch_cost = sess.run([optimizer, cost], feed_dict = {X : minibatch_X, Y : minibatch_Y})
                ### END CODE HERE ###
                
                epoch_cost += minibatch_cost / num_minibatches

            # Print the cost every epoch
            if print_cost == True and epoch % 100 == 0:
                print ("Cost after epoch %i: %f" % (epoch, epoch_cost))
            if print_cost == True and epoch % 5 == 0:
                costs.append(epoch_cost)
                
        # plot the cost
        plt.plot(np.squeeze(costs))
        plt.ylabel('cost')
        plt.xlabel('iterations (per tens)')
        plt.title("Learning rate =" + str(learning_rate))
        plt.show()

        # lets save the parameters in a variable
        parameters = sess.run(parameters)
        print ("Parameters have been trained!")

        # Calculate the correct predictions
        correct_prediction = tf.equal(tf.argmax(Z3), tf.argmax(Y))

        # Calculate accuracy on the test set
        accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_prediction, "float"))

        print ("Train Accuracy:", accuracy.eval({X: X_train, Y: Y_train}))
        print ("Test Accuracy:", accuracy.eval({X: X_test, Y: Y_test}))
        
        return parameters
parameters = model(X_train, Y_train, X_test, Y_test)

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述

2.6 - Test with your own image (optional / ungraded exercise)

恭喜你完成了这项任务。 现在你可以拍摄手的图片并查看模型的输出。 要做到这一点:

1.拍摄手势图片。
2.将图像添加到此代码运行目录中的images文件夹内。
3.在以下代码中写下该图像名称(此处照片名字为:thumbs_up.jpg)。
4.运行代码并检查算法是否正确!

import scipy
from PIL import Image
from scipy import ndimage

## START CODE HERE ## (PUT YOUR IMAGE NAME) 
my_image = "thumbs_up.jpg"
## END CODE HERE ##

# We preprocess your image to fit your algorithm.
fname = "images/" + my_image
image = np.array(ndimage.imread(fname, flatten=False))
my_image = scipy.misc.imresize(image, size=(64,64)).reshape((1, 64*64*3)).T
my_image_prediction = predict(my_image, parameters)

plt.imshow(image)
print("Your algorithm predicts: y = " + str(np.squeeze(my_image_prediction)))

运行结果:
在这里插入图片描述
本文内容编辑:崔昊

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